theatre (v. frz. théâtre < lat. theatrum < griech.: théatron looking place; v. theasthai ) is the name for a szenische representation of an internal and outside happening looks at as artistic communication between participants (actors) and the public. With the word“Theatre” can be meant the building, in the theatre is played (see theatre (architecture)), or the process of the theatre making or also generally a group of humans, whatever organization form constituted in one however theatres make, thus a group of theatres. “Theatre” is thus a term very amorphous in the reason; theatre “landscape” is so various and differentiated that one, even if one directs the focus only toward Europe (and perhaps still North America), hardly generally valid statements to meet can.
sections of the theatre
it gives different sections of the theatre, possible distinctions are here:
- Speech theatre (tragedy, comedy, play)
- concert hall (opera, Operette, Musical)
- dance theatre (ballet, dance performance)
- figure theatre (doll theatre, object theatre)
- performance (happening, action art, unites frequently different theatre forms)
- improvisation theatres (also: Improtheater or theatre haven)
- road theatre (theatre in the public area)
it is to be noted thatImprovisation theatre and road theatre frequently also under the label performance to be summarized.
In the respective sections respectively differently trained and qualified artists are active.
- In the speech theatre: Actor, directors, play musicians
- in the concert hall: Singers (soloist and choirists), orchestra musician, Korrepetitoren, Conductor, directors.
- In the dance theatre: Dancer, Choreografen, Korrepetitoren
- in the figure theatre: Doll player
- in the theatre haven: One calls Impro player, Impro musician
, Impro technician theatre, in which several sections are at home, logically multi-section theatres. They must have bound also the different artists to the house.Ever more city theatres, which are multi-section houses, sections are to save from cost reasons. Nearly always first of the ballet is thought, whereby the straight ballet (if it also modern dance theatre makes) addresses recent public rather as other sections.
thatNature (tliche) of the theatre
as minimum formula of theatre can apply: A plays (B) and C looks too (and both have a consciousness of their roles as players and spectators). That means above all: to the theatre belongs inPublic. Theatre without public is not a theatre. The public can affect this partial due to the live-performance (to applaud, silence, laugh unrest, buhen, the auditorium abandoned).
Theatre can be politically or also only aesthetically ambitioniert religiously, society-critically. Above all is ita section of the art and therefore freely. Due to the collective Rezeption and the live-character, thus performances it stands for the tranistorischen element in special proximity to (material) the society: Theatre tells over humans, about the life. The spectators can recognize andNew discover. A stage happening can open confirm or konterkarieren, can new perspectives, sharpen the view for alternatives.
Historically the theatre has religious-ritual roots. But in the antique one (in old Athens) the artists already disassociated themselves from priests and politicians,issued with theatre means the existing God, world and people pictures and placed rather questions, they wanted to give answers. The discussion of society as play on the stage has at all times and in different development everywhere on thatWorld taken place. And it also today still takes place, particularly in Germany theatre landscape singular in the world. But this play is also again and again (powerful ones) a thorn in the eye.
The art form theatre speaks, e.g. by its symbolism, intellectually on, worksby the pictures in addition, in the Unterbewusste. To that extent theatre is an holistic, plurimediales (live) event - a characteristic of all performance arts. The actor (or the actress) light of sense of in the illusionistic and epischen theatre forms on the stage a figure (play, particularly became in18./19. Century as “lie” understood) and this role is - anyhow in the civil illusion theatre - which appears spectators realistic, convincing. The means, which must be used, in order to reach a public, must be up-to-date. They are therefore also from regionalConditions dependently.
already early forms
history of the theatre [work on] to Urtheater of cave pictures of the stone time people. One assumes that itself ice-age hunters z. B. Skins of animals covered, around as vital procedures as thoseTo represent and theatral process hunt in advance or afterwards. Thus ceremonies of dances and theatrale representation developed, in which the world and the social events were placed behind and umspielt. One would know the theatre as Urkunst of mankind, all thisother arts holds, see.
In the Egyptian art different representations of dancers , musicians and acrobats of the theatralen development of the lay entertainments at the yard of the Pharaonen show. In the fourth pre-Christian millenium coined/shaped by the socialRe-organization and public administration, as well as the mythologies the interpretation of the creation and the Seins resulted from dominant priest kings. This mental development provided for monumental buildings of splendour as window blind of the theatre play served itself, later for the large festival theatre the developed and thatServed presentation of the state religion.
The Egyptian Abydos became during the middle realm (2000-1500 v.Chr.) to the scene of annual Mysterienspiele around suffering, death and Auferstehung of the God Osiris. Owing to eingemeisselter designs on stone the realization could theatralen over some stations thisProcesses to be attained.
the antique theatre
theatre for the Polis
With the new pre-Christian company form, the democracy, the ritual festival became the political fixed meeting, which is faithful to ritual origins. That is, that the play times commit themselves to a large extent to God and holidays. The play developed now did not aim any longeroff to embody a connection from actor and God world to to strike but a bridge to the passive public in order to arrange for them an identity, obligates it on the national community.
In 6. Century combined Peisistratos, Errichter of a Tyrannis in Athens, in such a way Dionysos specified and the popular - cult plays to a state State of, the large Dionysien. Dionysos, God of the fertility and the wine, became with introduction tragedies - of the competition (Agon) also the protection patron of the theatre. At this timealso the play place was shifted rendevous point of the Polis, to the particularly established Dionysostheater, of the Agora, which was built to the south slope of the Akropolis.
From early 5. Century the first poet names and tragedy title are delivered, toothe time used still mythologische motives, but mainly today's political questions finished and the public more near to bring should. The fate bindingness of humans, a central message of the myths, was questioned systematically. The stress on the free will andthe organization liberty as well as the idea of the right-national community and the consolidation of the Polis became ever more strongly, particularly by descriptions in works of the Aischylos.
Through in 4. Century sinking spectator numbers introduced the city state (Polis) „looking money “, that the visitors fortheir service loss to compensate should. The meaning, above all also political meaning, the theatre grew ever more. Spectacular Skenographien and schauspielerische Virtuosität wrung the philosophical and serious tragedy ever more the place out and became from large tragedy writers as well as Aristoteles thanvalidityless judges.
The comedy (original: omitted tänzerischer mask numzug) was suitable successfully the popular custom from the Dionysoskult on and ascended finally for the most in demand kind of the brightistic time. Contrary to the Satyrspiel, that always the conclusion, was mockery-more joyful the comedy formed for a tragedy, and both Heroen of the myths and politicians were exposed to the Gespött. But also criticism at the dominant policy became particularly by Aristophanes, also with prominent athenischen philosophers closefriendly was very unencrypted omitted. With end of the democracy however the comedy turned off from the policy and besonn itself on everyday life types.
the Roman antique one
the Roman culture was the result of a gigantic conquest campaign. In3. The Romans the center of the brightistic culture shifted century into their city. They took over the hierarchy of the olympic Gods, let yourself from Greek architecture, art and philosophy inspire. Greek slaves became cultural teachers. After the victory inthe Roman senate theatre performances left first Puni war into the Ludi romani, which introduce city celebrations. Livius Andronicus verfassste first latin tragedy. The theatre became from now on, like also before in Greece, when state institution regards. However less than Forum for the political discourse, like more in the attischen theatre, than herrschaftliche power representation and diverson of political conflicts. Thus also the comedy became generally accepted, which dealt often very discriminating against with its Protagonisten. With the turn to the Kaiser erain the 1. Century v. Chr. popular play forms, mainly Pantomime, replaced the literary comedy. Also the topic adultery was used frequently and the imported Greek poets Mimus did as the first without masks and occupied woman roles with women, which forthe further development of the theatre many conflicts with the church to bring should.
important authors of the antique
Aristoteles: All abstraction does not lead itselffrom the reason, but from the sum of ersinnlicher experiences off. Art is imitation.
Epikur: The desire is at the beginning and end of a blessed play.
Platon: The perceptible world is only the distorted shade picture of a world of ideal ideas - thereforenot the Wahrnehmnung to safe knowledge, but only the reason leads.
theatre in the Middle Ages
church power and instrumentalization
already in the late antique one took the church to large influence on the theatre world. Thus becamein 4. Century n. Chr. the refusal to the theatre to the baptizing confession taken up and to 5. Century was punished the theatre attendance with Exkommunikation. In the beginnings of the Middle Ages with emergence of the Feudalismus the cultural life became almost exclusively from thatChristian church dominates. The middle class, which in the antique one still carrier of the culture was, which applied mainly for the God honour and the daily politics, lost not only political, but also any cultural meaning. The usually brachiale Christianisierung lasted nearly the wholeThe Middle Ages on and the church took over complete control of the social and public life - which in particular also the theatre should coin/shape. Which did not undergo of church control, was violent meeting with hostility suspended and became in the late Middle Ages by thoseInquisition bloodily pursues. The suppression of the theatralen play, which was regarded as immoral and shameless, led to the Entehrung of the theatre-playing. They found only as fools and Gaukler at the edge of the society and for amusing on fairs and at yards that And applied for noble their place now more than representatives of the grotesque one and Animali. The meaning of the numerous names for medieval Unterhalter such as Histriones, Joculatoren, Ministrels and an acting like hardly designated distinguishable career profiles. Often the actors had to control several arts,in order to please your public with pieces of news, mockery verses and hero legends. The church instrumentalisierte the arts for the spreading of the Christian welfare teachings. It tried to seize and aesthetically copy the holy in all senses and uses those screen end and representing art for educating purposes.
Mysterien and passion plays
in 10. Century demanded the council to Konstantinopel humanizing the Göttlichen. That should become a turning point of the theatre culture. One main header the picture prohibition up and taped religious rituals. Text extensions of the liturgical singing and the spielerische process of the solemn ceremony to death and Auferstehung Christi contributed those not only the east he and Christmas later to the emergence of dramatic roles in the church theatre and to more complex plays of Biblical contents,theatral converted, but also Mirakelspiele contained, which swore to the life and the acts of holy ones and prophets or the fight between skies and hell. With the detachment of the Liturgie also the strictly symbolistic play way changed itself. Jesus stepped now asHumans up, the religious plays shifted in 13. Century of the church room on the church free area, also the population was also merged into the play, and latin was exchanged against the people language.
From this development then also Mysterien and passion plays resulted, there one was no more to the place of the church bound no single motives and, but welfare stories of the emergence of the world up to the recent court to tell wanted. First only clerics were in the play involved, later pulled one thenmale citizens near, in order to become fair the numerous roles of the festivals lasting several-day-long, in order to then give the play still later completely to the hands of the citizens. The passion plays found large spreading and became no longer only church one Event of urban fixed culture. In 14. Century also contentwise emphasis was then changed. No more the admiration Jesu, but the degradation and suffering did not move into the center. The passion became the mirror of the new life feeling that by hunger emergency, Plague and the crisis of the church and political authority were coined/shaped, and oriented themselves ever more at the empirical reality.
nearly night plays
developed in such a way in the late Middle Ages lay play forms, which were particularly coined/shaped in France. With thatFrench farce and Sotie, which are characterised by its critical poet tables view of the all daily and the scoffing of church and national authorities and were played only to the Fastnacht, also the German nearly at night play emanzipierte itself and did not only lure at Karneval thatPublic into pubs or on market places with their usually unrestrained Sexual and Fäkalkomik, which went usually at expense from Jews, farmers and women. The tradition of the English Morality Plays, which arrange the fight between vices and virtue, livesuntil today in the usually-played piece of the European stages, which everyone away, who coins/shapes the opening of the salt citizens of festivals since 1920.
acquaintance authors of nearly night plays
- Hans Sachs: It wrote 4000 master songs and 87 nearly at night plays
Renaissance - age of the discoveries
with the end of the Middle Ages won the theatre new functions in the höfischen and church representative office. While the citizens had taken over the medieval Mysterienspiel firmly, a new elite culture lit up at European yards. Holidayswith opera performances were celebrated. Höfi buildings of theatres, theatres within fürstlicher residences, in garden plants integrated hedge theatres, buildings of churches, those the performance of religious operas and Oratorien permitted witness from the customs change. The modern times were coined/shaped by drastic geographical, scientific and mentalDiscoveries, by the failure of the medieval church and by the meditation of philosophy and art on humans and the development of the free personality. In the theatre of the human one recognizes first beginnings for the tradition „of the classical drama “, inthat one advances an exciting action by dialogues. Thus it followed also that the places of the action did not stand simultaneously next to each other any longer was animated, but chronologically by scene change. One taught „the antique drama “already in the Middle Ages in the schools, howeverthe imaginative power for antique performance practice was missing. Only it succeeded to reconstruct the human of the modern times antique play forms.Aristokraten took up the new „classical culture wave “with enthusiasm, were interested however less in an exact reconstruction of classical dramas, howthat the human scholars were, but more at splendid equipment and later then at the loosening of the play by addition of burlesken dances. While the tragedy got attention during the Renaissance hardly, the comedy was admired. To yards of Ferrarathe first glossful center for the revival antique comedies and a little later developed the creation „of the COMM dia. erudita “, for a people-linguistic scholar comedy. Ludovico Ariosto, director/conductor of the yard theatre of Ferrara, celebrated yards at its largest success with stage works like „La Cassaria “and „I suppositi “. But Niccoló Machiavelli, which threw the antique models aside, wrote the most famous Renaissance comedies and a sharp Portrait of the customs and vice of its time built into the works. With thatScholars argue and led tragedy mainly theoretically from the work „Poetik “from Aristoteles seal standardize off. To the most important laws the three units of place, action and time belonged. Beside the Comedia played by scholarly play laymenErudita exist the professional „COMM dia. dell'Arte “, the bar hoar frost comedy, as well as the shepherd play. The shepherd play united Komik and Tragik, dissociated itself from political and social crises of the present and formed a utopian gloss world. That took large influenceShepherd play on the development of the opera. In 16. Human the didactical value of the theatre discovered century. For moral instruction and as propaganda instrument of the reformation (also Martin Luther recommended the school theatre) one took up latin theatre to the curriculum .
important representatives of the Renaissance
the baroque age at
no time the theatre was more loved there than during the European Baroque. The play on the stage applied in 17. Century as perfect image and symbol of a glossful world. The fall of the Feudalismus and the victory of the absolutism fell old values and sharpened consciousness for light and its. ThatComparison between world and stage, on which each humans play it course-meant role, controls the works of William Shakespeare and Pedro Calderón. Humans as true image of the society and its-same, God as director and spectators -this picture in the entire baroque culture one nachgeeifert and unfolded in glossful Theatralik. To absolutist yards even the everyday life life theatrical was arranged and with each production wanted to exceed one the previous. The demand for drama TIC and festivenesses theatralencontinued to increase, which shifted the profession of the dramatist into a bloom time. In the large cities a urbaner commercial theatrical enterprise was added. Ever more largely becoming crush and extension of the play demanded soon the modification from the höfischen theatre to the folk theatre - thosedeveloped for first looking box stages, later auditoriums were then furnished, with ranks and Logen, which should illustrate a hierarchy of the society. Hamburg received in 17. Century the theatre at the goose market, Leipzig a house taped to times of the fair. To the performancearriving pieces cost Tragik and Komik out and lived on skillful force productions, dance and music inserts. Spectators of all layers visited the performances. Less fixably the continental commercial theatrical enterprise for the civil public , that developed firm of performance places and locally residentTroops were missing. Urban festival rooms could transfer here like market places functions in the theatrical enterprise. Text basis of the troops were fixed in all rule only in manuscripts. The enterprises traveled with repertoires of up to 80 pieces by Europe and selected often locallywhat had here longer not been played, for the production out. Hardly more than the handfuls of main and act of state ions fixed into the 1720ern in Vienna survived from this theatrical enterprise in the pressure. High Schools integrated theatre performances into the school enterprise -the performance place of most that today as baroque dramas of acted pieces.
The baroque theatre was a catchment basin of most diverse theatraler kinds of the previous epochs and storage tanks of most diverse cultural art trends, which were taken up again and again by traveler groups of theatres and into their productions were built.„The Comedia already emerging in the Renaissance dell'arte “was considered as the theatre form absolutely, with it emanzipierte itself the play of the literature. Improvisation skunst and fireworks of mimischer, musical and choreographischer ideas were not their characteristic and inspiredonly the middle class with their commercial adjustment. More highly settled in contrast to this the höfische theatre was, into the center 18. Century European-wide granted privilege operas and comedies. By any means this may not be misunderstood: The operas were since 1600 the highTheatre - the pieces published usually printed, in order during the performances to be read, in order to remind after the performance of the piece, in order to become read as poetry and estimated. The most famous opera poets gave their works beside itin expenditures for collecting out - the texts without the music, which was subject to the short term fashions and locally for the cause one composed . The opera, which conquered from Italy from Europe, experienced a triumphant advance at the aristokratischen yards.
The elisabethanische theatre
1576 built James Burbage the first Londoner theatre and took over thereby the round form of animal at that time arenas. With this building James Burbage gave the impact for to true theatre a boom, all social classes becamepacked by a theatre obsession. This boom is above all also the monarchies Elizabeth I. to owe, those with their art and sense of business after the civil war in 16. Century an economical and cultural center formed. The theatrical enterprise of the Shakespeare time wonInfluence in England and later on the repertoire of the continental Theatertruppen. English the play troops covered approx. 15 members, that worked on genossenschaftlicher basis. The actors lived on their part of proceeds of the conceptions. Played excluding men in a group(also woman Mrs., so-called.Boys Actors). One played on the day, in order to go around lighting sproblem. Stage decoration was hardly available, also the curtain was unknown. Requisiten were carried during the play on the stage. Costumes were suggested. Important troops were
- the King's Men and
- Admiral's Men,
which functioned like small business enterprises. The actors brought in as partners Betriebskapital and in the common profit were taken part. Of the center 16. Century to 1642 became in England approx. 5000 pieces specified,from those today 620 in the pressure is received.
Well-known dramatists are here:
- John Lyly (1554)
- Thomas Kyd (1558)
- Robert Green (1558)
- Christopher Marlowe (1564) and
- William Shakespeare (1564)
- Ben Jonson (1573)
- John Webster (1580)
between 1567 and 1629 developed theatresin London:
- Talk Lion (1567)
- Boa's Head (1602)
- Theatre (1576)
- Curtain (1577)
- bulletin Inn
- CROSS key Inn
- Bell Inn
- Blackfriars Theatre (1576)
- Bel Savage Inn
- Salisbury Court (1629)
- Fortune (1600)
- talk bulletin (1604)
- cockpit (1616)
- Swan Theatre (1595)
- rose (1587)
- Globe (1599)
the designated houses were similarly built: A pit formed the Stehplätze for the poorer population. Over this around ran a multi-storey, considered gallery with seats for realms, meanwhile gladly from the höfischen theatre turned away andthe public buildings visited. In the center of the pit was a increased play landing, which was well observable also by the galleries. On the large stage were once again a small stage and clothes for thoseActor. On clothes was a balcony, which was covered by a straw roof. On this straw roof was the tower for Trompeter, who announced the beginning of conception. In the tower was the flight machine for special appearances thatActor. On the roof of the tower the flag with the emblem of the appropriate theatre blew. With the Swan theatre a swan, with rose a rose etc.
the iberische theatre culture
the theatre of the Spanish baroque was rooted - inContrast to the other European theatre culture - deep in the catholicism. The traditional allegorische Fronleichnamsspiel enjoyed to in 18. Century of large popularity, and Spain theatre always stood in the service and under protection of the catholic church. Beginning 16. Century turnedthe first Italian play travel troops in Spain, played their pieces in the inner courts of the religious brother shanks and later in the particularly built „Teatro de Corral “, provided after the model of the inner court stages and the English stages a little dissimilarly. AlreadyCenter 16. Century taped already domestic play troops those generally speaking country established stages and formed thus iberische theatre culture the encountering inspired resemblance. As in 17. Century the world power of Spain to disintegrate seemed, stopped the citizens their faithPower and splendid life by the theatre upright. In this time more than 300,000 stage works were written and a large number of different kinds formed under the over term Comedia:
- Car of sacramentales (einaktige allegorische Fronleichnamsspiele)
- Comedias EN capa y espada (coatand pieces of sword)
- of Comedias del teatro (complex produced historical plays)
- Comedias de santos (holy legends and martyr tragedies)
- Comedias de figurón (forerunner the character comedy)
- Entremeses (einaktige farceful intermediate plays for celebrations)
- Burlescas (Possen and Persiflagen)
- Fiestas (höfische festivalswith dance and music)
turned out the coat and piece of sword as the most successful and European-wide most famous kind. The subject of the action was the life of the yard company and the coat, as symbol of the disguise is the most important Requisite of the indispensable dear plot. Lope de Vega, one of the most well-known dramatists of this time was the aristotelischen Poetik trusts to unite however more on the favour of the public erpicht and tried both tragic and amusingly elements. Spanish baroque drama TIC was rather an equal sneezing alike,less aligned to realistic characters or modern problem, but rather to copy the himmlische and the lay order system.
Well-known dramatists are here:
- Lope de Rueda 1510-1565
- Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 1547-1616 (Don Quijote)
- Lope de Vega 1562-1635
- Tirso de Molina 1584-1648
- Pedro Calderón de la Barca 1600-1681
the democratization of the theatre was an important step for theatre-interested in old times. At that time none was allowed in the theatre, which did not have permission for it. Usually this was only the king with remaining yard stateto down to the simple Gesinde. The seat and Stehplätze had a ranking and were not rising in addition. Only since the invention of the prestressed concrete, there is everyone for all optimal conditions and it can today each place acquire. The theatre servedthe king at that time rather for self-manifestation.
the French baroque theatre
the two opposite lines of the European baroque theatre, the monumental höfische theatre and the klassizistische drama, applied for attention in France equally. At yards the Ludwig XIV.experienced the theatre onesuperficial splendid development with among other things clench you cour, a theatrale special form, with whom men and women of the yard did not only arise, but also the king. Literarily however the French „Tragédie classique marked “the high point of this epoch, and only under the watchful eye cardinal of the Richelieu and its created „Académie Francaise “could unfold this kind according to the klassizistischen standards. Under their censorship also the poet Pierre Corneille with its work Cid stood, for thatfrom Richelieu under the Académie in a dramatist committee worked. Of the Académie criticized and by the public cheered and as a national hero representative, Corneille decided to write however therefore only style-pure dramas and created thereby the prototypes of a tragicHero freely of individual courses, who should praise the ideals of the French baroque, Schicklichkeit and respectableness.Jean Racine however lent an individual character to his Protagonisten and felt the klassizistischen drama structures as extraordinarily helpful around psychological intensity to clarify. After thatits Hauptwerk Phädra 1677 by the more obliging/more pleasing work of a rival little agreement got, left it the theatre. Its largest rival was a poet Molière, before its Mentor and the master of the character comedy, which he after his theatre debut fast thoseSpectator stole. But Molière stood for type comedies in the favour of the king and wrote innumerable farces , customs - and and availed themselves thereby in the repertoire „of the Comedia dell'arte “. It developed the category „Comédie clenches “, in that dance scenes not only decoratingAccessories were, but part of the action. And its literary high point formed the character comedies, in which it personifiziert only one characteristic of the Protagonisten and exaggerates and abandons it thereby the ridiculousness. It regarded the stage as a theatrical pillory,in that offences against reason and custom by the comedy to be uncovered and scoffed should. Hated by its fellow combatants Molière is today one of the most well-known and usually played dramatists from the French baroque.
Well-known dramatists are here:
city theatre, national stages and national theatres are usually, also architecturally seen, special buildings. New buildings are planned and built also today still as architectural highlights. Particularly to be provoked the architects by thatObligation to have with one another to unite aesthetic conceptions (dreams, utopias) and practical requirements up to the circumstance the fact that a theatre above all also from the acoustics inside ago it is sufficient for high requirements and in addition against external noise should be practically sound proof/must.
How old or new buildings of theatres are also, they must as assembly places safety regulations to be sufficient. There are manifold editions for all ranges, for the stage, the auditorium (up to the “Bestuhlung “), for the entrance hall (- frequently regaled- Meeting place of the public), also for spectator clothes and even for sowas everyday, but by no means unimportant like the toilets as well as for all administration - and workshop units up to social rooms, cafeteria and physician area, in (possibly necessarily becoming) firstAssistance to be carried out can.
Still which goes through with small or room theatres (until maximally 99 spectator places), is not possible in larger houses. With each larger stage must responsible person Bühnenmeister be employed; to each conception must depending upon size of the house onedetermined number of firefighters present its, who examine before the conception the stage and during the conception directly at the stage are. In the large theatres (in Germany since 1889) a “iron curtain “is obligation, inA danger (fire) from above is let down and as protection “wall” stage and auditorium falls separates. All materials (curtains) must be with difficulty inflammable, all technical devices must the “TÜV “- standard correspond and may only by trained personnel (z. B.by meeting technicians) to be served - over only some the numerous building to mention fire and safety-relevant editions.
To the modern theatrical enterprise aufwändige light and Tonanlagen (both today usually computer-controlled) belong, for which also only trained technical personnel is to be begun.
Thoselarge houses have sufficiently large side stages, on which the window blinds and Requisiten for the different scenes of the current piece to become “hidden” to be able. The Hinterbühne is seen nowadays in modern productions as welcome possibility of achieving large depth of the Spielfläche. Those Upper stage, the Schnürboden (“stage sky”), is (already because of the iron curtain) at least just as highly as the visible stage. Up there hangs, which with the change of the stage from a scene to the other one at curtains, sceneries and. A. by“Courses” to be let down can. In stage proximity one finds artist clothes as well as hand magazines for the daily requirement at Requisiten and decorations.
Beside the expanded magazines, in which window blinds are stored and Requisiten of all played productions and the pieces of repertoire, there are also onelarge Fundus, where the frequently enormous existence (of partially already very old) costumes is kept, to which it can be fallen back again and again. In the building of theatres also many workshops (Malersaal, carpenter's workshop, lock-making, Schneiderei, Maskenbildnerei, electrical workshop) are accommodated as well as the offices thatAdministration.
In opera houses and multi-economical buildings the orchestra sits in the orchestra ditch, which with musical, operas and Operetten is lowered between the first seat row and the stage ramp, but with play productions it is highly driven whereby the stage is extended forward.Large houses have revolving stages. Facilitates the scene change and makes just as inszenatorische characteristics possible as the possibility, the stage soil in segments hydraulically lower or over the normal level highly to drive to be able. The auditorium in the theatre is to be darkened normally completely, whichin particular to Begin of a conception is practiced, in order to lead the public in this phase as it were into another world of removing of “before”. The dark auditorium makes possible also Blackouts (with those by “switching” the Bühnen-Scheinwerfer off the entire area upan impact becomes dark). Because the auditorium is illuminated during the play darkly, the stage however from direction of the spectators with headlights, the participants on the stage are “dazzled”. They do not see the public. They play against the “fourth wall”,by the brightness the EN face lighting is established.
Except the stage generally speaking the large theatres sample stages, entrance hall stages and the like have house. Since the 60's of the last century, as small stages with at that time new pieces and many experiments sensation, have the large houses made usually also studio stages, workshop stages and podiums, which are shared to this avant-garde competitor outwardly (up to the “open” technology), and in whom a “recent” play plan are maintained.
Many new buildings turn off from thattraditional looking box stage to the three-dimensional stage, arena stage and Rundumbühne, in order to reach another spectator actor allocation (so again however also, thinks one is not of the Shakespeare - stage, the “Globe “). Thus the happening a direct connection toPublic has, ignores stage and auditorium architecturally into one another. There is (always times again flashing) a dispute under Theatermachern over it, whether it does not contradict the nature of the theatre, to set the spectators approximately around a stage. Critic of these from theirView only apparently modern practice mean, no (stage) “area” would develop, the secret “behind it”, the imaginary other, not visible areas would be lost. In addition be missing the spectator focus on the happening, which fantasy over “behind it” cut. One becomes the observerthe respective other visitors, which prevents the observed ones from the complete concentration, negatively affects it and makes the Rezeption of the stage happening impossible with all senses. If one observes the current theatre happening, one determines: Also otherwise freely and unorthodox working Theatermacherseize, which concerns the allocation stage/auditorium, rather again to “old” practice.
structure of a today's theatre
in a theatre humans co-operate, who have very different occupations. Particularly in the theatres in public working group, butalso into most with these comparable larger private theatres arbeitsteilig “one produces”. There actors may perform for example no technical work. On good co-operation that artistically and not-artistically persons employed depends the success of theatre productions. It gives however more theatres,in those such divided working not possible and/or intended is.
theatre in public working group usually artistically led of the director (of the Intendantin). Directors of city theatres for example become (for a certainTime) of the advice of the municipality selected. Usually (more beamteter) an administrative manager is posed to the side. The director contracts specify the field. In addition details belong, for example whether and how often the director (the Intendantin) produces even in the own house whether andhe/they how many foreign public works may take over. Also basic conditions are fixed, so the number (new) of the productions (in the sections and category) per play time and much more besides….
In close co-operation with the drama door gene becomes for, better two years in advancethe complete play plan provides. It is basis for all arrangements up to the loosening of past contracts and to (new) obligations in the range artistic personnel.
The artistic operating office (KBB) is approach place and tie point for all subranges. The KBB is an organizational unit,the all tasks, persons and procedures coordinates.
The press - and public work is responsible for the connections after “outside”, to the media and other partners; it publishes press releases, it steers the advertisement (posters, Flyer, postcards and monthly form tractor etc.), and it gives specialists for co-operation with visitor rings, schools, with the recent public and other target groups in many houses. The work of the marketing departments of the musical houses and other private theatres becomes than central for the success of the houseregarded. The ladder of theatres in public working group set rather on the alleged attractiveness of their artistic offer, stand for the “sales” of their products reserved opposite and rely on less and less seizing conventional means and ways with the effort, for it - ora new - to reach public. See in addition also the theatre and its to visitors of Armin small.
The administration, to which also a personnel department belongs, plans, controlled and balances all finance and administrative procedures. The budget of the publicly carried theatresby the carriers one gives, including the self-incomes which can be obtained. In the last years no more will not proceed in accordance with the come-ralistic system, on the contrary the theatres receive budgets, which more clearance leaves with using the funds. Have already smaller city theatreshowever within the not-artistic range several hundred coworkers.
in the theatre many artists on and behind the stage work:
- of directors
- musical ladder conductor
- stage designer
- light designer
- drama door gene
- choir: Women:Sopran, Mezzosopran, alto, men: Tenor, Bariton, bass
- orchestra with the most diverse instruments
- theatre musician (outside of the orchestra)
- Inspizient /Inspizientin
- Souffleusen /Souffleure
most theatres has own technical departments, divided into
- technical ones Line (technical director with assistants) for the total responsibility and organization of all technical departments of,
- design department (draft and construction of the buildings, planning and statics),
- workshop line (organization of the production of the scenery and the workshops),
- costume department,
- stage inspection (organization of the technical operational sequence on the stage: Up and diminished, storage),
- stage technicians,
- clay/tone/video and
- Requisite (production and organizationthe Requisien, support with samples and conceptions).
In the theatre large technical skill, invention wealth, flexibility and understanding for artistic processes are required by the technical departments. Many smaller and so-called free ones and off theatres the technical range is often limited upa minimum.
public working group
and economics [work on] in public working group in Germany. These houses are supported with means from land and local households. The incomes by map sales (self-portion) amountin these theatres on the average on approximately 20 per cent entire act. A theatre ticket in Germany is supported on the average with 95,74 euro. Is called turned around: If the support of the theatres would fail in public working group by these public carriers completely, everyone would haveVisitors to each ticket 95.74 EURO more pay than at present. Despite all financial bottlenecks seem the land parliaments and the town councillors, which decide the households to regard these freiwilligen achievements for theatres as in the long run justified; besides they are particularly withnot-artistic personnel as employers to collective agreements bind. Since the subsidies were frozen however nevertheless in the last years or also shortened, the theatres look for other sources: Mäzene, sponsors, promotion associations and donations (federal culture donation).
From economical view becomes frequentlyThe following objected: Socially weaker one has frequently neither time nor money to visit a theatre the theatre consumption is therefore than superiores property to be classified; Playgoers belong rather to the good breadwinners. A subsidy dismantling could relieve therefore poorer humans, there it by theirSteer the subsidization of the theatres finance, in the theatre consumption are even however not involved. Besides the good-earning therefore determine, what has to please humans, and could by tax fundses be along-financed. There would be other cultural activities (skirt concerts z, B.), thosewith public means were not promoted, although (or straight because) they would respond a broad mass.
each city, not each municipality cannot maintain its own theatre, possibly with firm ensemble. An alternative for such municipalities,appearances attach, are however the importance on a broad cultural and even artistic offer: In some cities there are correct theatres, to other cultural centers, hall constructions, congress centers or other play places with the appropriate technical mechanisms, which are necessary for good performances.There are also municipalities with own theatre ensemble, which nevertheless make appearances possible of tour organizers in other play places, whereby in these cases usually star of the Business to the course come, of star at violin, piano or other solo instruments over famous symphony orchestras toto current dance performances. The cities and municipalities with play places, but without own ensemble closed to a federation together.
The advantage of the tour theatre model from view of the guest-giving municipality: Is possible for variety at different performances, there numerous tour theatresProductions offer, without the continuous costs of a theatrical enterprise result. Besides the tour stages could be moved because of the competition among themselves more easily too for the organizer more favorable conditions in the last years. Additionally urge in the concert hall (opera, Operette, musical) Eastern European ensemble strengthensto Dumpingpreisen on the market. In addition, the financial advantage of the organizers has a drawback: Because of the falling fees and because with the organizers numerical success (cash income) moved also more and more into the foreground, is the generalLevel (refrained from highlights) rather sunk. Much maintenance theatre is ordered, varies, to comedies, crime films. Usually into the ensemble consisting of predominantly young (and thus inexpensive) actors a course horse made of film and television is built. Current authors, contemporary topics, modern piece selectionfall to a large extent flat. An ensemble theatre in a city can make completely differently theatres for the city than a tour stage. Those delivers - independently of what runs in the city otherwise - its conception and drives on. Apart from the facthas makes theatre with own firm ensemble also numerous appearances, above all the national theatres, in addition, other stages. Usually many partnerships resulted firm.
beside that approximately 150 publicly carried theatres (city theatres,) There are national theatres and national stages about 280 private theatres. Those are theatres of most different size, artistic adjustment, provenance and tradition. Approximately 80 of these private theatres is organized in the German theatre association (examples: Old Schauspielhaus, Stuttgart; Ohnsorg theatre and Schmidt theatre, Hamburg; Comedy at the cure prince dam,Berlin; Comedy in the Bavarian yard, Munich). There is hardly something that applies to all private theatres equally, it is in more artistic or in organizational-administrative or in financial regard. Some of these theatres are larger than city theatres and have the same “apparatus” (administration, workshops,large ensemble), other private theatres it are so small that there is no division of labor and all work makes all involved ones (must).
While to those not-artistically persons employed at city and national theatres the collective agreements of the public service apply, those cooperate artistically persons employed -Exception of the orchestra musicians - usually on the basis of limited work contracts.
The private theatres, which must gain larger percentages of their moneys from self-incomes than the publicly carried houses, are not bound to the tariffs of the public service. However they turn inthe rule the “normal contract (NV) stage” on (above all the houses, which from the structure and the size in public working group approximates the stages) - or however they work after individual regulations (free contracts). Usually they can neither inartistic still within the not-artistic range firmly employ. One works rather also freely negotiated fees per played conception. Since in small and medium-sized towns only few days per week can be played, the fees fall for the artists, on the monthout counted and there low. On the stages of the larger private theatres play however regularly German TV and cinema star of Mario the Adorf and Uwe ox farmhand over Heiner loud brook to Judy winter, Katja Riemann and Desirée nod. The occupation notes of some private theatres readitself like “who is who” the German Show Bizz.
For the reasons mentioned the more well-known private theatres in large cities are, there by the spectator arising (inclusive tourists) the enterprise rather count themselves.
While the publicly carried houses in thatPlay time 03/04 a minus of round 300,000 spectators to accept, had the private theatres (to those also the musical houses to belong) had a visitor increase from round 500,000 to to register.
Review:Most of the today's city theatres developed on private initiative and became also firstas private theatres led. Still at the beginning 20. Century were there only 16 city theatres within local responsibility, but there were 360 private theatres.
View over the borders:At Broadway there are approximately 30 private theatres, in the capital of our French neighbours 250.A scarce half one hundred of renowned private theatres participate, in those also cinema star such as Gerard Depardieu, Alain Delon or Claudia Cardinale on the stage go.
is realized like a production
generally speakingTheatre range gives it to nearly nothing that runs off according to “pattern F “. Particularly within the artistic range, where extreme individualists works. The production ways of theatre Ensemblen like the famous Living Theatre, of stages like of inches the Stewart based, world-well-known La mummy experimental Theatre club or of extravaganten Theatermachern such as Peter Brook can hardly be compared with what in (landläufig) the German stages synonymously set with “theatre” in public working group is everyday life. Theatre human being and Literaturnobelpreisträger (1997) Dario Fo and his Mrs. Franca Rame for example went frequently without finished text on the stage, improvised and let a volume run along. Subsequently, the volume was copied, in order to fix the text for the next conception. But alreadythe next conception on the following day 50 per cent were changed. At the end of a performance series then the text was so far fixed that a libretto could sequels for other theatres from it be made. Above all free theatres, many small stages andcompletely particularly dance theatres - ensemble (actually all ensembles, which do not reject arbeitsteiliges producing know or consciously, and more than Theatermacher see themselves) proceed on or other way similarly. Which thereby comes out often is on high artistic level.The books concerning the different unorthodox functions and methods fill in the meantime libraries. In addition, in the rather conventionally seeming large houses are long no more all 08/15. Here nevertheless once the “classical” career/development of a production is to be after-drawn.
- From the enormous quantity of old and new works/pieces the artistic line selected one.
- Actors, director, Regieassistent and Ausstatter are occupied.
- Director and stage designers provide a conceptional szenischen draft on the basis of a direction concept.
- Dramaturg andDirector usually provide a line version of the text for their production, i.e.: They shorten. With pieces, which are not subject (more) to copyright (classical authors for example), often also changed over and inserted. With pieces, for the performance rights acquired and accordinglyContracts made (completely besides: also paid) to become to have, is held percentages of profits in the contract, what may make the direction with the text and which not. Is the director of the authors of the work of art, but that means not that he with everyoneText muddled in accordance with discretion may.
- In read samples first outlines of the roles are compiled. The actors study their parts.
- Stage music (with plays), if it one gives, in order one gives.
- The stage designer sketches the scenery. The Kostümbildner orients itself onthat slowly outline attractive “figures” and arranges the costumes. If necessary, Perücken are made.
- The scenery is presented in a building sample all involved one and marked on the stage.
- Parallel one continues to try to find and compile the roles. “Classical”line up to the read samples before specified first placing samples, with which composes pictures, constellations on the stage to be found. Whereupon piece samples follow, with which individual scenes are brought in river. In times of shorter sample phases and due to other view of thatCo-operation of the director with its participants the two kinds of sample are mixed rather with one another. In each case the Regieassistent in the direction book keeps with the utmost care and details firmly, which is arranged at courses, gestures, expressions and other darstellerischen details. With pencil - becauseup to the premiere everything again and again to change can.
- The window blinds are built (usually in the theatre workshops). Sample costumes are taken from the Fundus and the original costumes in the Schneiderei are mostly made or by changes from the Fundus provided.
- Technical mechanism.The original scenery is developed for the first time in the stage area.
- Technical sample light - the headlights are aligned for the performance. In the signal tower in the computer the “pictures” are programmed.
- Final samples. Those are usually runs, it are only, if it necessarilyis, to be interrupted. Old theatre hares, which on record theatre rules coined/shaped by superstition and experience, require seven runs, of it three as main samples.
- In the main samples as as possible everything is to run in such a way, as it is meant later; it becomes in original costume andin the correct mask rehearsed, the scenery is located, all Requisiten is in the play and the technology (light and clay/tone, thus music and noise) is complete. The director speaks corrections at the play of the participants, at light and clay/tone bringing or other one afterthe run on. It is today quite usual to make main samples theatre public to thus permit theatre member as spectators. Of it the direction team of explanations promises itself, can intervene on reactions correcting.
- The general sample is a run “with all Drum and to”. Onlyin the extreme emergency in the general sample one interrupts. There is increasingly the practice of public general samples. Depending upon exit of the general sample there are last corrections before
- the premiere. The premiere is first of a whole number of further performances. “Classical”meant the further performances must be as identical to the premiere as possible. (Bert do not break demanded an accuracy up to the second, in its theatre set it for deviations conventional penalties tolerable from its view. Robert Wilson produced expirations of stageso precisely exactly that the actors had to feel properly matching merged as into the “machinery”.) legal can require the director as authors of the work of art that its production is not amended, also not of the directorship. It is the art of allin a performance took part, which up to the premiere compiled each further mark together repair, reproduce to be able. With layman performances the premiere tension is so large that a packing stage happening is often supplied. Professional actors must this tension also with thatxten conception to construct can. There is then in addition, with professionals famous “second”, with which the tension yielded somewhat and easily errors inclusively-calibrates itself. Deviating from the classical view also considerable theatre people regard (like for example George Tabori) the premiere as passage stage. It is for the first time publicly shown, what was up to then reached. And also after the premiere further worked after the slogan: “Even if it up to then was good, can it become still better.” Usuallyit means also, a production must prove itself in the first seven conceptions before public.
- Requisiten and costumes etc. by the Requisitenmeister, the Requisiteuren and Garderobieren for the next performances are prepared.
The controlling of all technical procedures as well as the appearances thatActor during a performance leads the Inspizient. The Regieassistent takes over the evening play line, resumption or Umbesetzungsproben of a current piece.
- Christopher Balme: “Introduction to the theatre science”, Berlin, Erich Schmidt, 1999
- Manfred brown-hit a corner: Classical author of the play direction.Positions and comments on the theatre in 20. Century, Rowohlt, Reinbek 1988, (Rowohlts encyclopedia; Bd. ; 477) ISBN 3-499-55477-1
- Manfred brown-hit a corner: The world as stage. History of the European theatre, Metzler, Stuttgart,
- Peter Brook: The empty area, Alexander publishing house, Berlin, 2004, ISBN 3-923854-90-0
- Joachim Fiebach (Hrsg.): Communist manifestos of European theatre. Grotowski to Schleef, Verl.Theatre of the time, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-934344-17-8
- Joachim Fiebach: The dead ones as the power of the living persons. To the theory and history of theatre in Africa, Heinrichshofen, Wilhelmshaven, 1986, ISBN 3-7959-0503-6
- Erika Fischer light: Short history of the German theatre. Tübingen and.Basel: A. Francke publishing house, 1993, ² 1999.
- George Hensel: Play plan. The play leader from the antique one to the present, Econ cunning Taschenbuchverl., Munich 2001, ISBN 3-612-26645-4
- Katharina germ, Peter M. Boenisch, Robert brown Mueller (Hrsg.): Theatre without borders. Harsh ore Utz publishing house,Munich 2003, ISBN 3-8316-0237-9
- Klaus Lazarowicz, Christopher Balme (Hrsg.): Texts for the theory of the theatre, Reclam, Stuttgart, 2003, ISBN 3-15-008736-8
- Peter Simhandl: “Theatre history in a volume”, Berlin, Henschel 2001
- theatres of the time
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- The German stage
- theatre Zytig, Switzerland
- danceforyou magazine
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- theatre polyurethane the magazine for North Rhine-Westphalia
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