|name, symbol, ordinal number||titanium, Ti, 22|
|group, period, block||4, 4, D|
|proportion at the Earth's shell||0.41%|
|atomic radius (computed)||140 (176) pm|
|Kovalenter radius||136 pm|
|van the Waals radius||-|
|Elektronenkonfiguration||[acre] 3d2 4 s 2|
|electrons per energy level||2, 8, 10, 2|
|1. Ionization energy||658.8 kJ/mol|
|2. Ionization energy||1309.8 kJ/mol|
|3. Ionization energy||2652.5 kJ/mol|
|4. Ionization energy||4174.6 kJ/mol|
|5. Ionization energy||9581 kJ/mol|
|6. Ionization energy||11533 kJ/mol|
|7. Ionization energy||13590 kJ/mol|
|8. Ionization energy||16440 kJ/mol|
|9. Ionization energy||18530 kJ/mol|
|10. Ionization energy||20833 kJ/mol|
|state of aggregation||firmly|
|crystal structure||hexagonally (to 882 °C, over it crimp tool)|
|density (Mohshärte)||4507 kg/m 3 (6)|
|melting point||1941 K (1668 ° C)|
|Boiling point||3560 K (3287 °C)|
|molecular volume||10,64 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol|
|heat of vaporization||421 kJ/mol|
|heat of fusion||15.45 kJ/mol|
|steam pressure||0.49 Pa at 1933 K|
|speed of sound||4140 m/s with 293,15 K|
|specific thermal capacity||520 j (kg · K)|
|Electrical conductivity||2,34 · 10 6 S /m|
|heat conductivity||21.9 w (m · K)|
|Elastic module||105,000 N/mm ²|
|oxidation conditions||of +3, +4|
|oxides (basicity)||TiO 2 (more amphoter)|
|normal potential|| 1.3 V (TiO 2 + 4H + + 4e-|
→ Ti + 2H 2 O)
|Elektronegativität||1.54 (Pauling scale)|
| as far as possible and common, is used SI-UNITs.|
If not differently notes,
the indicated applyData with standard conditions.
Titanium is a chemical element in the periodic system of the elements with the symbol Ti and the ordinal number 22. It belongs to the transition metals. Easily, firmly, flexibly, white-metallically shining and corrosion resistant it particularly is for highly mobile and corrosive Applications suitably.
Table of contents
titanium was noticed 1791 in England by the clergyman and amateur chemist William Gregor in the titanium iron.Later it discovered several years the German chemist Heinrich Klapproth in the rutile ore again. 1795 it designated the new element titanium.
Only the introduction of the industrially accomplished reduction of titanium tetrachloride with magnesium (Kroll process by William Justin Kroll 1946) opened that for titanium for commercial applications.
titanium comes in the lithosphere only intoConnections with oxygen as oxide forwards. It is by no means rare, stands it nevertheless at 10. Place of the element frequency. Usually it is present however only in small concentration.
Important minerals are:
- Ilmenite (titanium iron ore) FeTiO 3
- Leukoxen, a iron-poorCaTi
- [ SO 4] O of titanates such as barium titanate (BaTiO
- 3) companion in iron ores the main occurrences
- are appropriate for ilmenite Titanit
Meteorites can contain titanium. In the sun and in stars of the spectral class Mtitanium was likewise proven. Rock samples of the moon mission Apollo 17 contained 2 up to 12,1% TiO. Also in coal ashes, there is found plants and in the human body.
usually outgoing from the ilmenite or rutile becomes enrichedTitanium dioxide with chlorine to titanium tetrachloride in the heat converted. Subsequently, takes place a reduction to the titanium via liquid magnesium (Kroll process after William Justin Kroll). For the production of machinable alloys the received titanium sponge in the vacuum arc furnace must umgeschmolzen to become.
titanium train at air an extremely steady oxidic protective layer, which makes it corrosion resistant in many media. The high firmness is remarkable with a relatively small density. Above a temperature of 400 °C gothe physical properties however fast back. Highly pure titanium is duktil. At higher temperatures it embrittles by admission of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen very fast. To consider also the high reactivity of titanium with many media is at increased temperaturesor increased pressure, if the passive layer were not up to to the corrosive attack. Here the rate of corrosion up to the explosion can increase. In pure oxygen with 25 °C and 25 bar burns titanium outgoing from a fresh lip completely to the titanium dioxide.At temperatures above 880 °C it reacts with oxygen, at temperatures starting from 550 °C reacts it with chlorine.
In diluted sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, chloridhaltigen solutions and most organic acids titanium is steady. Because of the danger of explosion are to keep with applications in Chlorgas the operating conditions strictly.
The mechanical characteristics and the corrosive behavior can be increased by usually slight alloying additions of aluminum , vanadium , manganese , molybdenum , palladium , copper , zirconium and tin substantially.
ThroughBombardment with deuterium becomes titanium radioactively. It emits then positrons and gamma radiation. Below 880 °C titanium in a hexagonally closest Kugelpackung is present. Above 880 °C a cubic-body-centered lattice structure is formed.
In aqueous solution are to be regarded the Aqua ions titanium (IV) as water-rich titanium dioxide. Under the high polarization of the O-H connection existno connections of the composition [Ti (H 2 O) x] 4+.
is the inexpensive and innocuous Farbpigment titanium dioxide (titanium white is reserved to connections during metallic titanium technical applications often fastidious because of manufacturing costs; in food also under thatTo find name E 171) a companion of the everyday life become. Practically all today's white plastics and colors, also food colors, contain titanium dioxide. In addition, within the range of the electrical and materials engineering titanium connections are used.
- Barium titanate, BaTiO 3
- titanium (III) - chloride, TiCl3
- Titanborid, TiB
- titanium carbide, TIC
- titanium nitride, TiN
- titanium (IV) - chloride, TiCl 4
- titanium (IV) - oxide (titanium white), TiO 2
- titanium (IV) - oxide sulfate (titanyl sulfate), TiOSO 4
- Nitinol, a MEMORY metal
- applications in sea water and chloridhaltigen media:
- uses within the outdoor range
- since short are (diver) measurers with titanium or titanium alloy blade upthe market, likewise Essbestecke
- as tent herrings (small weight despite high firmness)
- production of relatively soft artificial jewels
- of titanium sapphires serve formation of inter+metallic phases as laser crystal in ultrakurz pulsable
- lasers (teleprinter range) as titanium tetrachloride for the production of
- glass mirrors and artificial fog (never 3 Ti)in high-temperature resistant nickel alloys
- superconducting niobium - titanium alloys (e.g. as superconducting cables in magnets of HERA with DESY)
- in pyrotechnics
- of wearing parts in soldering plants, direct contact with electrical plumb bob to 500 °C
- feathers/springs in chassis of motor vehicles
- as implant material in thatMedical technology and dentistry (tooth implants, annually approx. 200000 pieces alone in D) because of its very good corrosion resistance contrary to other metals. An immunological repulsion reaction does not give it. Also with tooth crowns and tooth bridges it becomes because of the substantially lowerCosts compared with Goldlegierungen uses. In the surgical Orthopädie with metallic leg prostheses (artificial Hüftendoprothesen) and Hüftkopfersatz, knee joint replacement after Arthrose is used in great quantities it.
- as material
- over 90% of the titanium ore promotion becomes mainly after the chloride and in the smallerMass after the Sulfatverfahren to titanium dioxide processes
- decoration from titanium
- in airplanes and spaceships for particularly stressed parts, to be nevertheless easy must
- with high-quality bicycles in connection with aluminum and vanadium as framing material
- with gulf racquets as racquet head
- in steam turbinesfor the most strongly loaded shovels of the low pressure part
of connections of the titanium with boron, carbon or nitrogen find use as hard materials. Also to the production of Cermets, composite materials made of ceramic(s) and metal, titanium connections are used.
titanium andTitanium alloys are among other things standardized in:
- DIN 17850, expenditure: 1990-11 titanium; Chemical composition
- ASTM B348 - 03: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy, bars and Billets
- ASTM B 265 - 03: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy, sheets andplates
of safety references
titanium powders is flammable. Most titanium salts are considered as harmless. Inconsistant connections such as titanium tri chloride are strongly corrosive, since they form hydrochloric acid with traces of water.
Titanium tetrachloride is used in nebula candles and nebula shells; it reacts with thatHumid one and forms a white smoke from titanium dioxide, in addition hydrochloric acid fog.
In the body fabric titanium is inclined to the enrichment. A biological role of the titanium in the human body is not at present well-known.
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