Low-read

flag of low-read
Blick die Kura aufwärts nach Nordwesten
view the Kura upward after northwest
view over the old part of town after northeast

low-read (Georgian თბილისი/Tbilissi) is the capital Georgiens. It is the most densely populated and largest city of the country. Low-read has 1.25 millionInhabitant, the total area amounts to 350 km ², the cultivated area 70 km ².

Table of contents

Geografie

Geographical layer

Geografische Lage Tiflis (Karte von 1856)
geographical situation low-read (map of 1856)

the city lies in the center the Caucasus - land tightness in the eastern part of Georgiens. It extends in a mountain valley of 21 kilometers along the river Kura (Georgian Mtkwari).

In the west becomes low-read ofMountain Mtazminda, in the east of the hill chain Machata, in the south of the Mtabori and the mountain course Solalaki limits.

According to the gebirgigen soil relief the urban districts have differences in height between 380 and 727 meters over the sea level. Many residential areas became in terraces to thoseSlopes built.

climate

the climate in low-read is moderate. The temperature amounts to in the annual average 13.2 °C, the average annual amount of precipitation 505 mm. Mild mountain and Talwinde from changing directions provide for clean air.

Because low-read on one, it is appropriate for seismically active area in the course of history to earthquakes came again and again. The last heavy quake to 25. April 2002 had a Magnitude of 4,8 on the judge scale. It killed six humans and damaged over 10.000Building, mainly in the old part of town areas Mtazminda, Tschughureti, Isani and Krtsanisi. The damage to the houses amounted to approximately 62 million US Dollar.

name

the Georgian name Tbilissi meant as much as warm source, leads itself from the word tbili, too German warmly off and word issi, too German source. At the northeast slopes of the Mtabori hot, char-acid sulfur gush - spring water from the earth up to 46,5 °C, which is used for centuries in bath houses.

The excessive quantity reports,that the Georgian king awake seaweed Gorgassali on the hunt in a wooded valley pheasants hunted. The animal fell into a hot source and by the gushing water was immediately cooked. The king let the environment investigate exactly. As itit experienced that there were many hot sources there, he created 485 at this place the city low-reads.

The name used in Germany low-read originally originates from the Turkish one. It was used first by German Kartografen. After the Annexion Georgiensby Russia 1801, succeed he as official designation of the city. Since independence Georgiens 1918 in Georgien again the name Tbilissi is used. This designation became generally accepted in the future also in Russia.

History

late ancient times and the Middle Ages

low-read 1671

low-read became for the first time in 4. Century on a Roman map under the name Pilado mentions documentary. It was because of a crossing of the caravan roads from the black sea to Persia, India and China. The Perser held low-reads occupied and the fortress Narikala above the city had established.

In 5. Century freed the Georgian king awake seaweed I. Gorgassali (dt. Wolf head) low-read, made it his capital and built it to the metropolisout. In 6. Century took a eastRoman province manager its seat in low-reads. In 7. Century was conquered it by the Arabs, changed thereafter into Persian and seldschukischen possession.

1121 became it again after release by David the designerGeorgian capital and owing to the fastened situation at the intersection from European-asiatic trade routes to one of the richest cities of the Middle Ages, sieved in the meantime. Marco Polo reported, there would be a wonderful city in Georgien named Tiflissi, those from suburbs and many fortressesis surrounded.

In 13. Century was devastated the city by the Choresmiern. From 1386 to 1402 low-reads to the centralasiatic realm Timur Lenks belonged.

modern times

in 17. Century fell the city under Turkish rule, became ofGeorgian king Rustum back-conquers and fastens. In 18. Century seized the Turks again the city, however 1735 by nadir Schah of Persia were again driven out, which used the Georgian king Theimuras. Its son Irakli brought the city too more highlyBloom.

With an assault of the Perser under Schah Aga Mohammed Khan (Georgian Aga Mohammed Chan Irakli) low-read 1795 completely destroyed and in slavery kidnapped 22,000 humans. In November 1799 the Russian major general Lasarus occupied the city.

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Russian realm

Tiflis um 1910
low-read around 1910

1801 became it part of the Russian realm and capital of the Gouvernements low-read (Russian Tiflisskaja Gubernija). Russia administered from there from the Caucasus. It promoted at the same time the commercial centre, released a majority inLow-read sold goods as well as transit goods of taxes. The city erblühte and the population grew from 8.500 in the year 1811 on 20.000 in the year 1825.

The today's townscape was impressed in the center 19. Century out. On initiative of theRussian viceroy prince Mikhail Woronzow was modernized and extended the city after 1845. It appointed the Italian Giovanni Scudieri as a chief architect, created the first theatre and the first public library in Transkaukasien. The old Stadtmauern were torn off and low-read stretcheditself northward and the west out.

In today's city centre at the Rustaweli boulevard elegant palaces, hotels, houses and museums in the style of the classicism, the baroque and art nouveau were built later. The German landscape architect Heinrich Scharrer put the Alexanderpark in the city centreon. In order to strengthen the trade, the low letting race was built, low-reads 1872 by railway connected with potentiometers and 1883 with Batumi as well as Baku.

The number of the industrial enterprises grew from 138 in the year 1864 on 228 in the year 1883. 1886low-read 104,024 inhabitants had. It concerned mainly around Georgier, Armenians and Russians, in addition, Germans, act arene, Perser and Poland.1897 lived already approximately 169,000 humans in the city. 1883 drove into low-read the first horse route course. Starting from 1904 becameelectrical streetcars furnished.

first republic and Soviet Union

the Red Army occupied low-read, February 1921

to 16. May 1918 became low-reads seat of the government of the democratic republic Georgien. To 25. February 1921 occupied 11. Army of the red workerand farmer army low-read and attached it the Soviet Union . 1936 capital of the Georgian socialist Soviet republic.

Under Soviet rule the city of 53 km expanded ² in the year 1920 since 365 km ² in the year 1989. By industrial settlement into that1940er years grew the population of low-reads enormously on. Starting from 1951 large development areas with monotonous blocks of flats developed. 1966 were opened first , to 1979 the second underground line, established 1972 on the mountain Mtazminda a TV tower by 274,5 m height.

1989 cameit in low-read to demonstrations against the communist party (kp) and for national independence. The procedure of Soviet paratroopers under guidance Colonels Alexander Lebeds toward hunger strike end in the center of low-read to 9. April also sharply polished spades and poisonous gas ended also20 dead ones.

second republic

after the independence of the country 1991 became low-reads the capital Georgiens. A Militärputsch against president Swiad Gamsachurdia led the city center between December 1991 and January 1992 to the Tifliser war, with that overthe Rustaweli boulevard by tanks, artillery and rockets strongly one damaged. In November 2003 parliament building the samtene revolution took place before and in, which introduced a reformerische turn in Georgien.

population

24.7% the inhabitant Georgiens live in low-read.It is a multi-cultural city. Approximately 60% (counting 1989) of the population are Georgier. Scarcely 40% the city dweller rank themselves among the Russian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Greek, Jewish or ossetischen group of peoples. The religions are various. Low-read accommodates old Georgian-orthodox, Armenian-Gregorian and Roman-catholic church buildings, Georgian and two aschkenasische synagogs, a Sunni mosque and a zoroastrischen temple.

politics

Rathaus von Tiflis
city hall of low-read

low-read is subordinate to the Georgian centre government. The city head is a mayor. Deputy of the mayor is a Prime Minister. Itat present by the Georgian president are appointed. Starting from 2006 they are selected by the town councillor. Mayor von Tiflis is Gigi Ugulawa. He was before director/conductor of the Präsidialverwaltung. Prime Minister is Temur Kurchuli. The city administration (Georgian Mtawroba) with approximately 1.700 is subordinate to itCoworkers in 40 different departments and the obligation to specify the city budget.

Mayors and city administration are controlled by an town councillor selected by the citizens ( Georgian Sakrebulo). The town councillor has 49 members and meets every three months. It became lastto 2. June 2002 selected. Majority parliamentary group in the town councillor is the national movement - democrats with 19 seats. The Georgian labour party has 16 seats, the new conservative ones of ten seats and the political union unit of two seats. Four delegates are non-party. Itbelonged in former times to the union for democratic Wiedergeburt, dissolved in the meantime . Town councillor chief is Sasa Begaschwili. Its predecessor of June 2002 until January 2004 was me-hurries Saakaschwili.

Tbilisser place in the twin city Saarbruecken, German and Georgian

low-read has ten urban districts. Everyonehas a district administration, which is led by a district Prime Minister. The district Prime Minister is appointed by the president.

As political problems low-read apply the overloaded road system with a large number of mini penalties and taxis as well as illegal establishing of buildings. Insufficient is alsothe power supply of the city. Because of bad payment moral of the population Telasi and the national gas works Tbilgasi their suppliers cannot pay the private current company. Thus regularly whole quarters are switched off.

Twin cities of low-read are Saarbruecken (1975), Nantes (1979), Innsbruck (1982), Bristol (1987), Palermo (1987), Ljubljana, Atlanta and Bilbao. The connection with Saarbruecken belonged to the first GermanSoviet partnerships between cities. In March 2005 low-reads a co-operation agreement with the kasachischen capital closed Astana.

The flag of low-read shows a blue cross on white reason. The cross has a golden framework. In the center of the cross stands a red coat of arms with golden emblem, which is surrounded by seven golden stars.

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Traffic

age Obus in low-read

those road system of low-read is in a very bad condition. Because of gebirgigen geography it stands after computations of the UN at the most 4,200 to 4,500 vehicles per hour. Because the number of cars into that 1990er increased years constantly, is it often overloaded and back-up belongs to the everyday life.

The traditional public means of transport are the Obus, which it in low-read since 1937 gives. In the 1970er and 1980er years operated in the capital approximately300 Obusse of the mark Škoda. 1990 gave it of it still 137 piece. Their number sank until 2004 on 80, from which only 40 was functional. For systematic repairs the money was missing to the state. 2004 became for the first time again newPenalty purchased. The EBRD has the Tiflisser public transport company 2005 a credit over 3,1 millions Euro grants, with which further 100 new and 50 used Obusse are to be acquired.

To the place of the Obusse private minibuses stepped into the 1990er years, Marschrutki mentioned. The number of minibus lines rose from 72 to 223. Also the taxi trade profited from the weakness of the Obusse. It gives in low-reads a superproportionally high number of taxis, which can be near-signed at the roadside. The city administration is endeavored to reduce the high number from minibuses and taxis to in order to dissolve back-up and to reduce the pollution impact of air.

Since 1966 it gives in low-reads also a small underground system. It has a length of 26.3 kilometers. The underground operatesin the three-minutes pulse and connects also remote local parts with the center. At present two lines, third exist were starting from the late 1980er years in the building, which was stopped due to missing moneys after 1991 soon again. Like the Obus those remainsUnderground with occasional power failures in low-read and the passengers must longer delays accept.

From that 1883 justified streetcar net of the city only a line remained. It operates to a northern suburb.

A characteristic of the Tiflisser of suburban trafficare public hanging aerial ropeways, which connect the city centre with the districts above the steep mountain-slopes. Because of missing means for maintenance 2004 from formerly a half dozen of lines only only one were functional.

Since 1872 low-reads at that remote traction network is that Georgian railway attached. The airport of low-read is appropriate for 20 km east the city center in Lotschini. The building of a remote line by the large Caucasus with connection to the Russian Eisenbahnnetz in Wladikawkas could not be completed at Soviet times and becomes since thennot continues to pursue.

culture

Rustaweli-Theater
Rustaweli theatre

theatre

low-read had a various theatre scene with 33 stages. Among the most important 1845 created Gribojedow theatres for Russian drama, 1921 created national ones the academic theatre rank thatSchota Rustaweli, which builds 1851 created national Sachari Paliaschwili theatres for opera and ballet as well as those, between 1969 and 1971, large ones resounds the national Sinfonieorchesters Georgiens.

Besides there is theatre of the Armenian, Azerbaijani, ossetischen and Jewish groups of peoples. There are twoYouth, a comedy, a musical, a filmschauspieler, a Pantomimen and a puppet theatre. At the hero place the circus established in the stalinschen architectural style, homeland of the Georgian state circus stands.

museums

low-read has twelve large museums. The most important are that National museum of the arts Georgiens near the liberty place and the national Simon Dschanaschia museum Georgiens at the Rustaweli boulevard. First beherbert gold and silver treasures of the Georgian kings, under it the chest cross of the queen Tamara as well as certifications of Georgian painting 18. , 19. and 20. Centurywith a valuable collection of the Georgian people painter Niko Pirosmani. Second shows documents of history Georgiens and the Caucasus of the paleolithic age over the antique one up to the present.

The money museum of the Georgian central bank presents one looks to history regionallyCurrency, which hands back four millenia. The Ethnographi museum is an open air museum, which shows the Georgian life in different epochs.

22 private art galleries and six exhibition halls present regularly contemporary Georgian art.

science

Georgische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Georgian Academy of Sciences

low-read is Georgiens scientific center. The national university low-read 1918 one based. Today there 30,000 students at 18 faculties study. The university library covers approximately 3.7 millions Books and Periodika.

The Georgian Academy of Sciences has ten scientific departments and 63 research institutes. Itbasic research operates and coordinates the research in Georgien

beside it accommodated low-reads the Georgian technical university, the national educational university, the national medical university and the national university for language and culture. In the capital is more than20,000 humans in research establishments employs.

care of monuments

reorganized since December 2003 the care of monuments in low-read with the help of the Council of Europe, in order to receive as much as possible building thinking marks of the old and the modern city. Low-read offers for it very favorable conditions,since the city was hardly damaged since Mongol invasion 1795.

objects of interest

Die Altstadt von Tiflis
the old part of town of low-read

on the right bank of the Kura, over the old part of town, lie the ruins of the fortress Narikala from that 3. Century. Above thatThe monumental statue Kartlis Deda stands for weir systems (dt. Nut/mother Georgiens). Among them a 128 hectare large Botani garden extends. It was put on 1845 on the area of the fortress park.

The old part of town with close, wound head restraint A PLASTER ROADs is for the world cultural heritage of the UNESCOare explained. There the Sioni cathedral from that 5 lies. Century, the Metechi church of the Georgian kings from that 13. Century, the Antschisschati Basilika from that 6. Century and the synagog. By the old part of town once the silk road led. This very daystands their old Karawansereien. The houses are mostly from wood and have carved over-hanging balconies. In the bath quarter Abanotubani are Schwefelbäder 17. Century.

Fernsehturm Tiflis
TV tower low-read

to the old part of town close in the quarter Garetubani the buildings of splendour of the 19. Century on. Heart is the Flaniermeile Rustaweli boulevard between liberty place and place of the republic, gesäumte with plane trees. It accommodates the national picture gallery, the historical museum, the national Rustaweli theatre, the opera house and parliament building. The Kura becomes from broad bank boulevardsgesäumt.

The quarters at the mountain Mtazminda are opened by an endless rope haulage system. On half height is the Pantheon, a cemetery, on which important Georgier and Russian are buried, among them the writers Ilia Tschawtschawadse, Akaki Zereteli and the diplomat Alexander Gribojedow. On the flat summit of the mountain a large park was put on. The TV tower with a restaurant on its point grants a far view over the city.

The Tschawtschawadse boulevard in the district Wake accommodates that main building of the national ones University low-read, banks, elegant mode shops and exclusive bars. It is the preferential purchase mile new realms in Georgien.

Because of the left bank of the river 20 is in. Century builds cultural and national institutions. There lie the national medical university,different scientific institutes, which Boris Paitschadse stadium, home play place of the fiber plastic Dinamo low-read, and the station.

literature

  • Georgi Chuzischwili: Tbilissi: Travel guide. Publishing house Planeta, Moscow 1989, ISBN 5-85250-112-3
  • Thea Kvastiani, Vadim Spolanski, Andreas's star field: Georgien discover.On the way between Caucasus and black sea. Tre publishing house, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3928409859
  • Ulrich support: Georgien and Armenia. DuMont journey publishing house, Cologne 1988, ISBN 3770114647
  • Tamaz Gersamia: Old Tbilisi. Sabčota Sakartvelo, Tbilisi 1984 (photo)
  • Andrea Dietrich: The concerning town constructionDevelopment of Tbilissi in and the 30's 20's. In: Georgica. Bd. 11 (1988), S. 73-76
  • Tamas Gersamia: German building masters in Tbilisi in the second half 19. to beginning 20. Century. In: Georgica. Bd.18 (1995), S. 115-117
  • Tamas Gvenetadze: Chronicle of a friendship: 20 years partnership between cities Saarbruecken Tbilissi, 10 years partnership Saarland Georgien. Verl. for development policy, Saarbruecken 1996, ISBN ISBN 3-88156-775-5

personalities

of sons and daughters of the city

see also

Web on the left of


coordinates: 41° 43 ' N 44° 48 ' O

 

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