Thailand

ราชอาณาจักรไทย
Ratcha Anachak Thai
Kingdom of Thailand
Flagge Thailands Wappen Thailands
(detail) (detail)
office language Thai
capital Bangkok (on Thai: To Krung Thep Maha NAK-hone etc., city of the angels)
system of government constitutional monarchy
head of state king Rama IX. Bhumibol Adulyadej
head of the government Chitchai Wannasathitkommissarisch since 05.04.06
surface 513,115 km ²
number of inhabitants 64.185.502 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 126.4 inhabitants per km ²
currency Baht
currency abbreviation according to ISO 4217 THB
currency symbol ฿
time belt UTC +7 (MEZ +6, Central European Summer Time +5), no summer time
time calculation after Buddhas birth (2549= 2006 n. Chr.)
national anthem Phleng Chat
Kfz characteristic THA
Internet TLD .th
preselection +66
river 220 V ~50 cycles per second; Euro plug and plug TypA
portable radio standard GSM to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz
television standard PAL
Lage Thailands
Karte Thailands

the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย, Ratcha AnachakThai; Short form: Prathet Thai or Muang Thai), also Siam mentioned, is a state in Southeast Asia. It borders on Myanmar (in former times: Burma or Burma), Laos, Kambodscha, Malaysia, the Andamani sea (part of the Indian ocean)and the gulf of Thailand (part of the Pacific).

Table of contents

topics 9 Web on the left of

[

work on] geography the territory of Thailand a considerable part of the land surface of Southeast Asia southeast the last Ausläufer of the Himalaya toon the Malaii peninsula and thereby, a marginal sea of the southChinese sea encloses the gulf of Thailand. The land surface of Thailand reminds in its shape of the head of an elephant. The maximum expansion in north south direction lies with 1.770 km, inEast west direction somewhat more than 800 km. Altogether Thailand has a surface of 513.113 km ².

The north region is hilly, there is also the highest point of the country: Doi Inthanon (2,565 m). The northeast (Isaan - also Isan or Issaancalled) consists of the Khorat Hochebene, a landscape dust-dry in the summer however inundated in the rain time, which does not permit intensive agriculture. Irrigation projects and dams are to create remedy here. The there population is poorer than the average of the country. The dialectthe Isaan is related to the Lao one. In the north and the east of the Isaan the Mae Nam Khong or Mekong forms the border to Laos.

Klimadiagramm Chiang Mai
Climatic diagram Chiang May
Klimadiagramm Bangkok
climatic diagram Bangkok
Klimadiagramm Phuket
climatic diagram Phuket

the central region controlled of the Mae Nam Chao Phraya, which supplies the fruitful country water and flows south of Bangkok into the gulf of Thailand. The east region is coined/shaped agricultural and is because of the gulf of Thailand. The beautiful beaches and pre-aged islands led to an intensified tourism. ThoseCentral level and the east coast (Eastern Seaboard) are the economical heart of the country. Therefore Thailand is also one of the Southeast Asiatic tiger states. The south region lies on the elongated malaiischen peninsula, which separates the Pacific ocean from the Indian ocean. The Isthmusfrom Kra the narrowest place between the two seas forms and is only 64 km broad. Therefore it is called in Thailand also “thin neck ”. Mountain landscapes (in the northern part the Tenasserim - mountains at the border to Myanmar, inthe extreme south the border mountains sinking era Khiri to Malaysia), rain forest and dream beaches alternate. The population is here increasingly moslemisch and speaks more Malaiisch.

The climate is tropical - monsoon, the temperatures lie all year round over 18° C.Seasons are determined not as with us over temperature differences, but over the monthly amounts of precipitation. There are three seasons. Completely roughly the following applies: (1) from November to February advances the prevailing north to northeast hoist dry and cool air, (2) inMarch until May the highest temperatures (often clear over 35° C) prevail to the Vormonsun time, (3) from June to Septembers last the rain time with the monsoon from southwest. Over 60.000 km ² the land surface and more than 6,000 km ² sea surface and islandsare proven as national park, game protected area or sea park, see in addition national park in Thailand.

Larger cities are beside the capital Bangkok: To Chiang May, Nonthaburi, Samut Prakan, NAK-hone Ratchasima (in former times Khorat), Khon Kaen and Chonburi.

Work on []

Population

total population

75% of the population are Thai, 14% Chinese. The remaining inhabitants are member of the mountain peoples, Khmer, Laoten, Malaien, Moken, Indian, Lolos and white one (Farangs).

ThosePopulation of Thailand from 1960 to today
year population in millions Births/deaths per 1000 Einw.
1960 23,3 34.2/9.7
1964 29,7 34.8/7.9
1965 30,5 34.8/9.7
1966 31,5 34.8/9.7
1971 35,3
1974 41,0
1978 45,1
1982 48,5 30.0/7.9
1987 52,6 26.0/7.9
1988 53,6 26.0/7.9
2000 60,8 17.2/7.3
2005 65,4 15.7/7.02

population growth: 0.95% (estimation 2003)

population 2025: The life expectancy is appropriate for 73,26 million (

prognosis 2003)on the average with 71.2 years, women 73.5 years and men 69.1 years.

The child number of deaths amounts to 22 deaths per 1.000 living person birth.

to religion

of the Buddhismus is in form of the Theravâda Thailand quasi state religion (their official introductionat present one aims at). More than 94% of the population profess themselves to it. Other religions enjoy national protection: 4% Muslim (predominantly Malaien in the south), 0.6% Christian and approx. 65,000 Hindus (usually Indian). Only 0.4% call themselves as religionless.

There are about 18,000 Wats (buddhistische temple plants), which are particularly in rural areas not only center of the religious, but also the social life. The number of the monks amounts to approximately 160.000. Traditionally nearly each male Thai steps, but only fewWomen, once in the life for several weeks into a monastery to practice over in the Meditation and the rules of the monk and/or. To submit nun community (see also Sangha). For instance a third of the male young-finite between 12 and18/20 years lives for until six years as Novizen in the temple and goes from there out into special monk schools with emphasis “religious education”, in addition, with other subjects. After completion of the school most of them put thoseRobe off and return as laymen to the society, in order to study to make teachings or look for a job. If a Novize is with 20 years still in the temple, he must decide withdraw or monk toobecome. If someone dies in the family, it is usual that a family member, usually a son, a grandchild or a nephew, are ordiniert, in order to accompany the dead celebrations as a member of the Sangha; this temple stay mostly takes only three, five or seven days. Is someone in a personal crisis, of the business life gestresst, fulfilled its obligations as a family father or became to widowers, can be it up to three times monk on time, whereby it can select the monastery and the duration of its surgery freely. ThisRetreat has frequently the duration of a rain time (3 months) or a yearly. Older ones take thereby also parting from the working life and remain monks for the remainder of their life. Monks, Novizen and nuns are seen as models and to enjoy in the societyhigh respect.

history

major item: History of Thailand

Thailand, which was called Siam until 1939 (and for short time after the Second World War until 1949 ), is the only state of Southeast Asia, which could defy the colonialism, contrary to itsNeighbours Malaysia, Myanmar, Laos, Kambodscha and Viet Nam. For this reason the name “Thailand” was accepted, what meant translated into the German language “country of the free ones”.

See also: List of the kings of Thailand

politics

political system

Thailand is since a unblutigen revolution 1932 a constitutional monarchy. Head of state is the king. This does not have direct influence on the daily politics, but notices only representative tasks. Head of the government is a prime minister, thatby the king one appoints, as soon as he was selected by the house of representatives. The legislation consists of a two-chamber system with a house of representatives (500 members) and a senate (200 members). All citizens of Thailand are entitled to vote starting from that 18. Lebensjahr. For the political lifethe condition of the 11 applies. October 1997. The highest court (Sandika ศาลฎีกา) is appointed by the king.

Women did not have to fight for the right to vote, it for all citizens were at the same time introduced. In the past the military often transferredpower, while in the nineties the country made large steps toward democracy and citizen rights. The parliament (Ratha Sapha รัฐสภา) consists of two chambers: the house of representatives (Sapha Phu Thaen Ratsadon สภาผู้แทนราษฎร) has at present(2004) of 500 selected members. Of it 400 in constituencies is selected, while 100 further delegates are intended proportionally for the number of votes, which the parties for their party lists received. The voters delivered thus two voices, those on two different Wahlzettelnbecome. A party list must receive at least 5% of the delivered valid voices, in order to be able to send persons from its list into the parliament. The senate (Wuthi Sapha วุฒิสภา) consists of 200 selected members (since the first senatorial elections in the year2000, based on the condition of 1997; the senators were appointed before by the government). General elections take place every four years. There is obligation to vote for all citizens starting from 18 years.

Akutelle political situation

the most important parties (Conditions after the parliamentary election to 6. February 2005 in parentheses old allocation of seats) are

  1. Pak Thai Rak Thai (TRT, Thai love Thai), 376 seats (248 seats)
  2. Pak Prachatipat (PP, a democratic party), 97 seats (128 seats)
  3. Pak Chart Thai (PCT, A national party), 25 seats (41 seats)
  4. Pak Khwamwang May (PKWM, new aspiration party), - (36 seats)

to 2. April 2006 Thaksin Shinawatra new elections took place after months-long protests against the office guidance of the prime minister. The protests arrange themselves in particular approximatelythe democratization process in such a way specified, those of many felt intimidation the press and personal enriching of the Thaksin family. Although the party Thaksins the elections won - the opposition parties boycotted the choice - is a head of the government to 4. April 2006 afteran audience with king Rama IX. withdrawn.

King Rama IX. are the serve-oldest monarch of the world, the generally recognized moral instance of the country, the conscience of the nation and identification figure of the state. Its high reputation in the population, it as Father of the nation regarded, is everywhere visible and by arm and realm exactly the same as by Buddhisten and Muslims is divided. Its picture (usually together with that the queen Sirikit) hangs in nearly each house. The acknowledgment goes so far,that in neighbouring of Laos haven advice of king the Bhumipol are.

For the political development see articles: History of Thailand (since 1946) and prime minister of Thailand as well as list of the ministers of foreign affairs of Thailand.

foreign policy

Thailand is member innumerous international organizations, among other things in the UN and in the ASEAN.


administration

provinces

the today's administrative arrangement in provinces, circles (or the smaller King Amphoe, municipalities and villages took place under king Rama V. Chulalongkorn 1897. However numerous provinces were again created later or changed.

The 76 provinces are combined into 5 regions: The north, northeast (Isaan), central region, the east and the south. The allocation of the provinces to thatRegions is not uniform, sometimes then a province can be assigned the one, sometimes a neighbouring region.

The provinces are again divided into Tambon and then in Mubaan in Amphoe and King Amphoe , this. The name of a province corresponds to thatName of their capital. The Amphoe of Bangkok is called officially Khet, however sometimes falsely also Amphoe is called.

In the course of the establishment of the new large airport Bangkok is also the creation of a new province in the discussion: it is from the Khet Lat Krabang and Prawet as well as from the Amphoe belonging to Samut Prakan fear for Phli and fear for Sao Thong exist. As name is NAK-hone Suvarnabhumi intended. The province is to be formed until 2007 and a special administrative zone will be probably.

Provinces of Thailand

province capitals

The north

  1. Chiang May (เชียงใหม่)
  2. Chiang Rai (เชียงราย)
  3. Kamphaeng Phet (กำแพงเพชร)
  4. Lampang (ลำปาง)
  5. Lamphun (ลำพูน)
  6. Mae Hong Son (แม่ฮ่องสอน)
  7. NAK-hone to Sawan (นครสวรรค์)
  8. Nan (น่าน)
  9. Phayao (พะเยา)
  10. Phetchabun (เพชรบูรณ์)
  11. Phichit (พิจิตร)
  12. Phitsanulok (พิษณุโลก)
  13. Phrae (แพร่)
  14. Sukhothai (สุโขทัย)
  15. TAC (ตาก)
  16. to Uthai Thani (อุทัยธานี)
  17. Uttaradit (อุตรดิตถ์)

northeast (Isaan)

  1. Amnat Charoen (อำนาจเจริญ)
  2. Buriram (บุรีรัมย์)
  3. Chaiyaphum (ชัยภูมิ)
  4. Kalasin (กาฬสินธุ์)
  5. Khon Kaen (ขอนแก่น)
  6. Loei (เลย)
  7. Maha Sarakham (มหาสารคาม)
  8. Mukdahan (มุกดาหาร)
  9. NAK-hone Phanom (นครพนม)
  10. NAK-hone to Ratchasima (นครราชสีมา)
  11. Nongbua Lamphu (หนองบัวลำภู)
  12. Nong Khai (หนองคาย)
  13. Roi Et (ร้อยเอ็ด)
  14. Sakon NAK-hone (สกลนคร)
  15. to Sisaket (ศรีสะเกษ)
  16. Surin (สุรินทร์)
  17. Ubon Ratchathani (อุบลราชธานี)
  18. Udon Thani (อุดรธานี)
  19. Yasothon (ยโสธร)

center

  1. Ang Thong (อ่างทอง)
  2. Ayutthaya (พระนครศรีอยุธยา)
  3. Bangkok (กรุงเทพฯ)
  4. Chainat (ชัยนาท)
  5. Kanchanaburi (กาญจนบุรี)
  6. Lopburi (ลพบุรี)
  7. NAK-hone Nayok (นครนายก)
  8. NAK-hone to Pathom (นครปฐม)
  9. Nonthaburi (นนทบุรี)
  10. Pathumthani (ปทุมธานี)
  11. Phetchaburi (เพชรบุรี)
  12. Prachuap Khiri Khan (ประจวบคีรีขันธ์)
  13. Ratchaburi (ราชบุรี)
  14. Samut Prakan (สมุทรปราการ)
  15. Samut Sakhon (สมุทรสาคร)
  16. Samut Songkhram (สมุทรสงคราม)
  17. Saraburi (สระบุรี)
  18. sing to Buri (สิงห์บุรี)
  19. Suphanburi (สุพรรณบุรี)

the east

  1. Chachoengsao (ฉะเชิงเทรา)
  2. Chanthaburi (จันทบุรี)
  3. Chonburi (ชลบุรี)
  4. Prachinburi (ปราจีนบุรี)
  5. Rayong (ระยอง)
  6. Sakaeo (สระแก้ว)
  7. stepped (ตราด)

to the south

  1. Chumphon (ชุมพร)
  2. Krabi (กระบี่)
  3. NAK-hone SI Thammarat (นครศรีธรรมราช)
  4. Narathiwat (นราธิวาส)
  5. Pattani (ปัตตานี)
  6. Phang Nga (พังงา)
  7. Phattalung (พัทลุง)
  8. Phuket (ภูเก็ต)
  9. Ranong (ระนอง)
  10. Satun (สตูล)
  11. Songkhla (สงขลา)
  12. Surat Thani (สุราษฎร์ธานี)
  13. Trang (ตรัง)
  14. Yala (ยะลา)

provinces in that North region

Sukhothai historical park (province Sukhothai)

Chiang Rai, Mae Hong Son, Chiang May, Phayao, Nan, Lampang, Lamphun, Phrae, Tak, Sukhothai, Uttaradit, Phitsanulok, Kamphaeng Phet, Phichit, Phetchabun, Uthai Thani, NAK-hone to Sawan

provinces in the northeast region

the northeast also Issaan one calls.

To Loei, Nongbua Lamphu, Udon Thani, Nong Khai, Sakon NAK-hone, NAK-hone Phanom, Khon Kaen, To Kalasin, Mukdahan, Chaiyaphum, Maha Sarakham, Roi Et, Yasothon, Amnat Charoen, NAK-hone Ratchasima, Buriram, Surin, SI Saket, Ubon Ratchathani

provinces in the central region

Kanchanaburi, Suphanburi, To Chainat, sing Buri, Lopburi, Ang Thong, Saraburi, Phra NAK-hone SI Ayutthaya, Pathum Thani, NAK-hone Nayok, Prachinburi, SA Kaeo, Chachoengsao, Ratchaburi, NAK-hone Pathom, Nonthaburi, Bangkok, Samut Songkhram, Samut Sakhon, Samut Prakan, Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan

provinces in the east region

Chonburi, Rayong, Chanthaburi, stepped

provinces in the south region

To Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Phangnga, Phuket, Krabi, NAK-hone SI Thammarat, Trang, Phatthalung, Satun, Songkhla, Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat

see also:

  • Lists of the provinces of Thailand with assortment afterSurface and total population and - [
work on] economics

rice economy

Reiswirtschaft in Thailand
in Thailand seals
the metropolis Bangkok is the economical center of the country

restaurant economics

was structured the economy of Thailand agrarian for many centuries and was essentially based on the cultivation of rice.Although the rice export is subject to a national monopoly, Thailand is also today still with the United States one largest rice export your the earth.

Already early a trade with India and the Empire of China developed due to the favorable geographical location as well as Japan. First processing workshops for ceramic(s) in the north of the country already originated in in 14. Century. Only 2004 was loosened the tariff barriers with the People's Republic of China, in order to strengthen the bilateral trade.

general

of ThailandEconomics is free market-liberally oriented and by a strong role of the foreign trade marked. An increase of the international competitive ability and stimulation of the domestic economy by increased expenditures in favor of the disadvantaged regions of Thailand coin/shape the economic policy of Prime Minister Thaksin. The so-called. double-railed(“binarily TRACKs”) economics is to support the structural change actively ranges of the economy technology-oriented by the agriculture to service and.

economic crisis 1997

between 1985 and 1995 had Thailand the highest growth rate of the world economy, nearly 9% perYear. This increased the speculative pressure to the local currency, the Baht. 1997 drove speculator the currency into a crisis, that gradually several asiatic States of ('tiger states ') to the victim fell and to a dramatic howevershort term contraction of growth led.

Here structural weaknesses of the Thai economy showed up.

since

1999 the economy recovered characteristic data again and constantly adds between 4,2% and 6,1% (2004). 2005 laythe GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT growth with 4,5% (Vj: 6.2%). Mainly the oil price, in addition, the effects of the Tsunami led on the tourism as well as a Dürre, risen strongly, to a slowing down of the upswing.

The inflation rate of the Thai Baht was attached 20031,8 %.

The gross domestic product

of Thailand gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) lay 2002 in sum with 107.2 billion euro, per head of the population with 1.700 euro and builds themselves up as in the following represented:

defiance of the small portion of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT is sociopolitically very important the agrarian sector in Thailand as employers and. The number of workers was 2001 with 37.2 million, who were busy in the following sectors:

  • 49% agriculture and fishing
  • 14% industry
  • 37% service

the unemployment rate is about 1,5%.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

the public expenditures of Thailandamounted 2000 to 18.375 billion euro, the incomes lay with 16.3 billion euro.

international relations

further is Thailand member in the ASEAN, the regional foreign trade zones AFTA and APEC.

culture

Phra Pathom Chedi(NAK-hone Pathom)

the Thai culture has one century for a long time tradition, which can adapt however to quite new requirements and conditions. It is coined/shaped by the Buddhismus, which as quasi state religion as connecting element nearly all Thais serves. Around thoseEveryday culture to understand, is to be considered it importantly the synkretistischen character of Thai Religiosität, in particular the great importance of the Animismus.

The attention for the older one, in addition, the respect for the high-posed are characteristics of social handling. They express themselvesamong other things in the Wai, the traditional greeting of the Thais among themselves. In addition both hand inner surfaces are together-put and held in different height before the face or the chest. This takes place depending upon the social status of the involved ones. The low placing beginsthe Wai, whereby the fingertips are approximately because of the nose point. The head is bent at the same time, so that with the Wai beginning often no view contact exists. More highly the placing will answer the Wai, by it the fingertips on chest or chin heightholds. This is accompanied from a friendly to huldvollen smile. “More highly the placing” knows z. B. from socially better family come, a office holder its, or under socially on an equal footing one the older one. Monks welcome placed monks with the Wai only more highly orBuddhastatuen and do not answer the Wai of laymen. The Wai is used also as gesture of the thanks. Today it is usual that the crew welcomes its aircraft passengers with the Wai and cashiers as well as salesmen in business their customers after completionthe purchase discharge in such a way, whereby in this case of the Wai if necessary with a smile or an verbal greeting one answers. This newer custom is criticized of some native and foreign observers than commercialization of Thai culture. If a tourist as a customera business or as a guest a restaurant enters and the possibly younger personnel than first with a beflissenen “Wai” to to the forehead welcomed, around showing as well it fits themselves in, is rather embarrassing this, makes equal it nevertheless3 error at one time.

In the northeast region the cultural inheritance of the laotischstämmigen population lives and. A. in the typical Mor Lam - music and in their Webkunst away. The north belonged to culture to the Lanna - and differs from the remainder of the country alsotoday still by another people impact, own customs, special meals and different language.

education

Thailand ranks for 5 years at a rear place of the asiatic Bildungsrankings. Formal, like expensive school uniforms for different weekdays in the primary school, steersfrom structural and contentwise lack. The Thai government plans therefore to reform the educational system completely.[1]

Thailand (just like Siam as predecessors) was never colony, had thus never direct contact with contemporarily modern education systems of the west. This makes itselftoday negatively noticeably, in particular which concerns the language training. While in states such as Malaysia and Singapore the English language is nearly a matter of course, this is not in Thailand by any means the case.

In addition it comes that the Thai writing system controls only from few foreignersbecomes, which leads to a certain isolation. Education materials in Thai must be essentially created or located by native ones .

educational system

in Thailand prevails general compulsory schooling for 9 years. Of the Unesco determined illiterate rate is with onlyapprox. 3% and thus on the level of the European union.

The attendance of the six-year primary school is obligatory and free in principle, in the last years has the pupils however ever more the costs of training aids and uniforms of thoseto pay different weekdays themselves. The methods of teaching do not correspond to the modern western standard. Solely responsible learning is promoted only little. In contrast to this - straight on the country - a strongly minted authority thinking stands. The flogging punishment was abolished a few years ago, authoritarianTeaching methods are however still usual.

In the world it is probably singular that the Pfadfindertum (Scouting) is part of the curriculum. All pupils of a school come on a fixed day of each week in its pathfinder uniforms into the school.

Resuming schools

after conclusion of the primary school have the pupils the possibility of beginning a resuming school or a professional training which is essentially also scholastically accomplished. Costs of teaching materials and often more or less long journeys fall into thosenext larger city on, in particular with children of the country. With the high number of private institutes and professional schools are besides course fees to be paid. Particularly talented one from poor families, which study at national universities, can itself around a scholarship or a long-term,interest-free loan apply.

holidays

many Thai and buddhistische holidays depend on the moon calendar and fall thus from year to year on in each case different date. The banks are closed on these days always. A holiday fallson a Saturday or a Sunday, then the first weekday is work-free thereafter.

(see also: Holidays in Thailand)

further topics

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