Theodor Fontane

Henri Theodor e Fontane (* 30. December 1819 in Neuruppin; † 20. September 1898 in Berlin) was a pharmacist and a German writer. He was a representative of poetic realism.

Theodor Fontane

table of contents


Henri Theodore Fontane became to 30. December of theYearly 1819 as a son of the pharmacist Louis Henri Fontane, which was from huguenot origin, in Neuruppin born. For the payment of gambling debts the father its pharmacy had to sell 1826, shortly thereafter drew the family 1827 after Swinemünde. After a shortIntermezzo at the there city school received Theodor Fontane when desired to its nut/mother private instruction from the father and from the house teachers of friendly families (1826 - 1832). From 1832 to 1833 it visited the High School in Neuruppin, afterwards stepped it intothe vocational school by Karl Friedrich Klöden in Berlin . it pulled 1834 to the half brother of his father, uncle August; 1835 it had its first meeting with his future Mrs. Emilie Rouanet grief. 1836 it broke the vocational school off and began trainingto the pharmacist.1839 published Fontane its first novella brothers and sisters love. After the conclusion of its teachings in the year 1840 Fontane began a place as a pharmacist assistant in castle (with Magdeburg) . The first poems developed.

Reference for Fontane of its1841 it got sick

to father , 1845 with typhoid fever, could recover however with its parents in Letschin again from the illness. When it was recovered, it worked as a pharmacist assistant first in Leipzig, afterwards in Dresden, finally inthe pharmacy of the father in Letschin. 1843 it was introduced by Bernhard von Lepel into the literary association tunnel over the Spree, in which it should remain from 1844 to 1865 member. Of the 1. April 1844 up to 31. Marchregularly it carried emperors Franz “its military service for 1845 out at the guard infantry regiment „as a one year's einjährig-Freiwilliger and became with the rank Corporal (NCO) to dismiss. In this time it undertook its first England journey put on on fourteen days on invitation of its schoolmate Hermann joke.

In the runthe yearly went it after a further work time in the paternal pharmacy to Berlin to the Polish pharmacy from Dr. Julius Eduard pit. To 8. December 1845 he got engaged with Emilie Rouanet grief. In March 1847 Fontane received its license to practise medicineas „pharmacists of first class “. In the following year fought to Fontane as revolutionary in the barricade fights in such a way specified. At this time four rather radical texts in the magazine citizen of Berlin developed newspaper-resound. Then he was employed in the hospital Bethanien and formedthere two Diakonissen out.

To 30. September 1849 it decided to give the occupation of pharmacist up completely and continue working as free writers. First political texts in the radical-democratic „Dresdens newspaper developed “. In this year to be first book was also published: Menand heroes. Eight Prussia songs. 1850 he married its Emilie Rouanet grief. They pulled together into a dwelling in Berlin. At first they had financial problems, since Theodor Fontane did not find employment. It became one year later by the cent ral place forPress affairs employed. For these it made journeys to London (1852 and 1855 - 1859).

1860 came its fifth child to the world. Its first son George died at a blind intestine break-through in light field 1887. The three sons following on it are briefly in each case after the birth died. The fifth child was its only daughter named Martha (Mete).1864 came finally its last son, Friedrich, to the world. In the same year Fontane traveled to Copenhagen, where he wrote over the war. Off 1870 worked Fontane as a theatre critic. In the same year it took vacation, in order to visit the theater Paris. There he was falsely arrested as a feeler gauge, released however shortly thereafter again. Between 1874 and 1876 Fontane with its wife undertook various journeysto Austria, Italy and into Switzerland.

Grave of Theodor Fontane

at the end of these journeys it decided not to write any longer for a newspaper instead it wanted to live again as free writers. Since then it wrote numerous texts,until it 1892 at a heavy brain anemia got sick. The physician guessed/advised him to write its childhood memories down in order to divert itself from the illness. This succeeded also. Afterwards it continued to write constantly, to it 20. September 1898 in Berlin died. As a memberit was buried on the cemetery II of the French municipality to Berlin in Berlin center.

over the work

Fontane is considered as the outstanding representative of civil realism in Germany. In its novels he succeeds again and again, thosePersons by the description of their outside feature to characterize by their environment and in particular by their speech way. Typically for it a maintained Konversation is in an final circle, about a Festessen, where the persons follow on the one hand only social conventions andon the other hand their true interests reveal - often against its own will. Fontane of a criticism often comes at individuals to an implicit society criticism. Remarkably at Fontanes write style is in addition also its ironical humor.


Theodor Fontanewrote many different texts. It wrote beside literary works also as a journalist (particularly for the cross newspaper and 1842 Shakespeares Hamlettranslated). In addition still dramas , poems , Biografien , war books , letters , diaries , theatre criticisms came, Newspaper article and writings by program.

An extended list of its works is with Wikisource: To find Theodor Fontane.

novels, novellas and narrations

Balladen and poems

Fontane wrote over 250 poems, among them Balladen and sayings. For example:


  • Theodor Fontane and Bernhard von Lepel - a friendship exchange of letters, hrsg. of Julius Petersen, Munich of 1940
  • letters at George Friedlaender, hrsg. and.erl. v. Briefly shrine ore, Heidelberg of 1954
  • letters, hrsg. v. Briefly shrine ore and Charlotte Jolles (Bd. 1: To the father, the nut/mother, the woman; Bd. 2: To the daughter and to the sister; Bd. 3: At Mathilde of pipe; Bd.4: At Karl and Emilie Zöllner and other friends), Berlin of 1968-1971
  • letters at Julius Rodenberg, hrsg. of Hans Heinrich Reuter. Berlin 1969
  • exchange of letters between Theodor Fontane and Paul Heyse, hrsg. of God hard Erler, Berlin 1972
  • Mete Fontane: Lettersto parents 1880-1882. Hrsg. and erl. by Edgar R. Roses. 1974
  • letters Bd.1-5 (Bd. 5 registers), hrsg. of Helmuth Nürnberger among other things, Munich 1976-1988
  • Theodor Storm - Theodor Fontane, exchange of letters. Krit. Expenditure in verb. with the Theodor Storm society hrsg. of JacobSteiner. 1981
  • the other world of Havel and Spree, travel letters, hrsg. of God hard Erler. 1984
  • the Fontanes and the Merckels, a family exchange of letters 1850-1870, hrsg. of God hard Erler. Berlin 1987
  • Theodor Fontanes exchange of letters with William wolf son, hrsg. of Christa school TZE. 1988
  • TheodorFontane and Martha Fontane - a family letter net. Hrsg. of Regina Dieterle. Writings of the Theodor Fontane society, Bd. 4. Berlin, New York 2002 ISBN of 3110158817


  • of diaries: Bd. 1: 1852, 1855-1858, hrg. of Charlotte Jolles under cooperation ofRudolf Muhs; Bd. 2: 1866-1882, 1884-1898, hrsg. of God hard Erler under cooperation of Therese Erler, structure publishing house, Berlin 1994.ISBN 3351031009


secondary literature

  • Hermann Fricke: Theodor Fontane - chronicle of its life, Arani publishing house, Berlin 1960.
  • Fontane of sheets, half-yearly magazine, justifies 1965; on behalf Theodor Fontane archives and the Theodor Fontane society e. V. hrsg. of Hanna Delfby Wolzogen and Hubertus Fischer. ISSN 0015-6175
  • Hans Heinrich Reuter: Fontane (2 volumes), publishing house of the nation Berlin and Nymphenburger publishing house action Munich 1968
  • Peter Klaus shoemaker: Effie Briest: A life according to Christian pictures, Tübingen 1978.
  • Helmuth Nürnberger: Theodor Fontane in self certifications and picture documents, Rowohlt paperback publishing house, Reinbek 1968ff.ISBN 3-499-50145-7
  • Kenneth Attwood: Fontane and the Preussentum, Berlin (Haude & Spener) 1970; WELL Flensburg (Baltica) 2000 ISBN 3-934097-08-1
  • Edgar R. Roses: Mete Fontane - letters to parents 1880-1882, hrsg. anddescribed of Edgar R. Roses, publishing house Ullstein, Ffm Berlin Vienna 1974.ISBN 3-548-04602-9
  • Charlotte Jolles: Fontane and the policy - a contribution for nature regulation Theodor Fontanes. Structure publishing house, Berlin 1983
  • refuge Budjuhn: Fontane called it “Effi Briest”, the life thatElizabeth von Ardenne, Quadriga publishing house, Berlin 1985.ISBN 3-88679-126-2
  • Gustav Sichelschmidt: Theodor Fontane, life stations of a large materialists. Heyne publishing house, Munich 1986. ISBN 3-453-55142-7
  • Theodor Fontane, text + criticism special volume hrsg. by Heinz Ludwig Arnold, edition text + criticism, Munich1989.ISBN 3-88377-318-2
  • Charlotte Jolles: Theodor Fontane, 4.Aufl., collection Metzler 114, Stuttgart 1993. ISBN 3-476-14114-4
  • Heinz Ohff: Theodor Fontane, life and work. Beep he publishing house, Munich 1995. ISBN 3-492-03667-8
  • Christian Grawe: Leader by Fontanes of novels - an encyclopedia thatPersons, scenes and works of art, Stuttgart (Reclam) 1996. ISBN 3-15-009439-9
  • Edda Ziegler and God hard Erler: Theodor Fontane - habitat and fantasy world, a biography, structure publishing house, Berlin 1996. ISBN 3-351-03198-X
  • Helmuth Nürnberger: Fontanes world, settler publishing house, Berlin 1997. ISBN 3-88680-582-4
  • Gordon A. Craig: Over Fontane, Beck' publishing house, Munich 1997f. ISBN 3-406-42642-5
  • Otto Drude: Fontane and its Berlin - persons, houses, roads, island publishing house, Ffm and Leipzig 1998. ISBN 3-458-16895-8
  • Cord Beintmann: Theodor Fontane, Munich(dtv) 1998.ISBN 3-423-31003-0
  • Claude Keisch, Peter Klaus shoemaker and Moritz Wullen (Hrsg.): Fontane and the screen end art, with contributions of And. Finke, F. Forest RH ancestor, H. Franc, H. Meager one, C. Keisch, W. Plumb bob width unit, P. - K. Shoemaker, W. J. Settler, I. Daring he Douglas,A. Nature mountain and M. Wullen, catalog to the exhibition of 4. September ‒ 29. November 1998 in the Staatl. Museums to Berlin - national gallery at the cultural forum, Berlin (Henschel) 1998.ISBN 3-89487-315-9
  • donation city museum Berlin (Hrsg.): Fontane and its century, with contributions ofA. Franzkowiak, Th. Friedrich, B. Machner, B. Tearing man, L. Schirmer, A. Teltow, T. Drunkenness, M. Wine country and H. Zettler, exhibition catalog to the exhibition of the 11. September 1998-17. January 1999 in the Märki museum Berlin, Berlin (Henschel) 1998.ISBN 3-89487-309-4
  • Joachim small ones: ThoseHankels on Hankels file - where Fontane was in the summer-resort, Irmtraud Carl publishing house, Zeuthen 1999. ISBN 3-931133-07-9
  • Christian Grawe: Fontane chronicle, Reclam, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3150097215
  • Christian Grawe and Helmuth Nürnberger (Hrsg): Fontane manual, Alfred Kröner publishing house, Stuttgart2000.ISBN 3-520-83201-1
  • Roland Berbig (Hg.): Theodor Fontane in the literary life. Newspapers and magazines, publishing houses and associations publishing house de Gruyter, 2000. ISBN 3-11-016293-8
  • Konrad Ehlich (Hrsg.): Fontane and the foreigner, Fontane and Europe, king living & Neumann, Würzburg 2002. ISBN 3826018303
  • Bernd heath realm/franc Lothar Kroll (Hrsg.): Theodor Fontane - poets of the German unit. Berlin 2003. ISBN 3-8305-0295-8
  • Hanna Delf of Wolzogen (Hrsg.): “History and stories from Mark Brandenburg”. Fontanes “migrations by the Mark Brandenburg” in the context thatEuropean travel literature. International symposium of Theodor Fontane archives in co-operation with the Theodor Fontane society September. 2002 in potsdam., king living & Neumann, Würzburg 2003.ISBN 3826026349
  • Simon Bunke: Figures of the discourse. Studies for the this-italic place of the lower figure personnel with Fonane and Flaubert. Frankfurt/Main and others: Peter Lang 2005.

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Theodor Fontane - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikisource: Theodor Fontane - source texts
Wikiquote: Theodor Fontane - quotations
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Theodor Fontane in the catalog of the DDB



  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)