Thomas's W. Lawson

the “THOMAS'S W. LAWSON " was the largest Schoner, the only Siebenmastgaffelschoner and also the only filter master at all in recent time (S. Zheng He). It was one of the few Riesenschoner from steel at its time. With a measurement of 5.218 BRT/4,914 NRT was he after the later FRANCE II and the R. C. RICKMERS the third biggest sailing boat of the world and/or the second largest, if one counts only pure sailing boats. It was the largest Segler of the world, which never possessed an auxiliary drive, PRUSSIA was the second largest ship of this kind.

The time of the large Schoner (six-masters) began to 14. August 1900, as in Camden, Maine, with Holly M. Bean the first Sechsmastgaffelschoner from wood, George W. WELLS von Stapel ran. Still eight six-masters should follow made of wood at the east coast, among them as last 1909 with Percy & Small, Bath, Maine, the WYOMING, that with 137 m (Lüa) and/or 108 m (fuselage length) longest wood ship of the world.


Table of contents

description

the THOMAS'S W. LAWSON had in the WILLIAM L. DOUGLAS (1903), a Sechsmastgaffelschoner from steel of 3.708 BRT, a throwing sister with a considerably longer life span. Both developed on the Helgen of the “Fore River Ship & engine Building of cost”, Quincy, measure., for the Coastwise Transportation of cost. (John G. Crowley), bad clay/tone, Massachusetts. Technical designer was for its yachts well-known shipbuilders Bowdoin Bradlee Crowninshield (1867 - 1948). If the large Schoner was initially brightly painted, he appeared in his further career with black trunk. The ship, like with American Seglern often usually, was designated here after a prominent person, after the president at that time of the Bay State gas of cost. in Delaware, Thomas William Lawson (26. February 1857 - 8. February 1925) from bad clay/tone, Massachusetts (measure., mA.). Th. W. Lawson wrote at that time (1905) a book “financial insanity” (orig.: “Frenzied Finance”), which caused much sensation. The Stahlschoner could load maximally 11,000 of clay/tone over six large hatches. The high depth did not make it possible however, the hardly removed east coast ports except new haven news, Virginia (VA.), to start therefore to reduction of the charge on approximately 7,600 of clay/tone. Its crew amounted to max. only 18 men (captain, machinist for the steam generating unit for rudders and steam hoists for being called the sails, Steward, 2 tax people, max. 13 sailors). After some sources the steam generating unit generators operated, those again over fifteen (!) electrical hoists with river supplied. Contrary to the European Fünfmastrahseglern of comparable size it was after the judgement of some sailors and naval authors a very ponderous and little beautiful ship (gave comparisons with a bath tub and a stranded whale). It is to have made alone with the Rigg without sails, thus before Top and Takel, ~ 13 kn with achterlichem storm. It needed that also, in order not to run from the rudder. It was difficult to navigate, sail maneuver on the awake change was often shifted, since the giant sails for the small crew represented an extreme load. The owner expected of this large Schoner an economic profit: to transport much charge with little crew within a short time. Both did not realize itself because of reduced extent of utilization and the problematic sail characteristics (to complete Unterwasserschiff, unfavorable sail plan, small crew). Those was THOMAS'S W nevertheless. LAWSON an impressive feature, despite or because of the six equal masts and the sieved with a clearly larger Gaffelsegel.


designation of the masts

for the designation of the seven masts gave it more than nine different systems, also one after the seven weekdays (Sunday Saturday), which found rather during telling as on lake use. Originally during the building only nummeriert (No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 5, No. 6, No. 7) they were among other things called:

  • fore, Main, mizzen, more spanker, more jigger, more driver, more pusher; (Launching of a vessel)
  • fore, Main, mizzen, No. 4, No. 5, No. 6, more spanker; (after captain Arthur L. Crowley, first ship leader of the LAWSON)
  • fore, Main, mizzen, No. 4, No. 5, No. 6, No. 7; (of the crew designation) fore
  • , Main, mizzen, more jigger, preferred more driver, more pusher, more spanker; to German: Pre, large, cross, dancer, driver, slidegate valve, mizzenmast;


“More spanker” the last and largest sail on the American was usually named three and mehrmastigen Schonern.


history and last travel

already one year after the launching of a vessel pulled the Riesenschoner to Crowley from the coal travel and freighted it after Abtakeln of the Stengen as lighter for the transport of crate oil, i.e. the Schoner was down-dragged the American east coast up and. 1906 it was aufgetakelt in new haven news, VA., again and received a change to the sail tanker. After some sources the Untermasten of the tank degassing served, as with the NAVAHOE (1908 built with Harland & Wolff), a always dragged 7.718-BRT-grossen tanker - ( =, seaworthy ship dragged here would save) with six-mast schoner would save - supports takelage. This served the Stabilisation if steel-drags hawser tear should.

Under the command of captain George Washington Dow cleared those THOMAS'S W. LAWSON to 20. November 1907 in Philadelphia the anchors to their first transoceanic travel over the Atlantic with a goal London. It drove into charter for the Sun oil of cost. a charge crude oil or lubricating oil. The data differ between 2,25 Mill. and 2.52 Mill. Gallons (53,571 to 60,000 barrels). After stormy passage (damage to the Rigg, loss of nearly all life rafts, water break-down in hatch No. ) it came to 6, clogged pumps close of the Scilly islands into nebulas, possibly gave it problems with the positioning (dead reckoning). The Schoner was to the Inselgruppe southwest near the lighthouse “Bishop skirt” in an extremely dangerous sea-area with northeast course to 13. December in the early afternoon. Captain Dow let the LAWSON put before both Buganker (ever 5 of clay/tone heavily) with 150 thread (274.3 m) port anchor cable and 90 thread (164.6 m) to starboard anchor cable in the proximity of the Hellweather' s Reef. The large ship was observed and made by two islands clear distress of life rafts. The lighthouse attendant fired Signalraketen . Storm arose, meanwhile the pilot from the life raft run out in the meantime was on board taken. Offers on the part of the life raft leader of pc. Agnes to give the ship up white captain Dow with the remark back, it needs only one pilot. The ship remained first stable before anchors, when at the night the storm became stronger. After midnight against 2:30 clock to 14. Decembers 1907 disappeared the lights of the Schoners and the unfailing smell of crude oil lay in air. The storm had risen to gale strength, the force the lake let the port anchor cable break, the Schoner vogue enormously back and forth, to starboard anchor slip PEND. Captain Dow instructed all man (with the rescue west) into the Riggen. The ship was thrown by the immense swell with tremendous force to starboard-laterally on rock. All seven masts bent and fell into the sea, which kenterte and sank ship fallow behind the sixth mast apart.

Captain Dow arrived in the water and tried swimming the bank to reach. Frederick Hicks, the son of the pilot, pulled it hurt and exhausts in the distress life raft. Also the machinist Edward Rowe it succeeded to reach country. A third sailor, George everything from Battersea, could be saved, died however on Sunday (15. December) ashore at its heavy internal injuries. Many sailors were pressed with the Rigg under water, drowned despite the rescue west in the starting sea, against the reefs were geschmettert or died by the oil, which spread on the water. Also already on board pilot present the William Thomas “Cook” Hicks from pc. Agnes died. Only five dead sailors could be saved later from the sea. Among them the Steward Marks of Sampson, a Swedish sailor were identified named Viktor Hansell, a German sailor, George Bosinke. Two further victims than Torsi saved, whose identity was not to be determined. All six dead ones became on the cemetery of pc. Mary's bury, where also the victims of the SCHILLER were buried - disaster (German sail steamer, about 370 dead ones) of 1875. Altogether 17 men, 16 sailors of the LAWSON and the pilot Wm died. Hicks. The misfortune was one first, if not the first oil disaster on lake.

ship data

  • construction: Steel trunk as Glattdecker, deck superstructures on Poop and Hauptdeck (to 5. and 6. Mast)
  • Rigg: Filter mast more gaffelschoner; Masts from steel, Stengen from wood;
  • Launching of a vessel: 10. July 1902
  • building-threw: Fore River Ship & engine Building of cost, Quincy, measure., the USA
  • technical designer: Bowdoin B. Crowninshield
  • shipping company: Coastwise Transportation of cost. (John G. Crowley), bad clay/tone, measure., the USA
  • home port: Bad clay/tone
  • Galionsfigur: no
  • length and. A.: 132 m (Klüverbaumnock Spankerbaumnock)
  • fuselage length: ~122 m (Galion - tail)
  • length on deck: 117.2 m (rear edge Vorsteven - rear edge Hintersteven on deck height)
  • length in the KWL: 115 m (rear edge Vorsteven - rear edge Hintersteven in the KWL inclusive Rudder blade)
  • length zw. the plumb bobs (LzL): 112.62 m (rear edge Vorsteven - rear edge Hintersteven in the KWL)
  • width: 15.25 m
  • depth: 10.71 m
  • page depth: 11.10 m
  • depth: 8.50 m (10.36 m with 11.000 of clay/tone)
  • measurement: 5,218 BRT /4,914 NRT
  • displacement: about ~16,050 t (with 11.000 of clay/tone charge); ~12,500 t (with 7.500 of clay/tone charge); Schiffsmasse: ~4,900 t
  • loading capacity/load-carrying capacity: max. 11,000 of clay/tone (1 clay/tone = 1.016 t); regularly ~7,500 of clay/tone
  • sail surface: 4,000 m ² (43,000 sq. ft.) [4,330, 86 m ² (46,617 sq. ft.)] (25 sails: 7 Gaffelgrosssegel, 7 Gaffeltopp, 6 steam turbine and gas turbine system, 5 Vorsegel)
  • mast height: 58.6 m (Flaggenknopf - Kiel); 48 m (Flaggenknopf - deck)
  • auxiliary machine: Steam generating unit for sail winches and helm; no auxiliary drive
  • construction costses: $ 248,000 building, entirely: ~ $ 400,000
  • first ship leader: Arthur Crowley
  • further captains: George W. Dow
  • crew: 16-18 men (captain, machinist, two tax people, Steward, 11-13 sailors)
  • maximum speed: 16 kn under sails


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