|of these articles is concerned with the Free State Thuringia, other meanings under Thuringia (term clarifying).|
| || |
|surface:||16.172, 14 km ² (11.)|
|Inhabitants:||2.340.223 (12.) (30. September. 2005)|
|Population density:||145 inhabitants for each km ² (13.)|
|Debts for each inhabitants:||6.432 € (at the end of of 2005)|
|debts entirely:||15.0 billion € (2005)|
|Prime Minister:|| Dieter existing building (CDU)|
(since 5. June 2003)
|A governing party:||CDU|
| allocation of seats in the federal state parliament|
| CDU 45|
the left wing party. 28
|last choice:||13. June 2004|
|voices in the Upper House of Parliament:||4|
the Free State Thuringia is a country in the Federal Republic Germany. The countries Saxonia in the east and southeast, Saxonia-Anhalt in the north and northeast, Lower Saxony in the northwest , Hessen in the west as well as Bavaria in the south are adjacent.
Table of contents
Thuringia lies in the center of Germany and borders on the countries Hessen (270 km), Bavaria (381 km), Saxonia (265 km), Saxonia-Anhalt (296 km) and Lower Saxony (112 km). The Free State Thuringia belongstogether with Saxonia-Anhalt and Saxonia to Central Germany. Because of its forest wealth Thuringia also „the Greens the heart of Germany is called “.
The maximum north south expansion of Thuringia amounts to 160 km, the maximum west east expansion 198 km. Thuringia becomes of the motorways 4, 9, 38, as well as 71 and 73 pulled through. Because of A 4 as at a Perlenkette lined up from west to east the cities iron oh , Gotha , Erfurt , Weimar , are to Jena and Gera.
The south of the country becomesdominated of the Thüringer forest, which pulls itself of iron oh to sun mountain by the country. North of it the Thüringer basin lies. Eastward forest follows the Thüringer slate mountains at the Thüringer. In the north the Free State is enough toto the resin. Further mountains and Höhenzüge are the Rhön, the Dün, the Kyffhäuser and the Hainich.
thatCoat of arms of the Free State Thuringia shows in the glaze-blue sign that four times equivalent red silver touched, golden reinforced and crowned” multicolored lion “ the Ludowinger, surrounded by eight silver stars.
As the oldest colored representation of the” Thüringer Urwappens “remainedthe coat of arms sign of the land count Konrad of Thuringia from that 13. Jhdt. received. The succession war 1264/65 dismissed Hessen politically independently, since then the” multicolored lions “(in reverse touched: silver-red) in the coat of arms leads. As at the 1. May 1920 the Free State Thuringia itself out, following föderale star banner of the USA united to the sieved republican Thuringian small states the sieved silver on revolutionary-republican red reason to the state coat of arms was selected. The Nazionalsozialisten gave a archaischeres, beadlertes coat of arms to Thuringia. In the GDR 1952 with Thuringia became alsoits coat of arms abolished.1991 were derived the current Thüringer coat of arms from the historical bases. The respected star stands for Prussia of attached parts of a territory Erfurt, Mühlhausen, north living and Suhl for now additionally to the Free State the Thuringia due , formerly.
State State of
the entire structure of state of Thuringia is based on the condition of the Free State Thuringia of 1993. According to the condition Thuringia is a country of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is more democratically, more socially and the protection a thatnatural bases of life of humans obligated constitutional state (kind. 44). Article 45 means the fact that all government authority proceeds from the people and that the people by elections, referenda and popular vote carries out its will.
The federal state parliament is again selected every five years after the Personalisierten elections on the basis of proportional representation right. Momentarily 88 delegates have a seat in the federal state parliament.
See also: Election resultsand federal state governments in Thuringia since 1990.
the executive consists of the Prime Minister and the Ministers. The Prime Minister is selected by the federal state parliament with the majority of his members without discussion in secret tuning for the entire legislative period.The Prime Minister appoints and dismisses the Ministers. In addition it intends a Minister for its deputy. The federal state parliament can set the Prime Minister off only by a constructional vote of no confidence.
Since 1999 an however government of the CDU is in the office, with that in ThuringiaElection of the federal parliament 2004 their absolute majority scarcely to defend could. The present cabinet members are:
- Thüringer Prime Minister: Dieter existing building
- Thüringer Treasuries and deputy Prime Minister: Birgit Diezel
- Thüringer Minister of the Interior: Karl Heinz Gasser
- Thüringer Minister for agriculture, nature protection and environment: Peoples Sklenar
- Thüringer Secretary of cultural affairs: Jens Goebel
- Thüringer Minister of Justice: Harald Schliemann
- Thüringer Minister for social, family and health: Klaus toe
- Thüringer Minister for economics and work: Jürgen pure wood
- Thüringer Minister for building and traffic: Andreas Trautvetter
- Thüringer Minister für Bundes- und Europaangelegenheiten in der Staatskanzlei: Gerold usury Pfennig
the present undersecretaries of state are:
- Thüringer Treasury: Rainer Spaeth (to 31. July 2005 Michael cutter)
- Thüringer ministry of the Interior: Stefan Baldus
- Thüringer Ministry for agriculture, nature protection and environment: Christian Juckenack
- Thüringer ministry for education and cultural: Walter farmer Wabnegg and Kjell Eberhardt
- Thüringer Ministry of Justice: Manfred Scherer
- Thüringer Ministry for social, family and health: Stephan Illert
- Thüringer Ministry for economics and work: Jürgen Aretz
- Thüringer Ministry for building and traffic: Roland smelling vienna
the Judikative becomes from the constitutional court yard and from the further courts of theCountry exercised. The constitutional court yard consists of a president and eight further members. The tidy jurisdiction is divided into the Thüringer higher regional court into Jena, the regional courts into Erfurt, Gera, Mühlhausen and Meiningen as well as the subordinate district courts.
thoseHistory of Thuringia is represented in the major item history of Thuringia.
- to 531: The settlement of Thuringia takes place first via the Celts, later then via different Teuton trunks (e.g. the Hermunduren). It forms a Kingdom of Thuringia out, alsoan expansion from the Elbe to the Danube, whereby close connections with the Ostgotenreich Theodorichs exist.
- 531: it comes to the lost battle to the Unstrut (supposed with the stepping castle giving lake) to subjecting by Franconias,east the Saale settle Sorben (Slawen), thus falls out the part of Thuringia of the Frankish rule.
- after 650: Franconias begin to remove Thuringia to a border Mark with county condition. It is not completely clarified whether Thuringia in the meantimea duchy was. At the same time the regular Christianisierung Thuringia begins by Franconias around 700, whereby in particular the holy Bonifatius is delivered here.
- after 800: Repeated it comes to ideas of the Sorben, the powers of the Thuringian rulers needed thereby toDefense makes an advancement possible to the Mark duchy (ruler e.g.: Thakulf to 873, Ratolf to? , Poppo to 892, and Burchard to around 910). In times of peace Erfurt steps out as commercial point.
- around 900: Thuringia turns out under the sovereignty of Saxonia by Heinrich,Duke of Saxonia and later king Heinrich I.
- around 1000: Several count sexes do not compete around the supremacy in Thuringia, can become generally accepted (counts of: Weimar Orlamünde, clay/tone nailing oaks, beetle castle black castle). Only of importance here the sex of the Ludowinger is, itsFounder Ludwig of the Bärtige around 1044 the looking castle with Friedrichroda to build leaves.
- 1067: Ludwig of Springer, Sohn von Ludwig the Bärtigen, shifts its master seat on the waiting castle and begins selbige on the status to develop, that today still toosee is. Later the waiting castle than the main castle of the Ludowinger applies.
- 1111/1112: Establishment of the land county Thuringia. The first land count was field gentleman Hermann I. of Radelberg Winzenburg († 1122), until 1130 followed of its son Hermann II. of Winzenburg(†1152).
- 1131: The son of Ludwig of Springer, Ludwig I., receives on Reichstag to Goslar by emperors Lothar III. The following time of the Ludowinger as land counts is one the most well-known in the history of the country(Singer war on the waiting castle. Into this time also working holy Elizabeth falls).
- 1485: With the Leipziger division of the wettinischenAreas falls Thuringia to the line of the Ernestiner.
- 1521/22: Stay Martin Luther on the waiting castle, where it translated the new will as “Junker Jörg” under the protection that Weimar princes before the pursuit of the Pope andso that the basis of a uniform German writing language created.
- starting from 1572: Several centuries lasting Erbteilungen of the country lead to a multiplicity of developed andagain dissolved principalities.
- 1. May 1920: The country Thuringia develops for that from the unionsieves people and/or Free States of the former Grand Duke and/or principalities Saxonia Weimar iron oh, Saxonia Gotha (without Coburg, this closed Bavaria on), Saxonia old person castle, Saxonia Meiningen, both Principalities of Reuss j.L. and Reuss A. L., those 1919 to the republic Reuss first unites, Schwarzburg Rudolstadt and black castle special living had. To the Free State to Prussia further its governmental district Erfurt with various Exklaven belonged such as Schleusingen and goat back, as well as the circle rule Schmalkalden of the Prussian province Hessen Nassau.
- 23. January 1930: First volume-gravel-CH-National Socialist government in Germany(Tree Frick government)
- 1. July 1944: Assumption the governmental district Erfurt of the dissolved province Saxonia under the administration of the realm governor for Thuringia in Weimar.
- 1945 - 1952: Formation of the countryThuringia within the Soviet zone of occupation and/or the GDR, consisting of the country Thuringia of 1920, however without the Exklaven Allstedt and east home, furthermore of the area of the earlier Prussian governmental district Erfurt and the rule Schmalkalden.
- 1990: New formation of the Free State Thuringia, consisting of the districts Erfurt, Gera and Suhl as well as including the circles old person castle, Artern and Schmölln, with Josef Duchač asfirst Prime Minister.
the heads of the government of Thuringia
chairman of the Department of State from 1920 to 1933:
- 1920 - 1921: Dr. Arnold Rudolf Paulssen, strip packing
- 1921 - 1924: August Frölich, SPD
- 1924 - 1928: Dr. Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Leutheusser, DVP
- 1928 - 1930: Dr. Arnold Rudolf Paulssen, strip packing
- 1930 - 1932: Erwin tree, ThLB
- 1932 - 1933: Fritz Sauckel, NSDAP
Prime Minister from 1933 to 1945:
realm governor from 1933 to 1945:
head of the provincial government from 1945 to 1952:
Prime Minister from 1990 to today:
- 1990 - 1992: Josef Duchač, CDU
- 1992 - 2003: Dr. Bernhard Vogel, CDU
- 5. June 2003 - today: Dieter existing building, CDU
in Thuringia becomeabove all glass, ceramic(s), play goods, wood and textiles and many products made of metalworking. Most workers are busy in iron oh and rolling ago living in the construction of vehicles and machine, in addition, in the ironmongery and tool production. Of importance is also electro-technologyand tool-making in Erfurt, iron oh, Ruhla, Suhl and Meiningen. The seat of the enterprise Jenoptik (in former times Carl Zeiss Jena) in Jena announces the city world-wide for its precision tool-making.
In the Thüringer basin, in the Orlasenke and in the area south of old person castlemuch agriculture is operated. Are cultivated above all wheat, barley and sugar beets, in the Untereichsfeld and in who-rise up-offered often even the tobacco. In the river valleys fruit and vegetables grow and in Erfurt were flower breed and vegetable growing the basis for those Germany far admittedErfurter Saatzucht.
The tourism is however a just as important industry for the Land of the Federal Republic. The recreation areas are mainly in the Thüringer forest and in the Thüringer slate mountains. Numerous moving ways open these mountains. That about 160 km long remote moving way „run-rise “, on thatComb of the entire Thüringer of forest and the Thüringer of slate mountains along-led, offers very good remote sighting. A well-known winter sports center is upper yard, which approx. is appropriate for 10 km north of Suhl.
The social free-market economy has with the economic, currency and social union and the entryto the Federal Republic of 1990 the socialist central administration economy in Thuringia replaced. This deeply seizing restructuring process released crises in different industries and led to high unemployment rates. Two thirds of the old work places of Thuringia fell between 1989 and 1995 of the economic turn to the victim.In the meantime some industries have like the scientific tool-making, which microelectronics and the medical technology considerable increases obtain, so that a lack of worker is to be observed here. Over the past five years it succeeded itself Thuringia as well as the Free State Saxonia, from thatsmaller dynamics of the remaining new countries to uncouple and reduce unemployment over up to 5 per cent points. The districts Erfurt, Weimar countries, Jena, Suhl and Dresden exhibit the lowest unemployment ratios with approximately 10%. Here those does not strike high which can be eliminatedBase unemployment of the Nachwendezeit to beech. Dominating a lack of qualified specialists is on the active job market.
the history of the administrative arrangement of Thuringia is represented in the appropriate additional clause.
- in parentheses: District town (if different phrased than district) and Kfz characteristic
- old person citizen country (old person castle) (ABG)
- calibration field (therapeutic bath holy city) (EIC)
- Gotha (GTH)
- Greiz (GRZ)
- Hildburghausen (HBN)
- Ilm circle (Arnstadt) (IC)
- Kyffhäuserkreis (speciallive) (KYF)
- north living (NDH)
- Saale Holzland circle (iron mountain) (SHK)
- Saale Orla circle (Schleiz) (SOK)
- Saalfeld Rudolstadt (Saalfeld/Saale) (SLF)
- Schmalkalden Meiningen (Meiningen) (SM)
- Sömmerda (SÖM)
- sun mountain (SON)
- Unstrut Hainich circle (Mühlhausen) (UH)
- waiting castle circle (bath salting) (WAK)
- Weimar countries (Apolda) (AP)
- iron oh (I/O) (starting from that 1. January 1998)
- Erfurt (EF)
- Gera (G)
- Jena (J)
- Suhl (SHL)
- Weimar (incoming goods)
Cities and municipalities
see also: Statistics of Thuringian municipalities (listing after size; over 5.000 inhabitants)
|31. Dec. 2000||30. June. 2005|
|north living||north living||45.633||43,781|
|old person castle||old person citizen country||41,290||38,203|
|Mühlhausen||Unstrut Hainich circle||38,695||37,480|
|sun mountain||sun mountain||24,837||23,928|
|Leinefelde Worbis||calibration field||--¹||20,816|
¹ formation of the municipality to 16. March 2004
it gives a uniform Thuringian dialect, on the contrary the area of the today's Land of the Federal Republic Thuringia, also due to its history, is strongly differentiated in linguistic regard.
Further one small-scale dialect areas in Thuringia are in the southwest, in the area around Vacha, where in some places hessian dialect is spoken.
In the north of Thuringia, north of Worbis and south of Duderstadt (Lower Saxony) becomes in a number of places, northik-ich- the line find, down-German dialect, exact Ostfälisch, spoken.
Here one finds illustrations, which illustrate linguistic conditions in Thuringia. Closer information to the linguistic conditions in Thuringia supplies the web pages of working premises Thuringian dictionary, Jena
to culture with
as deftig valid Thüringer the kitchen is particularly for Thüringer Klösse, which Thüringer rust roasting sausage and the Thüringer Rostbrätl well-known. Regional specialities are the Mutzbraten and the Schmandkuchen.
special objects of interest
see also: Tourism in Thuringia
- Weimar, the city of the German classical period
- waiting castle with iron oh
- shopkeeper bridge in Erfurt
- Erfurter cathedral with Severi church
- thorn citizen of locks
- Heidecksburg in Rudolstadt
- of hall fields Feengrotten
- run-rise in the Thüringer forest
- national park Hainich
- Oberweissbacher mountain railway
- Kyffhäuserdenkmal and Barbarossahöhle in the Kyffhäuser
in the area of the today's Thuringia drew in the Christian faith by the Missionierung of the holy Bonifazius. After the reformation nearly all areas became Evangelist, only the calibration field andin smaller degree Erfurt remained because of the affiliation to the diocese Mainz, persisting to 1815 , catholic centers. Approx. 26% of the total population, thus approx. 485,000 persons (conditions: Dec. ), belong to 2002 to the Evangelical-Lutheran church in Thuringia, approx. 8% of the populationthe Roman-catholic church on (conditions: 2003). Under ideological influences of the GDR time the portion of denomination lots is relatively high, however an increase in municipality members is to be registered in the last years.
- portal: Thuringia
- history of Thuringia
- listthe places in Thuringia
- list of important Thüringer
- Thuringian states
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Thuringia - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikinews: Thuringia - current message|
- further one left to the topic „Thuringia “ in the open directory Project
- Free State Thuringia
- regions in Thuringia (calibration field,Hall country, Thüringer forest, classical author route)
- vacation in the Free State Thuringia
- Thüringer national office for statistics
- of election results (national returning officer)