Tetrahydrocannabinol

Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) belonged to the Cannabinoiden and is the main active substance of Cannabis (hashish, marijuana).

Table of contents

seems

to occurrence THC almost exclusively in the hemp plant. At THC thereby the unbefruchteten female bloom conditions are particularly rich (approx. 6 to 20%), in the remainderthe plant is the portion far smaller (scarcely 1%), in the seeds of the plant is contained no THC. The sheets close of the bloom contain approx. 5–6 %.

characteristics

the chemical name 6,6,9-Trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a, 7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6 H reads - benzo [C] chromen-1-ol.

Bild:Forbys_THC_strukturformel.png

The sum formula reads C 21 H 30 O 2. The mol mass amounts to 314.47 g mol. It simmers with 180 °C.

lethal dose

the LD 50 with the mouse amounts to 42 mg/kg body weight intravenously and 482mg/kg with oral administration, with the Rhesusaffen body weight death occurs by respiratory arrest and heart failure after intravenous gift of 128 mg/kg.[1]

That means: with one assumed LD50 of 150 mg/kg body weight (oral) with humans (very small estimation) would have one70 kg heavy person 10500 mg THC take up, in order to die. With an accepted average content of 4 - 8% would be that 131,250 to 262,500 mg (thus approx. 130 - 260 g) Cannabis, which consumes within a very short periodwill would have.

extraction

THC is fat and alcohol-solubly. It can be extracted by heating THC haltigen plant material up in a solvent such as acetone , isopropyl alcohol or ethanol and following evaporation of the solvent. Thus one receives an oily substance thosedepending upon extraction method and filtering a very high concentration of THC exhibits and also as „oil “, „hashish oil “, „Honeyoil “or „talks oil “is designated.

With n butane (lighter gas) leaves itself the Haschöl at very low temperatures from the plant materialextract; this method brings however high fire and danger of explosion with itself. The solvent evaporates already at room temperature. In addition, the procedure can be accelerated by warming up, whereby the solution cools down because of the low evaporation enthalpy of butane strongly.

Approximately thatwhole butane can be evaporated after a certain time. In such a way received oil has an appearance similarly as amber, at room temperature is high-viscosity it and pulls threads as synthetic resin. If one cools it down, it solidifies relatively fast.

Except THC containsthe oil usually nevertheless further solved materials such as chlorophyll, further Cannabinoide, some alkaloids in very small quantity and unresolved fine parts of the raw material. The oil can be still further concentrated by different chemical procedures, by the remaining unwantedSubstances to be removed.

In the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa, indica, ruderalis) THC acid from Cannabidiol (CBD) - acid is synthesized and disintegrates again to Cannabinol (CBN) - acid.

consumption

the consumption can take place in different kind. The most usual consumer form is smokingby hashish or marijuana purely or mixed with tobacco. At the end 19. Century in Europe von Landarbeitern frequently „Knasterzigaretten were smoked “from hemp components, these contained however smaller portions of THC than today comparable Joints. THC becomes frequent alsowith the help of special smoke accessories such as Bongs, whistles, water whistles smoked or with the Vaporizer evaporated and then inhaliert.

Besides THC is processed also in meals and beverages. Since THC is lipophilic, this becomes frequent in fat-rich food such as milk, cake,Muffins etc. processed. THC haltige food works frequently more strongly, than the comparable smoked dose, is many more badly to be dosed in addition, and works only with up to four hours delay. This is to be particularly considered with driving a car.

THC is not without emulsifying agent intravenously applizierbar.

effect

THC works over the body-own Endocannabinoidrezeptoren CB1 and CB2 at certain nerve cells, which the potassium - and calcium content of the cell adjust. THC consumption leads thus to a direct rise at potassium and calcium inthe cells concerned. Potassium is an important electrolyte in the body. The psychoaktive effect of THC could be explained by the fact that the electrical conductivity of the cells is improved by increased potassium content. However it is not to be excluded that the cells not only signalsbetter pass on, send but also increased. The threshold (English. “Bias”) starting from that one the cell an impulse passes on and/or. a new sends, one lowers.

Endocannabinoidrezeptoren are in the brain and in the spleen. In the spleen THC reacts to 11-OH-THC, whichis more strongly psychoaktiv than THC. In the master brain, where vital functions are coordinated such as respiration, only very few are present to no receptors, which could point out that these procedures are not affected by THC. In the Hippokampus, wherethe short time memory is settled, is however to a great many of these receptors. There decided, whether information is important and like it is processed, D. h. whether she or stored in the long-term memory is forgotten. This could explain, why THC oneimportant influence on the short time memory has.

medicine

synthetic THC, Dronabinol mentioned, is certified in Germany and other states than use up-requiring medicine (trade name „Marinol “) for the adjuvanten treatment of HEAVING and cancer kachexie than appetite-energizing medicine. In addition is THC in the clinical testing phase for the treatment of Glaukomen and autoimmune illnesses, like multiple Sklerose or disease Crohn.

Medical application: Cannabis as medicine

side effect

side effects and effects of THC often overlap. Frequently step easy nausea,Mouth dryness, swindle, Antriebslosigkeit and Essattacken up. Further it can come to the loss of the temporal, more rarely and with high doses also spatial and personal orientation. Hallucinations arise very rarely , disputed are the occurrence of so-called Flashbacks. Very rarelycan already small quantities to fear and excitation conditions as well as stuckness lead, this particularly apply to the unintentional and unidentified consumption, about if THC haltige meals unknowingly verzehrt become.

THC stands under the suspicion to lead with heavy chronic consumption to Psychosen.This is however not yet scientifically occupied, particularly since at continuous consumers frequently also a mixing consumption exists.

Since THC is smoked most frequent, the usual side effects of smoking are added: Arteriosklerose, as well as a clear increased risk of heart and Hirninfarkten, mouth, laryngeal,Lung and blister cancer. These side effects are to be assigned however to the consumer form and not the native active substance THC. During very much spread mixing with tobacco all dangers of the nicotine craze are still added .

No references that THC teratogen (fruit-damaging) are, exist neverthelesspregnant woman should do and satisfying without the consumption of THC, since damage to the unborn or satisfied child is not surely impossible.

driving a car

THC affects the nervous system, therefore must after the consumption on usingMachines and leading vehicles to be done without. The police can prove also longer time with driver controls with a welding, a saliva or a urine test after the consumption traces of THC. The proof duration hangs particularly of the respective consumer sample (duration, frequency, dose)off and can amount to in the urine between one week and two months. It is to be advised against therefore to combine driving a car and THC consumption. At present the legal situation is however not yet clearly decided, it threatens however fines of at least250 euro, driving bans up to three months and four points in Flensburg. The policemen locally can accomplish only orienting Vortests, which blood test later in a laboratory examined and which quantity of THC and its dismantling products determine. Sees legalit so out that an irregularity was committed, if still THC is provable in the blood. In the resolution of the Bavarian VGH, of 25.01.2006, Az. Stands for 11 CS 05,1711: The present medical-scientific knowledge level does not justify it, already starting from a THC concentration of 1,0ng/ml in the blood of a motor vehicle leader an increase of the risk for the road safety as in such a manner secured in the sense § of the 11 exp. To regard 7 FeV that the driving licence is to be extracted from the concerning without further circumstances clearing-up compellingly. With occasional consumption ofCannabis and driving with a THC concentration between 1,0 and 2,0 ng/ml are before a any extraction of the driving licence in accordance with § 14 exp. 1 S. 4 FeV a medical-psychological appraisal einzuholen.FeV § 11 exp. 7, FeV § 14 exp. 1 S.4, StVG § 3 exp. 1 this applies however only, if no driving errors were made. In many cases the administrative authority (driving licence) arranges an examination of the force driving suitability (MPU) for the proof of the force driving fitness.

Attempts with chronically ill ms - patientshowever it suggested the suspicion that a treatment with THC or THC similar materials under any circumstances do not impair the driving capability. Tests with several test subjects, who received partly only one placebo, confirmed this clearly.

In Switzerland is since at the beginning of 2005 likewise alsoa drug test (English. To count “Drug Wipe”) at traffic controls, despite the rumor that of the police of used Schnelltests in over 80% of the cases [2] [3] wrong results supply. Other unofficial places speak of an abuse of the traffic law, thereeven patients with Opiaten and other strong medicines remain drivingentitled, while the THC consumer is not only punished, if it stands under direct influence of the drug, but also if the consumption days is already past. The problem justifies itself as follows: thatDrug test prove no THC, but only the Cannabinolsäure (THC COOH, also THC carbonic acid mentioned), a dismantling product of the THCs fast disintegrating, which does not have berauschenden effects. The Cannabinolsäure is diminished however very many more slowly in the body and is thus longer timedemonstrably. Since the dismantling process of the Cannabinolsäure is called of some places incalculable, it could differ from person to person. This would be an explanation possibility for the rumors and problems described above.

endogenous (body-own) similar to

inthe chocolate docks contained Anandamid on at the same receptor as THC. It has a very much weaker effect than THC, is however nevertheless active.

THC contents in usual black market products

conventional in Central Europe open land marijuana grown contains on average approximately6% THC, while under art light, particularly marijuana bred grown on high THC content (falsely also as „gene hemp “admits) can show an active substance content of approximately 20%, in rare cases up to 30%. In the USA one beganinto the 1970er years with such breeding; in particular in the Netherlands one continued these for the 1980er years, so that the average THC content of the so-called „Nederwiet was last “(2004) at approximately 20%. Nevertheless are messages overallegedly up to 50fach increased THC contents as excessive exaggerated to regard (see also „gene hemp “). US researchers pointed out that as extremely low values indicated to the comparison the Cannabis seized for in/the 70's 60's (z. T. under 1%) to the fact to be attributed to have might that the whole plants inclusive Stängel and sheets were analyzed at that time, while today only the actually consumed bloom conditions are examined.

Hashish contains on average between 5 and 10% THC, whereby - like alsoMarijuana - which can be very large span: High-quality hashish can likewise contain over 20% THC. The hashish made in the Netherlands of high-quality marijuana (which however only a very small market share has) contains every now and then up to 40%THC.

Rather the hashish oil rarely available on the black market can contain depending upon production way up to 90% THC. Here however the danger is large by impurities, particularly because of the solvents used with the production, particularly.

Literature

  • Lark Lajon Lizermann: The Cannabis cultivation: the simple way to the own homegrow; Everything over Botanik, cultivation, Vermehrung, subsequent treatment and medical application as well as THC measuring procedure. Night shade publishing house, Solothurn 2004, ISBN 3-03-788134-8

sources

  1. Eberhard Teu, Ulrike Lindequist: Biogenous poisons.Academy publishing house,1988 Berlin, ISBN 3-05-500314-4 (side 65f „lethal doses of THC with mouse and Rhesusaffe “)
  2. unreliable saliva test with drugs (new inhabitants of zurich newspaper of 24. January 2005 quotes in hemp archives)
  3. hunt for Kiffer for the principle coincidence (Solothurner day sheet of21. January 2005 quoted in hemp archives)
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