Table of contents
military low-altitude flight
the military low-altitude flight with combat aircraft serves for to flying underneath the air control radar and avoidance of opposing defense fire. Flying underneath is based on the fact that the control radar loses regularly the radar contact to the airplane by natural obstacles and thus cannot pursue it. The natural gaps in the radar sign were covered could not have reacted by small radar units of the TMLD, however in the small setting-up time the available fast enough. Thus one can avoid defense fires and interceptor missiles to a large extent in the military low-altitude flight.
While in former times for the exercise of this procedure frequently flights close of the speed of sound were accomplished in a flight altitude of only 75 m, these low-altitude flights are avoided today due to the changed threat situation. Exercise success is today anyway small, since the assigned machines have an automatic terrain pursuit. Low-altitude flight exercises today usually take place in a height between 300 and 450 m. At night additionally a restriction on 780 km/h (conditions 2005) applies.
civilian low-altitude flight
after air traffic regulation amounts to the safety minimum height over cities and cultivated area 300 m, over other regions and water 150 m minimum height with cross-country flights after visual flight rules. These heights may be fallen below only for the start and for landing. Gliders may fall below this height also, if the enterprise makes this necessary, approximately with a hoist start. Same applies to agricultural flights and fire-extinguishing employments, where regularly to 10 m flight altitude is flown.
Extreme low-altitude flight is practiced also as part of the Luftakrobatik, whereby it comes to flight altitudes to down to a meter. Something similar applies to the enterprise of ground effect vehicles.
low-flying airplanes produce a sound output, which finds nowadays no more acceptance in the population. Thus for example in Switzerland an initiative was submitted, which has the goal of forbidding military low-altitude flights in the tourism regions completely.
by the proximity to the soil the response time is small in case of a technical defect. The probability of accident is increased in relation to the other flying operation.