Texas

of these articles is concerned with the US-American Federal State Texas, for further meanings sees Texas (term clarifying).
Texas
flag seal Texas
Karte der USA, Texas hervorgehoben

other Federal States

base data
pointed name: State of the lonely star
(Lone star State)
capital: Austin
largest city: Houston
surface
rank (within the USA): 2
altogether: 696,241 km ²
country: 678,907 km ²
water (%): 17,333 km ² (2.5%)
inhabitant
rank (within the USA): 2
altogether (2000): 20.851.820
density: 30/km ²
member state
place: 28
since: 29. December 1845
geography
Time belt: Mountain: UTC-7/-6
cent ral: UTC-6/-5
degree of latitude: 25°50'N to 36°30'N
degree of longitude: 93°31'W to 106°38'W
broad: 1,065 km
length: 1,270 km
highest situation: 2,667 m
average situation: 520 m
deepest situation: 0 m
politics
governor: Rick Perry
abbreviations
postal: TX
officially:
ISO 3166-2: US-TX

Texas (The Lone star State) is a Federal State of the United States of America. Texas lies in the south of the USA and borders in the north on Oklahoma, inNortheast at Arkansas, in the east at Louis IANA, in the southeast to the gulf of Mexico, in the southwest at Mexico and in the west at new Mexico. It is twice as large like Germany.

Texas is, to Alaska,surface-moderately the second largest state of the USA. It is also population moderate the second largest state, to California.

  • Surface: 696,241 km ²
  • inhabitants: 20.851.820 (2000)
  • capital: Austin

table of contents

geography

Texas
Texas

Texas can be divided into three different climate zones. From the coast, which is set in of its whole length after of lagoons nearly, 50 to 100 km landinward a relatively flat area extends,that partially very fruitfully and for the cultivation of cotton, Zuckerrohr and also in parts rice is excellently suitable. Behind it rises a wavy hilly country, which, to 320 km broad, covers the whole northeast of the state and majorityis covered by prairies. The northwest part of the national territory is mountain and high country and consists partially of 1,300 m a high wild sandstone plateau (splinter“llano estacado”, English. “staked plain”). The north is very fruitful and becomes this very dayfor the cattle breeding used. In the entire south and west became to beginning of the 80's 20. Century oil promoted. At rivers Texas is rich, even if the few are navigable during the entire yearly. That talk River separates itof the Indian area, the Sabine of Louis IANA and the Rio Grande of Mexico. The climate applies compared with the remaining southern states of the USA as healthy.

The largest city Houston lies geographically in the southeast of the country. Dallas,the second largest city, and Fort Worth lie in the northeast. El Paso lies in the outermost west and corpus Christi lies in the southwest.

largest cities

city County inhabitant
1. April of 2000
inhabitants
1. July 2004
Houston Harris 1.953.631 2.012.626
Dallas Dallas 1.188.580 1.210.393
San Antonio Bexar 1.144.646 1.236.249
Austin Travis 656,562 681,804
El Paso El Paso 563,662 592,099
Fort Worth Tarrant 534,694 603,337
Arlington Tarrant 332,969 359,467
corpus Christi Nueces 277,454 281,196
Plano Collin 222,030 245,411
country Dallas 215.768 217,176
Lubbock Lubbock 199,564 207,852
Irving Dallas 191,615 194,547
Laredo Webb 176,576 203,212
Amarillo Potter 173,627 180,791
Pasadena Harris 141,674 144,174
Brownsville Cameron 139,722 161,225
Grand Prairie Dallas 127,427 140,320
Mesquite Dallas 124,523 129,710
Abilene Taylor 115,930 114,807
Beaumont Jefferson 113.866 112,294
Waco McLennan 113,726 118,093
Carrollton Dallas 109,576 117,823
McAllen Hidalgo 106,414 120,743
Wichita of case Wichita 104,197 100,929
avoiding country avoiding country 94,996 98,082
Richardson Dallas 91,802 99,263
Odessa Ector 90,943 92,844
San Angelo Tom Green 88,439 88,112
Killeen Bell 86.911 96,943
Tyler Smith 83,650 89,552
Denton Denton 80,537 98,288
Lewisville Dallas 77,737 89,142
Round skirt Williamson 61,136 82,040
McKinney Collin 54,369 88,409


history

the history of Texas(or also Tejas, of ind. Techas, friends) begins already 10,000 years before Christ. In this time period the first Indians reached the area at the gulf of Mexico. In the year 1519 Pineda the first kartografische resulted from the SpaniardCollection of the texanischen coast. This was also the beginning of the Spanish the territory. Later, in the year 1528 the Spaniard Cabeza de Vaca the area of the today's Galveston reached nine years. It suffered shipwreck. The small group of survivorsmarched across the Indian areas until Mexico city and provided later for the spreading of the legend of „the seven cities from gold “. The Spanish adventurer Coronado, attraction by stories over the seven cities, crossed the westernPart of Texas and parts today's new Mexico to up after Kansas. He did not find golden cities. The rumor held itself nevertheless over the centuries.

In the future became many localities and above all missions in the today's national territory ofTexas based.1621 created Spanish immigrants, and/or Spanish Mexicans, the city corpus Christi de la Isleta.

René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle

to a French colonizing attempt on the territory of Texas came it 1685. The adventurer René Robert Cavelier, Sieurde La Salle reached the Matagorda Bay by ship and created there the away pc. Louis. The settlement suffered however strongly from Indian attacks, diseases and the loss of important material by ship breaks. Already two years later became La Salle ofits own people murders, when it tried to get assistance. Pc. Louis thereupon given up. Texas was again Spanish. In the settling in the delta however the Frenchmen could maintain themselves Mississippi.1718 became the mission San Antonio de Valerobased. Over 100 years later this mission will be received into history than The Alamo.

1821 became Texas a part independent of Spain Mexico become. Already during the Mexican independence fight collected themselves here many adventurers from thatUnited States on. After North American Colonel Stephen F. Austin 1823 the permission of the centre government of Mexico had received for settling with 300 families in the national territory from Texas to created it the city San Felipe de Austín. The agreement with Austin was very simply. It had its US-American nationality against a Mexican exchanges. It was subordinate thus to the Mexican jurisdiction. Ever more settler from the north reach the gulf of Mexico. It is the beginning of the angloamerikanischen Kolonisation. To 1835 about 45.000 settledHumans from the north in Texas.

The Alamo in Texas
The Alamo in Texas

the tensions between American settlers on and the Mexicans and the Mexican government under president a Santa Anna on the other side became ever more violently than Mexico the slaveryforbade. Particularly religious, cultural and political problems seemed unbridgeable.Stephen F. Austin was even arrested with an attendance in Mexico city. Santa Anna sent shortly thereafter troops (4,000 - 5,000 men) into the Mexican Federal State. To 2. October 1835 came itto the first battle between the parties. The battle of Gonzales is the first fight to independence Texas'.

To 2. The Texaner, in the confidence on the assistance of the dominant party in the United States, explained itself March 1836 which a Vermehrungthe slave states wished, for independent and appointed the general SAM Houston (name patron of the city Houston) the military commander in chief. The Mexican army under the president and general Santa Anna occupied the capital of Texas, San Felipe in the course of hostilitiesde Austín.

SAM Houston

to 6. March 1836 was taken the mission city Alamo ( with San Antonio) by the Mexicans after dreizehntägiger FE storage. All defenders (less than 190) came around the life, among them were also David Crockett, Jim Bowie (the inventor of the Bowie of measurer) and William B. Travis.

The Mexican troops (about 1,600 soldiers) became to 21. April 1836 near the Río San Jacinto River (today lain east of Houston) of the Texanern under SAM Houstonsurprisingly struck, whereby the Mexican president general A. L. de Santa Anna in shank of the Texaner came. Further expeditions of the Mexicans in the following years failed likewise.

As independent republic Texas of France and England became to 23. November 1839 and/or to 14. November 1841 recognition. First president of the independent nation and Republic of Texas became a general SAM Houston. With interruption it was it to short before the union with the USA. Of 1856 - 1861 were SAM HoustonGovernor of the US Federal State.Stephen F. Austin became a minister of foreign affairs of its state, died however already two months after assumption of office at a lung suffering.

In Texas however required the majority the connection to the United States. The country became on it to 19. February 1845 of the USA annektiert (approval by congress of US at the 1. March 1845). The formal admission into the confederation of states took place to 29. December 1845. Concerning this 1846 a war between the USA and Mexico was inflamed, to 2. February 1848 with the peace treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended. Mexico did without its requirements on Texas and the area between Rio Grande and Nueces River, but struck the government of the USA by resolution of 7. September 1850 onePart this area new Mexico too, which had been attached in the meantime as territory to the union. Texas received for this a remuneration from 10 million dollar.

Alte Karte vom Südosten
Old map of the southeast

in the American civil war belonged to Texas to the Southern State Konföderation. Texas was allowedonly as last war opponents as Federal State back into the union (15. February 1876).

Since 1977 Chili is official con Carne the “State Food” of the Federal State, after itself several manufacturers of Chili (among other things the manufacturer today inthe USA still for this court used wide-spread wolf fire Chilis) by strong lobbying before the government Texas'.

German immigrants did not coin/shape the US Federal State insignificantly. Caroline Ernst was with their family the first German Siedlerin. Thatschwärmerische letter of their father to Germany (1832) was only one the trip for the German commitment in Texas. The organized German immigration began 1834 with „the three-winners “and is above all „the Giessener emigration company “and to the “association to the protection to owe, also aristocracy association admits of German immigrants in Texas” “as „Mainzer. After the German March revolution of 1848 followed still some „the Forty Eighters “. Still around the turn to 20. Century were about100,000 Texaner German-language. Most settled in central Texas in so-called „Texas Hill Country “, „the German Hills “within the range of Austin and San Antonio. Early settlements were created „the Latin in such a way specified Settlements “, of GermansIntellectual one. Above all the influence of the First World War led however to a rapid decrease of the German-language element in Texas. One knows the influence of German immigrants today at place names like new brown rock (new brown rock - based 1845 of Carl prince to Solms Braunfels) read off or that of the water park “Schlitterbahn”. In new brown rock, about 65 km south the capital Austin, annually the “sausage celebration” is celebrated. Based in the local part the Green, 1872 of Henry D. The Green, is the oldest received thanks resoundsin Texas, which the “Greens resound”. It is this very day a historical place of live-music and Tanzveranstaltungen. Also with Fredericksburg (Friedrichsburg - based 1846 and in honours of of the highest-ranking member of the aristocracy association, the prince Friedrich designated of Prussia (1794-1863),) is oneGerman colony. The homepage of the there Chamber of Commerce welcomes visitors this very day with “welcomes”, the bills of fare of the restaurants is partly still bilingual. Became here even if the settlement admits gap brook, which in a song, interpret from Waylon Jennings and Willie Nelson alsothe title “gap brook, Texas” one mentioned. The song nevertheless brought it to the number 1 the US-Country-Charts. About 10-20,000 older Texaner are today still German-language, because they grew up in their childhood with German as native language. (see also: Texas-German)

List of the governors von Texas

legal order

in Texas is possible the death penalty. It is imposed by the criminal courts with appropriate weight of the passing and can e.g. by pardon by the governor to be again waived. With thatNumber of the enforcement takes Texas the top position in the USA. As also with the simple prison passengers colored humans, based on their population portion, are by far in the majority in Texas.

Corporal punishments of pupils and pupils by the so-called Paddle are permitted and are practiced.

served national flags of

Texas the first national flag of Texas as “civil flag” since November 1835. It showed the national colors of Mexico with the label “1824” (year of the Mexican condition). A furtheralleged national flag from March 1836 - blue, with white star and in a circle arranged letter “T”, “E”, “X”, “A”, “S” - turned out as “Mach work” and as national flag was never used.

November 1835 - 10. Dezember 1836
November 1835 - 10. December 1836
since 25. January 1839. To today the flag of the US Federal State.

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Texas - quotations



 

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