Terrorist attacks at the 11. September 2001 in the USA

airplane flies destroyed WTC sketch of the WTC towers
Zerstörtes WTC
with situation
of the airplane impacts the Pentagon to the south tower
of the WTC to the impact at the 11. September 2001
Das Pentagon kurz nach dem Einschlag: Das Gebäude ist noch nicht eingestürzt
the Pentagon briefly after the impact: ThatBuilding did not collapse yet
Reste des zerstörten World Trade Centers
remainders of the destroyed World trade of center

in the early morning (local time) of the 11. September 2001 committed a group of Islamic suicide assassins, whom the terror network aluminium-Qaida had trained and had assigned, the so far heaviest and consequence-fraughtest terrorist attacks inthe history of the USA. They kidnapped four passenger jets on inland countries flights between 8:10 clock and for instance 9:30 clock, steered two of it into the towers of the World trade of center (WTC) in New York town center and one into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. A further airplane with an unknown notice goal was brought by fights between passengers and kidnappers in close proximity to Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania to the crash.

The airplane impact and thereby released fire destroyed a Seitenfront of the Pentagongebäudes. The two towers of theWTC collapsed until two hours after the collisions due to the steel girders in itself, weakened by kerosene fires in their structure. Five further buildings of the WTC, under it the neighbouring WTC 7, were destroyed likewise by rubble damage and fires, in addition fourSubway railway stations. 23 further buildings, which surrounded the WTC, were partially so heavily damaged that they had to be given up later.

With the notices altogether about 3,000 humans died: 266 passengers in the airplanes, approx. 2,600 humans in the WTC and125 persons in the Pentagon.

The notices are designated in the USA with the contraction 9/11 (nine eleven), which shows the American way of writing of the date and the country-wide telephone number of the general emergency call at the same time.

Table of contents


expiration

the first sign of the kidnappings was failing the transponder signal of American Airlines flight 11 around 8:20 clock local time (12: 20 40 UTC). Short time laterby a call of the hostess larva LINE Amy Sweeney was confirmed with soil control that it concerned a kidnapping. Later determinations resulted in that the kidnapping happened against 8:15, and United Airlines flight 175 took off.

Against 8:38 clock became NORAD, which central place for air defense, about which informs incidents, connected with the request for a visual examination of flight 11 by military aircraft. Around 8:45, approximately at the same time, at which also flight 175 United Airlines was kidnapped,two F-15 started. The switched off transponder prevented the air traffic controllers however to immediately communicate to their pilots the position of flight 11.

Around 8:46 clock local time (12: 46: ) American Airlines flight 11 flew 40 UTC to the north tower of the World trade of center. Toothis time still proceeded one from an accident. In the south tower humans were requested by loudspeaker announcements to keep calm and remain on its job. 17 minutes later, around 9:03 clock (13: ) The second airplane (United Airlines flew 03 UTCFlight 175) into the south tower of the WTC.

Thus it became clear the authorities that it concerned not an accident, but a purposeful attack. Thereupon gradually all civil flights were stopped in the USA and started interceptors, around new one To protect York.

American Airlines flight 77 had been kidnapped between 8:50 and 9:00 clock. Over 9:37 local time flew the jet to the Pentagon and struck a tunnel by the building. The damage and the following fire caused then approximately10:10 clock the collapse of the damaged sections.

As reaction to this further attack against 9:45 all airplanes under menace of a firing were requested to head for the next possible airport. At this time was the fourth airplane, United Airlines flight 93, howeveralready in the force of the kidnappers. As its notice goal becomes the white house, David assumes which Kapitol in Washington or the countryseat of the US president in Camp. Around 10:03 clock fell it due to a fight between the kidnappers and thatHostage on board in close proximity to Pittsburgh off. Against first reports the kidnappers brought, not the hostages the airplane to the crash.

Also together approximately 90 cubic meters fuel worked the jets flown to the WTC like large incendiary bombs. ThatSouth tower collapsed after 56 minutes around 9:59 clock, the north tower after 102 minutes around 10:28 clock completely. Scarcely three thousand humans, under it 343 firefighters, were still in the towers and with the collapse were killed. Dozens already were from thatupper floors jumped into death, since all escape routes were cut off to them and they threatened to burn in the fire. At 17.20 o'clock collapsed the building WTC 7 after rubble damage and fires in itself.

Author and client

the passenger lists thatkidnapped airplanes made clear rapidly that it had concerned with the authors Islamics. However, for example with CNN , only separate victim and author lists, that were assigned to the respective flights, were published. As a client became short after the noticesthe boss of the terror network aluminium-Qaida, Osama is assumed and designated shop.

This well-known first publicly to the notices, do not separate themselves argued in an interview even each connection off. Only in the process of the Afghanistan war a disputed video tape recording was discovered,in which he spoke with prominent members of his group about the planning of the notices. In further explanations and video messages well-known it itself then to its guide roller, last few days before the re-election of George W. Bush to the US president in November2004.

The group of terror of aluminium-Qaida has itself for approximately 1991 - which the second Gulf War of the USA against the Iraq and the following stationing of US military in Saudi Arabia - on the fight approximately „the west “and its values orients. They see thoseTo exploit the USA as „the large Satan “, which covers „the small Satan “(the State of Israel) to split in order to suppress the Islamic nation, their wealth and to prevent it from its agreement and propagation Islam. They see the westfrom „disbelieving ones “and „crusade-learn “(Jews and Christians) controlled. From this they derive the right for indiscriminate killing of civilians and citizens of most diverse nations, among them also Muslims in the USA.

The aluminium-Qaida is close ideologically to a fundamentalist variant of the Wahabiten, of themHomeland Saudi Arabia is. They see the USA as origin of an alleged „Jewish world conspiracy “, which they equate with the Zionismus and the State of Israel. The WTC was considered to them as symbol of one „clenched financial power of the Jews “, those according to their opinionthe financial markets of the world „steer and scruplesless for its rule intentions use “became.

The organization trained an unknown number of Freiwilliger for approximately 1990 as possible assassins. It does not have taut central guidance. Their trailers form small groups, those culturally for many yearsadapted in its host countries as „“live and then also on own initiative become active. Some the assassin of the 11. Septembers 2001, under it its leader Mohammed Atta, lived before as students in Hamburg. There the notices becameon the WTC and the Pentagon planned. After their entry into the USA they completed shortened pilot training there. They were the FBI up to two years before the notices well-known and were partly supervised.

Author ideology and prehistory

the noticesof the 11. Septembers were not the first notices of the aluminium-Qaida against US-American goals. Already in the years before a suicide assassin attacked the warship USS Cole in Yemen ; bomb assassination attempts already followed after US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania as well as 1993a first explosive notice in the underground parking of the WTC. The USA answered under US president Bill Clinton already with missile attacks to assumed terrorist camps in Afghanistan and an alleged chemical weapons plant in the Sudan.

Into the 1980er years Bin Laden had and its fellow combatantsas foreign Mudjahedin participated in the guerilla warfare against the Russian occupation of Afghanistan. The CIA supplied these „holy warriors “alsoever to the half by the USA and Saudi Arabia as well as with secret service information and helped financed weapons also with their training in Pakistan. YouMain enemy was at that time the Soviet Union as „eliminator “of the Islamic Afghans and the Chechens as well as Yugoslavia and/or. late Serbias as „eliminators “of the Islamic Albanians and Bosnier.

The wahhabitische Islamism sets also on propaganda particularly in Arab and Muslim societies.He sees its acts of violence as means to unite all Muslims in „the liberation struggle “against the dominance of the west. It turns its acts of terrorism also against civilians, those as „Kollaborateure “to the target or simply as coincidental terror victims in purchase is also takenbecome. Main combat area is after last calls of Bin Laden the Iraq.

Although most Iraqis express themselves today against the terror, the aluminium Qaida in some currents of Muslim societies, particularly in Pakistan, finds Indonesia and Saudi Arabia, support. Thisis connected also with the traditional connection of religion and politics in Islamic tradition. For strictly gläubige Muslims each state and company form are despicable outside of the Scharia. Therefore some see themselves legitimized to destroy the world „of the disbelieving ones “with acts of terrorism.

In the Islam there is however no warranty that one comes to death into the Paradies, even if one its whole life long good works did. Everything depends on as Allah will once decide. If however a Muslim inDschihad dies, does not have to wait it in the grave not for the court, but comes immediately into the Paradies (Sure 4,74; 9,89 among other things). Straight young Muslims from ärmlichen conditions feel tightened by the Dschihad - ideology.

The role of the religion as a cause of theIslamic terror is disputed. The authors understand their notices as a form of the Dschihad and appoint themselves as to the Koran which instructs them to kill all those which did not want to bekehren themselves to the Islam, e.g. Sure 9,5:

Killsthe Götzendiener, where always you find her, and seizes it and besieges it and lies in wait for to them from each ambush.

Other Islamic theologians point out however that the Koran the war of aggression, killing without emergency, killing innocent andSuicide notices expressly forbid. They see the Islamic terrorism protecting and deny for its part as break with „the “Islam that Osama is shop at all the right has to express a Fatwa.

There are theories for

the causes to the causes of the Islamic terror differentTheories: „Anti-imperialistic “explanation samples make the west - here again particularly the USA and Israel - responsible due to their missed Middle East policy for the hate. The fact that Bin Laden a former allying of the USA and particularly the CIAwas, as proof for a fatal foreign policy one sees, with which the support of militant groupings created a situation , which finally dropped back to the USA themselves during the cold war in the appropriate countries. This becomes as Blowbackdesignated. Also the failure of the rich western industrial nations in relation to the problem of the poverty by a one-sided globalization created the terror a fertile soil. This view represented often links intellectual ones like Noam Chomsky or human rights activist like the Indian Arundhati Roy.Other analyses point out that Bin Laden acquired a billion-ability by construction industry of its family in Mekka and not when representative can apply for arms. Also for the economic development of Palestine it did not use its means.

Out culture-sociologicallyPerspective is interpreted the phenomenon of the Islamic terrorism also as front formation against cultural modernization. The disconcertion, which accompanies with the embrittlement of old traditionaler structures and ideologies, is therefore compensated by intensified meditation on the own roots (Salafismus) andin the fight of terror against the western representatives out-acts to the modernization. In the long runness „of the Jews and cross drivers is to be demonstrated by the spectacular notice in the center of the western world “. On the other hand it speaks that most victims Islamic Terrorimus Muslimsare.

Into this culture-sociological perspective also the occasional expressed estimate of the terrorism adds itself as „Islam fascism “in, which recognizes a form of the Antisemitismus in the fight of terror against the world power the USA as well as „the ore enemy Israel primarily, alsosimilar stereotyped one and explanation samples operate as the classical European Antisemitismus.

Consequences

direct one public reactions

Wandgemälde: The human spirit
wall paintings: The human mirror-image-guessed/advised

in being silent minutes and funeral services was thought in numerous countries of the victims of the terrorist attacks by New York and Washington. The prominent politicians of allDemocracies condemned the notices. But as few minutes after the notices American president George W. Bush, which was at this time in a primary school, by which assassination attempts was informed („Mr. President, America was attacked straight “), looked thesehardly of the school book up, through which it leafed straight. Also on a decree to the safety device America one waited in vain. Only for his own security immediately after the notices one ensured. Into Berlin it came to 15. September 2001 tooa solidarity demonstration of approximately 300,000 participants, under it Federal President at that time Johannes Rau and US Ambassador Daniel Coats.

In a large, country-wide funeral service in the football stadium of New York thought representative of all groups, resident transferred in the television, in New York andReligions together the dead ones and affirmed mutually their multi-cultural tolerance as substantial characteristic of the world metropolis New York.

Military steps

the notices were the first quasi military attack on the mainland of the USA since 1814. They had therefore engraving world-widepolitical and military consequences. The counter measures stated by the USA are summarized under the term „war against the terrorism “.

First US president Bush in a governmental declaration made expectation clear to the world: Either you acres with US, oryou acres with the terrorists („either are you on our side, or on that of the terrorists. “) He explained thereby to each country the war, which grants terrorist any kind of support.

NATO called for the first time since its existence „the case of alliance“out, understood the attack on the USA thus as attack on all NATO member states. Despite these and other offers of help the US Government undertook the first military steps however first alone. It prepared first an attack on the regime of the Talibanin Afghanistan forwards, to which she accused the support and accommodating of the aluminium-Qaida-guidance. From the beginning a later fall of the Iraqi dictator at that time was Saddam Hussein in the discussion, although this no connections to the aluminium-Qaida still planning of terrorist attacks against the USAto be after-said could.

After internal disputes particularly between Secretaries of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Aussenminister Colin Powell Afghanistan an ultimatum was placed to the distribution of being shop. The offer of the Taliban to deliver it after Islamic right of hospitality to a friendly Islamic country became asinsufficiently rejected. The bombardment of Taliban positions and Afghan infrastructure began one month after the notices; up to the year end the regime under Mullah Omar had fallen. The USA availed themselves of also internal-Afghan opposition troops, above all the so-called „north coalition “from Usbekenand trailers to 12. Septembers murdered sheikh Al Massud. Bin Laden could escape however from its underground hiding place in Tora Bora and submerge in the border area to Pakistan.

The following pacification and safety device of the again used, then by choiceconfirmed president Hamid Karzai above all also by German Federal Armed Forces troops one carries. Thus the operational area of the German Federal Armed Forces limited in the Basic Law on national defense was expanded also since employments outside of NATO territory: Germany is defended also at the Hindukusch, so the Secretary of Defense at that time Peter Struck (SPD).

Political ones, punish and civil steps

the criminal and civilian steps are carried and by many nations. This fight was taken in many western countries to the cause to intensify entry conditions to expand monitoring measures and limit fundamental human rights. Those People's Republic of China already explained some years before a war against the terror. By swinging the USA on this course the position of the Chinese guidance was strengthened. Russia explained later its war in Chechnya as fight against the terror, overto weaken the criticism to it.

George W. Bush derived the right of the USA to preventive wars from the fight against the terror , which admits as Bush doctrine became. On the one hand there was intensified co-operation of different countries, for the arrest of presumed terrorists and toDestruction of alleged groups of terror led, on the other hand - mainly from US-American side - also a break with international contracts and agreements, which led particularly outside of the USA to irritations. Thus US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld coined/shaped the term of the old person Europe,with which he meant those European states, whose governments turned 2003 against the second US war with the Iraq - in particular Germany, France and Russia.

World-wide the efforts for airport security were strengthened.

Arrests and encroachments

2003: Fritz Koenigs Skulptur „Große Kugelkaryatide“ („The Sphere“), die ursprünglich vor dem WTC stand
2003: Fritz of kingSculpture „large Kugelkaryatide “(„The Sphere “), which was originally located before the WTC

in the context of the release of Afghanistan became from the environment of the Taliban over 1.000 suspects taken prisoner, of which many are until today in detention. With them it actsitself to a large extent around persons of Arab or asiatic origin. Human right organizations criticize the conditions, on which these humans - who are kept imprisoned most of them on the American military base Guantanamo Bay on the island Cuba -. In detail them contact becomesoutward refused, they are held without accusation and its identity is kept secret (so that no independent investigations to be accomplished to be able). A complaint on public negotiation was rejected in the appeal.[1] [2] [3]

with in Guantanamo arrestedIt does not concern persons prisoners of war in the sense 4. Article III. Geneva agreements over the treatment of prisoners of war. Arises thus the question, which right concerning. the prisoners from Guantanamo to application to come it can and whetherit a special protection earn.

Apart from the official measures there were also numerous encroachments motivated by revenge feelings briefly after the notices in the USA against looking Arab humans (often also Turban basic Sikhs) and Islamic mechanisms. These were enough ofOffenses over death threats and arson attacks up to some murders.[4]

Clearing-up

committee of inquiry

on pressure of members of the victims was formed a national commission of inquiry, which the notices evaluated (see appendix).

Conspiracy theories

the events of the 11. Septembers have to a multiplicityof so-called conspiracy theories led, which are encountered substantial resonance in the population. They state numerous circumstances, which appear to them unsettled or contradictory, and judge from it other causes and authors, usually the US Government and their secret services. Someassume that intentionful inactivity was ordered for the US authorities, others maintain a direct preparation and execution of the notices by the CIA or other federal authorities.

See in addition: Conspiracy theories to the 11. One

will say

  1. Septembers of 2001 quotations of a daily: The 11. September,that was (“good”) the old time of the last war. The belonged still to the order of the gigantic one: visibly and enormous! Which size, which height! Since that time there is far worse, all possible nano-techniques is so many more powerfully and invisibly, ungreifbar, one assumedit everywhere. In the Mikrologie compete they with microbes and bacteria. But our unconscious is to it already sensitively, it white that already, and that is it, which makes fear. - Jacques Derrida (2001; in: Philosophy in times of the terror, ISBN 3865723586, S. 136)
  2. Today we are all Americans - Peter Struck to 12. September 2001
Manhattan am 12. September, NASA-Satellitenbild
Manhattan to 12. September, NASA-Satellitenbild

films over the events

hymn

  • the song Only Time von Enya, became particularly in its version with faded in voices of concerning, the inadvertent hymn of the 11.September 2001.

Literature

see also

Web on the left of

documentations

Commons: 9/11 - Pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

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