|of these articles treats Tirol as region in Central Europe, other meanings is under Tirol (term clarifying).|
Tirol is a region in Central Europe, which expands over state borders away in the west of Austria and in the north of Italy. Originally under oneRule, became it after the fall having citizens of the many people state Austria Hungary after that 1. World war by the peace treaty of pc. Germain on two states divided:
- Land of the Federal Republic Tirol - Nordtirol and Osttirol to the new Republic of German Austria and/or. late Republic of Austria;
- Province Bozen - South Tyrol as well as
- province Trient - Welschtirol (ital. Trentino), which likewise belonged since 1803 to Tirol, to the Republic of Italy (today: autonomous region Trentino South Tyrol);
Landschaftlich is coined/shaped Tirol by the alps. Animal oil highest mountains are the Ortler and the king point in South Tyrol; the Grossglockner convenient in Osttirol and the game point in the Ötztaler alps in Nordtirol. The main branch of trade is the tourism.
Table of contents
the area of Tirol is settled for thousands of years. The first settlers dipped before approximately 10,000 years, thus directlyafter the ice age, up and became around approximately 4,000 v. Chr. by agriculture replaces floating peoples. From this time the find of the glacier mummy Ötzi and some other excavations in all parts of animal oil witness.
Tirol had one at that time alreadyMining industry culture. Oldest smelting was found in close proximity to Brixlegg and originates from early 4. Millenium v. Chr. In following thousands of years further dismantling places became particularly for copper most reaching. The copper dismantling led to a flowering trade, whichabove all the rich Grabbeibagen in the urn field time (approx. 1400-900 v. Chr.) prove. The commercial net at that time reached from the North Sea to the Mediterranean.
The time off approx. 450 v. Chr. up to the Roman invasion La-Tène-time one calls. In thisTime settled into the animal oiler alps of peoples, who were often displaced in the surrounding areas by Celts. These usually illyrischen peoples, who lived between the Comosee and Kärnten became designation of the Romans as Räter. The culture designateHistorian to the two most important discovery sites as the Fritzens Sanzeno culture. They had wine barrels, by the Romans were later taken over and over their own alphabet.
in the year 15 v. Chr.became the area of thatRoman field gentlemen Drusus and Tiberius conquers and on the Roman provinces Rätien and Noricum divided. Meran, Bozen and the extreme south of the country belonged to Histria to the province Venetia et.
In this time transferred the illyrischen trunks that living in TirolVulgärlatein and connected it with their own language. From this then spoken the this very day became RA gate Omani.
Tirol profited at this time particularly by the Roman remote trade, by the establishment from strengthened roads like the via the Claudia Augusta favouredbecame. As settlement area Tirol was however not attractive for the Romans, which the few cities proved. The most well-known Roman city on animal oiler area was the city Aguntum, which was in close proximity to Lienz.
In late ancient times (off476 n. Chr.) belonged to Tirol to (Italian) the realm of the Ostgoten. After its collapse (550/553) the immigration of the Baiern took place from the north.
the Middle Ages
since that time belonged the by far largest part of animal oil to the duchy Bavaria. The newBavarian-Italian border lay directly southwest from Bozen. Eppan, Kaltern and Salurn remained Italian, the Fassatal became Bavarian. The Christianisierung took place via the bishops from Brixen and Trient. The course of the border remained also during the Karolingerzeit and the Ottonenzeitinvariably.
1027 separated emperors Konrad II.for safety device of the burner route south bordering the diocese Trient of Italy off and it struck the German hand-Reich too. In the consequence also the Etschtal fell between Meran and/or. Bozen in the north and German German(Mezzocorona) in the south at Bavaria. In 12. Century developed in the southern part of the duchy the county Tirol, on the basis of lock Tirol with Meran.
The counts von Tirol were first Vögte of the bishops of Brixen and Trient, extendedbut their country soon at expense of the bishops and competitive aristocracy families, like the Eppaner and made themselves from them as also of the Bavarian duke independent (joggle Heinrich of the lion 1180). 1228 surrendered it the hall forests to the Wittelsbacher; thisAreas belong this very day to the Free State of Bavaria . 1253 was beerbt it by the counts von Görz (Meinhardiner), after becoming extinct their male line came the country alternating to the Luxemburger and to the Wittelsbacher. 1363 bequeathedthe daughter of the last Meinhardiners, Margarethe of Tirol (Margarethe Maultasch) its country to the having citizen Rudolf IV..
At the time of the transition to the having citizens the county Tirol was a closed territory with approximately the today's size. The Unterinntal belowfrom Schwaz however further the Zillertal belonged to Salzburg to Bavaria.Brixen and the Pustertal were bischöfliche territories and/or. Part the county Görz. But the Montafon was tirolisch.
Among the having citizens the area had great strategic importance, there itnot only at many important alpine passports portion had, but also a land bridge into its alemannischen possessions represented. 1406, in the course of the habsburgischen Erbteilungen became it again its own rule, in that the land conditions, those in Tirolalso the large farmers, of important say belonged had.Friedrich IV. shifted its residence to Innsbruck, which überflügelte from then on Meran.
, with the master country of the Görzer , also Lienz and the Pustertal resulted modern timesHaving castle and were combined with Tirol (strategic land bridge from Vienna to Milan). After with the renouncement duke of victory mouth had dropped back 1490 the country the main line, Innsbruck became even residence emperor Maximilians I.. With the profit of the rule Kufstein, Kitzbühel and rat mountain of Bavaria the area was rounded off. The reformation passed over Tirol very superficially, only the miners bent the theories of the Täufer too.
1564 became Tirol with front Austria at Ferdinand, the youngest son Ferdinands I. hand over, which did not have descendants entitled to inherit however due to its morganatischen marriage with Philippine Welser. After his death several governors from habsburgischem house, of those prevailed to one, Leopold V. of having castle to national gentlemen to up-swing again knew. This Nebenliniehowever Sigismund Franz died already with its younger son.
with the realm deputation main conclusion 1803 the dioceses Brixen and Trient became,anyway under animal oilers the sovereignty confessed, officially the country had attached.1805, after the defeat against Napoleon had to be surrendered the country to Bavaria again. The transfer became in peacetime of press castle to 26. December 1805 fixed.
Animal oiler rising of the people
1809 unloaded itself the resistance against the Bavarian policy under the count Maximilian von Montgelas in the animal oiler rising of the people, which was stated by Andreas Hofer , Josef Speckbacher and Pater Joachim Haspinger.The rising of the people was supported also by the conservative Klerus, but goaded on particularly by the Austrian yard in Vienna first, left then however in the pass.
The Austrian and animal oiler troops suffered the crucial defeat with Wörgl to 13. May. In consequenceparts of the country came temporarily Italy and the Illyri provinces of France; 1814 were reunited the country however and came back to the having citizen many people state Austria. Since age salt citizen Zillertal fell with Salzburg 1805 at Austria and1810 at Bavaria. (Well-being) 1814 came it (within Austria) at Tirol. There were however also smaller successes of the animal oilers, like e.g. in the “Giggler Tobl” where the women and children of the Paznauns with Steinlawinen and other primitive weapons Bavaria outheld for their valley.
division in north and South Tyrol
1919, in the peace treaty of pc. Germain came the area south the burner at Italy. Italy had the Wasserscheide regardless of the much far GermanItalian language border running south between Mediterranean and black sea as its north border stressed and the allied one vorgegaukelt, the language border run at the alpine main comb (see Londoner of secret contracts). Since that time the country Tirol is divided; also further attempts after the Second World War, at least the German-language part of a territory againto the Austrian Tirol to attach, failed; in response 1948 and 1972 (1 could. and 2. Autonomy statute) one - since that time still importantly developed - autonomy for South Tyrol to be reached (digging earth Gasperi agreement).
Today Tirol has again a weak own organization formas European region (Euregio) found.
to count von Tirol
- Albert I. In the middle of 11. Jh.
- 1055 - 1101 Albert II.
- 1101 - 1165 Albert III.
- 1165 - 1180 Berthold
- 1180 - 1202 Heinrich I.
- 1202 - 1253 Albert IV.
- 1253 - 1258 my hard I.
- 1257 - 1295 my hard II.
- 1295 - 1310 Otto
- 1310 - 1335 Heinrich II.
- 1335 - 1363 Margarethe
Habsburgi Nebenlinien in Tirol older one Animal oiler line
Ferdinand II. of Tirol and habsburgische governors
younger animal oilersLine
- 1619 - 1632 Leopold V. (Having castle), governors, starting from 1626 national prince
- 1646 - 1662 Ferdinand Karl
- 1663 - 1665 Sigismund Franz
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