Animal husbandry

keeping of domestic cattle from sheep to the Wollproduktion

animal husbandry is the generally common generic term for the supply and care one or several animals in human Obhut. The using between three categories, which home and game animal husbandry differentiated, becomes primary. This organization takes place after the motives, goals as well as the form of appropriate animal husbandry. Differently than game animal husbandry contain the using and home animal husbandry the Domestizierung.


Table of contents

categories

1. Keeping of domestic cattle

the keeping of domestic cattle is the attitude of domestizierten animals (utilizable animals) for economic reasons (food and source of raw material, transport and progressive movement means):

2. Home animal husbandry

home animal husbandry or also domestic animal attitude is the attitude of domestizierten animals (home animals) for personal or religious reasons, in western societies mostly in private households.

Aquarium in the zoo of Bristol

3. Game animal husbandry

game animal husbandry is constantly the attitude of savage, not domestizierter animals from a multiplicity of reasons changing more differently and in history itself (prestige, maintenance, sensation desire, hunt, science, education, nature and protection of species):

in the criticism

the different forms of animal husbandry stood for animal husbandry and constantly stand in the criticism. Thus there is today a broad spectrum of constructional up to militant opponents certain animal husbandry forms, Tierschützer, Tierechtler in addition, humans, which want to hold even animals and improve their conditions. Both the responsible persons for mass animal husbandry and for the zoo-logical gardens have themselves to argue with the criticism. In Great Britain the criticism of Tierschützern led in such a way to the locking of all dolphin airs. In the year 2004 the Belgian government asked even the attitude of game animals in the circus. Against it home animal husbandry is to a large extent undisputed in the public discourse, although also here certain attitude conditions can be cause for the criticism.

Show mit Schwertwalen in Marineland (Frankreich)
Show with sword whales in naval country (France)

in the Zusammengang with the criticism at animal husbandry the terms are often used “kind in accordance with” or “kind-fairly”, which are in a general manner identical. The term “kind-fair attitude “is relative, since it must be redefined for each animal species and thus as categorization of a certain attitude form is not sufficient. Besides by new realizations of behavior biology and by insights of keepers of an animal the term is constantly again specified despite being certain criteria regarding a certain animal species. Kind-fair attitude is strongly time-dependent therefore therefore. In the keeping of domestic cattle it is suitable as Gegenbegriff for mass animal husbandry only conditionally. It is better to understand the animal husbandry of the ecological agriculture than reaction for mass animal husbandry.

legal regulations

legal regulations for home animal husbandry

in home animal husbandry exists the liability of the keeper of an animal in such a way specified, after which in the law of contract of the keepers of an animal in principle liable for the damages can be made, which its animal causes. The adhesion after § 833 sentence 1 BGB seizes expressly also without being to blame for the owner.

Hund und Katze sind die verbreitetsten Heimtiere
Dog and cat are the most common home animals

legal regulations for game animal husbandry

for some years give it in the European union and Germany legal regulations, which a multiplicity (however not all) regulates forms of game animal husbandries. Thus the guideline exists over the attitude of game animals in zoos since 1999 in the European Union. In Germany for the reorganization of the right of the nature protection and the Lanschaftspflege and for the adjustment of other legislation (BNatSchGNeuregG) and/or for March the §51 of the law regulates 2002. the individual nature protection laws of the Lands of the Federal Republic all affairs, which concern animal husbandry in zoo-logical gardens. Goods zoos before practically mechanisms without legal control instance, must deliver or be able to do them since that time with offences individual animal species to be even closed.

history of animal husbandry

the Domestizierung of animal species living in the wild began as pure keeping of domestic cattle after end of the last ice age and the beginning of the Holozän before approximately 10,000 years. The first representatives of this keeping of domestic cattle were among other things the Auerochse, wild pig and the wolf. Since then the breed and attitude from animals constantly developed further to agricultural and other economic (keeping of domestic cattle) purposes.

Also home animal husbandry goes back in mankind history far. For different personal, sometimes also religious reasons animals were domestiziert, in order to live in the society of humans. Home animal husbandry differs thus from the keeping of domestic cattle by the fact that the animal held does not serve a special economic purpose such as source of food , raw material supplier or protection from other animals. The earliest well-known home animal is after historical sources the cat, which was domestiziert in old Egypt and finally admired as a divinity.

As also the keeping of domestic cattle pulled through home animal husbandry entire history and was common on all continents and in most cultures. Today it is an important social phenomenon, particularly in western societies. Usually dogs and cats become, in addition, birds and rodents held, to which the owners usually develop a personal connection. Home animal husbandry became therefore also an important restaurant factor by the sales of numerous products.

Pandagehege in the Chiang May zoo

contrary to the keeping of domestic cattle and home was less common game animal husbandry in history. Above all advanced cultures afforded the luxury to hold wild animals without economic use in their Obhut. Only developed cultures, which had developed division of labor and a complex rule hierarchy possessed, could apply material and personnel resources to such an animal husbandry. Because during game animal husbandry no Domestizierung of the animal species concerned takes place. The animals remain therefore only under certain safety conditions in human Obhut. This however was intended, because the natural hereditary property as carriers of the “wild” and in history often as dangerous and unrestrainedly interpreted appearance should be retained. Game animal husbandry in most cases served the representation of power and wealth.

Only with the establishment of scientific disciplines in 18. and above all 19. , The reasons and goals of game animal husbandry changed century. The founders of the first zoo-logical gardens arose with the requirement to create scientific mechanisms. Thus the name “zoo-logical garden”, which found 1828 in London use for the first time, refers to this scientific requirement. The tasks of the zoos constantly developed themselves further in the course of history. Today's (scientifically led) zoos define their tasks as nature protection (protection of species), education, research and recovery.

 

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