Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Thomas Jonathan Jackson, mentioned „Stonewall “, (* 21. January 1824 in Clarksburg, Virginia (today west Virginia); † 10. May 1863 in Guinea station, Virginia) was a major of the US army, teacher at the Virginia Military of institutes (VMI) in Lexington, Virginia and general of the armed forces of the Konföderierten states of America in the American civil war. Famous it became by that brilliantly< ref> Confederate Military History, volume 1: brilliant achievements< /ref> accomplished Shenandoah campaign, with which it by boldness,Ability and energy< ref> was OF the rebellion Official record Series I, volume. XXV, Chapter XXXVII, part II p. 793: Order of the day Lees to death Jacksons of the 11. May 1863< /ref> on itself made attentive. After the flank attack with Chancellorsville it becameof many contemporaries as a general Robert E. Lees of most capable Untergebener< ref> thelatinlibrary.com: the most capable general< /ref> designated. This judgement was also not affected by its remarkably bad achievements during the filter day battle.
table of contents
parents' house, childhood and youth
Jackson became as a childa lawyer born. Its father and its older sister died 1826 at typhoid fever. After the death of the father for the widow high debts and the family remained became impoverished. After his nut/mother had again married 1830, Jackson became an unmarried uncleon the country skillfully. There it had to settle first of all the agricultural activities on the yard of its uncle. In its free time Jackson used however each opportunity to go to the school. He was an above average good and sporty pupil, received however nonehigher conclusion.
career in the US army
west POINT and the Mexican-American war
Jackson 1842 were appointed New York to the military academy in west POINT, however not as firstChoice of its suggesting congressional representative. Because of its unsatisfactory education it had substantial difficulties particularly in the first year to keep up with its school fellows it “country more clodhopper”< ref> Robert K. Krick: Pointed name Jacksons in west POINT< /ref> („Bauerntölpel “) called. To this belonged under othersthe later generals of both pages McClellan, Reno, couch, A.P. Hill and spades-chain.
Its it adjusted deficits in all areas by frequent, nightlong learning. Jackson locked the military academy 1846 as the seventeenth of its class. To second lieutenant it was promoted to Artillery shifts and participated during the Mexican-American war in general Scotts campaign of Vera Cruz to Mexico city. Its battery commander praised it as a devoted, eager, talentierten and courageous soldier< ref> to Confederate Military History, volume 1: Praise of the battery commander< /ref>. Independent and courageousAct distinguished in already at that time. In consequence it was distinguished with two Brevet transports. For its courage with the conquest Chapultepecs it was promoted to Brevet major. After the war it became first at Lees of former effect place, Ft. Hamilton in New Yorker port and afterwards after Ft. Meade, Florida shifts.
at the Virginia Military of institutes
1851 it received a chair at the Virginia Military of institutes. He withdrew from the army, remained however as a major in the Virginia militia. In November 1859 Jackson led the artillery of the cadet corps, which secured the execution John Browns in Harpers Ferry, west Virginia.
Jackson informed physics and artillery nature. He was a moderate teacher, who was unpopular with its pupils. They called it “Tom Fool” (a folding brush). 1856 requested former pupils to remove it from the training body. The Dekan rejected the request with the reason, as teachers of general physics would have Jackson no success, besides it would leave the necessary clock oppositethe pupils miss, but as teachers of the war sciences it is a genius. This educational inability with its humorless occurrence let paired become it the victim of many crude fun of the cadets; one of them, James Alexander Walker, demanded it evento the duel. Jackson did not enter afterwards it however. Walker served during the civil war in the Stonewall - brigade, their commander it on suggestion Jacksons 1863 became.< ref> Confederate Military History: Duel with Walker< /ref>
to 4. August 1853 married Jackson Eleanor Junkin, which died with the stillbirth of the first child. To 16. July 1857 he married Mary Anna Morrison, with which he had two children, from which only one up to Erwachsensein survived.
Jackson was on itsHealth mindfully and held strict Diät. It preferential fruits, particularly peaches, had however no preference for lemons. He was observed during the civil war frequently how he ate lemons, but more in the absence of other fruits than from passion.
Jacksons attitude to the secession
1860 visited Jackson new England. There he heard for the first time of rumors, which forecast a secession. Its fears around the unit of the nation rose. It always occurred for it, the diversities of opinion of the states within that To solve union. When however the abolitionistische course of the US Government became ever more unyielding, also it did not see other way out except by the withdrawal from the union to be able to retain the rights of the Southern States.
the American civil war
first commands in the Konföderierten army and the first battle at the bulletin run
to 21. April 1861, four days after the secession Virginias, the cadets of the VMI under Jacksons command became as teachers after smelling moon, Virginiabeordert. It was promoted to Colonel and to 27. April after Harpers Ferry shifts, in order to form oneself as a brigade commander the Miliz regiments meeting there to a powerful brigade. This brigade received its names and later also to its pointed name, thatthe soldiers as honor understood.
Jackson was subordinate to major general Joseph E. John clay/tone Shenandoah army. With first combat around Harpers Ferry it distinguished by bravery and became therefore to 17. June to the Brigadier General carries. Jacksons brigade became thereafter of 2. July up to 15. July used in the engagements against major general Patterson and afterwards in the rail transport into the area around Manassas, Virginia shifts.
There Jackson at the Henry Hill was used. As during the battle to 21. July 1861 the brigade Brigadier GeneralBarn pool of broadcasting corporations Bees escape-like evaded, called to these its soldier too:
- “Look RK Jackson's brigade! It of conditions there like A stone barrier”< ref> general P.G.T. Beauregard: Stonewall< /ref> („See on Jacksons brigade! It stands like a wall! “).
Until today is not clarified,as this expression was meant: from rage that Jackson did not undertake a diversionary attack or from joy, because Bee could collect its soldiers. It stands firmly that Jackson did not stand at this time in the fight and that the escape was stopped. Here receivedJackson its pointed name “Stonewall”, to which as honour name also its brigade was given.
from the Shenandoah valley to smelling moon
after the battle Jackson with its brigade was beordert back in the Shenandoah valley. Up to 6. Octobers was subordinate it to the konföderierten Potomac army, on the next day it was carried the major general a little later and appointed the commander of the military district Shenandoah valley. After a unsuccessful raid in the winter after Romney, today west Virginia, which failed rather because of the climatic conditions as at its bad achievements,if he wanted to return its officer patent, refrained however later from it.
To 23. March 1862 began Jackson with first 10,000 men the Shenandoah campaign. Even if this began with a defeat with Kernstown, Virginia because of unsatisfactory clearing-up, it succeeded to Jackson with fastMovements, courageous decisions and energetic execution in the spring 1862 by five victories approx. 100,000 union soldiers in the Shenandoah valley to bind, the major general McClellan for the successful execution of its peninsula campaign were missing.
To 26. June 1862 left Jackson with approx. 16,000 men thatShenandoah valley, in order to support general Lee with its filter day battle. During this battle Jackson led palely and without reproduction. Possibly it was physically exhausted, because it contrary to its troops, which could recover during the rail transport, several-day-long to discussionswith general Lee had ridden or because he was been versed not in such a way northeastward in the area smelling moon as in the domestic Shenandoah valley.
of the Rappahannock River to the Antietam Creek
after the strategic victory Lees overMcClellan in the filter day battle reorganized Lee its north Virginia army . Jackson became commander of the left wing. It been subordinate three divisions: Winders and Ewells, which had already led Jackson in the Shenandoah campaign, and which ‚Light division' major general A.P. Hills, itself duringthe seventh AG battle had distinguished several times.
In the middle of July intended to strike Lee first major general John Pope and afterwards McClellan. It sent Jackson Pope against, in order to prevent it first at the further procedure to the south. North orange, Virginia came it to 9. August to the battle at the Cedar Mountain. The battle was struck carelessly. Jackson accomplished no sufficient clearing-up, which were instructions to its divisions, except which with which it was foremost - Brigadier General Winders -, verworren and reachedit is late. Only the arrival A.P. Hills `Light division' in the early evening could terminate the battle to its favour. During the battle it showed on the one hand projecting courage and high-level personnel, as it a back-flooding brigade, calculated the StonewallBrigade, with pulled sword stopped and to the counter attack led, on the other hand a detail verse mealness, when it served with general Winder cannons and about „the finest artillery duel the war “as an artilleryman enjoyed.
To 25. August 1862 it led its divisions ofPope unidentified to the west over the Blue Ridge Mountains around its army and destroyed after a march of 51 miles two days later the supplying basis of the Virginia army with Manassas Junction, Virginia. Afterwards it entrenchd itself behind an incomplete railway routewith Groveton. By constant shifting of its emphasis and under the employment of its last reserves he resisted the attacks Popes two days long, to major general James Longstreet the Virginia army in a destroying attack to 30. August struck.
In the following Maryland campaignJackson received the order to switch with six divisions the threat off in the back of the north Virginia army by the garrison from Harpers Ferry. Of 12. to 14. Septembers platzierte it its divisions on the three heights surrounding the city and forced in such a way thoseGarrison to 15. September almost combatless to arise. On the next day it marched under leaving the division A.P. Hills after Sharpsburg, Maryland and formed the left wing of the north Virginia army. During the battle of Antietam it resisted attacks of Hookers,Mansfields and Sumners corps off. Jacksons of last division, which reached the battleground in the late afternoon coming from Harpers Ferry, succeeded it, to prevent the victory of the union.
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville
after the retreat from Maryland became Jacksonto 10. October 1862 to the lieutenant general carries and to the Kommandierenden general II. at the same time. Corps, its previous command, appointed. With the battle of Fredericksburg to 13. Decembers led it its corps prudently, although it during the terrain analysis an erroroccurred, which would have led almost to the break-through of the union. After it could conquer the own positions by the employment of its reserve back, it wanted to attack `the Left Grand division' of the union immediately, in order to use the small advantage. Thathowever by general Lee was forbidden to it.
After the hibernation south the Rappahannock Rivers attacked the new commander in chief of the Potomac army, major general Joseph Hooker, again the north Virginia army. In the battle with Chancellorsville Jackson with II. formed. Corps thatright wing of the army. He suggested a daring plan, which this accepted to Lee. To 2. May 1863 separated Jackson from the attacking corps of the union and went around the entire front of the Potomac army. In the afternoon it seized surprisingly thatXI. Corps on the right wing of the Potomac army in its backs on. To 5. May evaded to Hooker over the Rappahannock and the battle was won.
At the night 2. May explored Jackson with its staff the area, overto be able to plan the further procedure. With the return it became from the fire of the own troops, which were not informed of this investigation, surprised and angeschossen. Its left arm had to be amputiert. During convalescence he deceased to 10. May1863 at the consequences of a pneumonia. It became to 15. May buried in Lexington.
Jackson is admired as one of the large heroes of the Konföderation during the civil war. Some theoreticians go along even so far to stateJackson would have won Lee in Gettysburg. It is considered as one of the largest tacticians 19. Century.
Jackson frönte time of its life no vice and lived strictly morally. It abhorred it to fight Sundays which did not hold it however from ifit was necessary to fight also then. Its deep Religiosität and its brittle nature led again and again to the fact that it pushed others before the head. Despite his quirks its soldiers trusted him and fought under his guidance outstanding. It was a master of the fast movements and surprising tactics, but it kept its intention sometimes so secret that its officers did not know its plans to short before their employment.
Jackson had a feeling for in the respective situation the necessaryand feasible decisions. In order to be able successfully to act, required it the guidance at the long Zügel. If it had the possibility of being able to intend for reaching the goal necessary step to a large extent then it had nearly always large success. General Leemade possible for it that. Briefly before Jacksons death said this with the instruction as fast as possible to genesen at the same time:
- “He draws his, but to I have left poor draws my to right. ”< ref> Robert Lewis Dabney, would run and COMMAND OF Lieutenand general Thomas J. Jackson, Chapter 20,PAGE 716:Lee to Jacksons Verwundung< /ref> („It lost its left arm, I however my right hand! “)
Jackson acted opposite: he instructed his Untergebenen in detail, how they to proceed did not have, because he feared, its thoughts became otherwise correctlyconverted. That led to a complicated and complex command giving, which led again and again without verbal explanations to incorrect execution, e.g. with the battle at the Cedar Mountain. It had therefore constantly Reibereien with A.P. Hill, itself also because of its in former timeseven achieved success in this measure gängeln to leave did not want. Did not subordinate it the other some time was used on the other hand to act independently which with his successor, general Ewell, while the battle from Gettysburg to the fact it led that crucial actions notwere accomplished.
Jacksons Shenandoah campaign was put out of tactics teachers - particularly in Europe - as example of exemplary strategic and tactical thinking and acting and general field marshal von Moltke called the campaign unparalleled in world history.
many itsContemporaries saw Jacksons fate closely linked with that the Konföderation. Already during lifetimes it became in the Southern States one after straight religious admiration assigns. Thus approximately that wrote DAILY Appeal, a daily paper from Memphis, it is “in addition in June 1862, the Erlöser of its country to become certain ".<ref> Thomas's L. Connelly: The Marble one. Robert E. Lee and His image in American Society. Alfred A. Button, New York 1977. S. 18< /ref> In a field service during the Shenandoah campaign a military clergyman prayed:
- “And Thou knowest O lord, that when Thou didst decide that the Confederacy should emergency succeed, Thou hadst roofridge ton remove Thy servant, Stonewall Jackson. ”< ref> Father stroke ore OF Hay's brigade: Fürbitte< /ref> („And you know, my God that if youit decides that the Konföderation is to lose, then you must vacate first your servant, Stonewall Jackson, from the way. “)
And during the same campaign Jackson said:
- „If the valley falls, falls also Virginia. “
Both statements occurred.
Jacksons of death circumstances contributed to the fact that it applies in the historiography as in collective consciousness until today as a tragic hero. Its death became the the subject of numerous poems< ref> The Cambridge History OF English and American Literature: The Death OF Stonewall Jackson</ref> even in the north states; thus Herman Melville superelevated it in its poem Stonewall Jackson (Ascribed ton of A Virginian)< ref> Herman Melville: Stonewall Jackson (Ascribed ton of A Virginian)< /ref> to nearly mythischer size. After Jacksons death appeared already short besides numerousquite pathetische biographies, which coin/shape its picture until today, and even in Kinderbüchern it became
Jacksons last words “Let US CROSS the river and remainder more under the unfortunate OF the trees. ”< ref> Robert Lewis Dabney, would run and COMMAND OF Lieutenand general ThomasJ. Jackson, Chapter 20, PAGE 723:Jacksons last words< /ref> („Let us the river cross and us in the shade of the trees rest. “) Ernest Hemingway selected Across the River and as title of its book „into the Trees “(1950), its hero inaging Colonel of the US army of the same impact as Jackson is.
Jackson was honoured in numerous cities of the south with monuments. 1875 were established a first statue in smelling moon, to 1881 lived more than 12,000 humans of the inauguration of the Jackson monument in new one Orleans. In 20. It became common to century with Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis on the largest Flachrelief of the world in the Stone Mountain with Atlanta perpetuate. The birthdays Stonewall Jacksons and general Lees become since 1904 in Virginia everyoneYear with the Lee Jackson day celebrated.
- Robert Lewis Dabney, would run and COMMAND OF Lieutenand general Thomas J. Jackson, Philadelphia, Pa., national Publishing of cost, 1866
- United States. Was Dept.:The was OF the rebellion: A Compilation OF the Official record OF the union and Confederate Armies, Govt. Print. Off., Washington 1880 - 1901
- Marcus Junkelmann: The American Bürkerkrieg 1861 - 1865. Conception of the world publishing house, Augsburg 1992 ISBN 3-89350-355-2
- Stefan stick jr.: General Stonewall Jackson: military biography. Publishing house for America sneezing TIC, Wyk on Föhr 1991 ISBN 3-924696-34-9
- Robertson, James I.: Stonewall Jackson the one, the more soldier, the putting. Macmillan, New York 1997.
Web on the left of
Commons: Thomas Jonathan Jackson - pictures, videos and/or audio files
- Robert Lewis Dabney, and COMMAND OF Lieutenand general Thomas J. would run. Jackson
- short Jackson biography (English)
- biography (of English)
- famous Americans (English)
- biography (English)
This article became into thoseList of the articles worth reading taken up.
Person data NAME Jackson, Thomas Jonathan ALTERNATIVE NAME „Stonewall “Jackson SHORT DESCRIPTION Southern States - commander in the American civil war DATE OF BIRTH 21. January 1824 PLACE OF BIRTH Clarksburg, west Virginia DYING DATE 10. May 1863 DYING PLACE Guinea station, Virginia