Togo

of these articles treats the westAfrican country Togo; for other meanings see Togo (term clarifying).
République Togolaise
Togolesi Republic of
Flagge Togos
Wappen Togos
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: “Travail, Liberté, Patrie”
frz., „work, liberty, native country “
office language French
capital Lomé
system of government republic with multiple party system
head of state Faure Gnassingbé
prime minister Edem Kodjo
surface 56,785 km ²
number of inhabitants 5.681.519 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 97 inhabitants per km ²
independence from France to 27. April 1960
currency CFA franc
gros domestic product/inhabitant 319 US-$ (2006)
time belt UTC
national anthem Salut à toi, pays de nos aïeux
Kfz characteristics blank
Internet TLD .tg
preselection +228
Togos Lage in Afrika
Karte Togos

Togo (dt.: [ˈtoːgo], frz.: [tɔˈgo]) a state is been in west Africa, because of the gulf of Guinea, and borders on Ghana in the west, Benin in the east and Burkina Faso in the north. Up to the First World War the area of Togo was German, colony French afterwards. The country was coined/shaped nearly 40 years long by the autocratically governing president Gnassingbé Eyadéma. After its death its son Faure Gnassingbé under ignoring the condition was appointed the new president. International pressure and unrests in the country led to the return to condition-in accordance with-eaten conditions. Gnassingbé could decide the following elections for itself, whereby however the opposition and also the European union accuse substantial electoral fraud to him. Still are several thousand refugees abroad.

Table of contents

geography

Niederschläge in mm
of precipitation in mm
the country is divided into the five regions Centre, Kara, maritime ones, Plateaux and Savanes. The national border has a length of 1.647 km. Of it 644 km escape 126 km to the border to Benin, to the border to Burkina Faso and 877 km to the border to Ghana.

The State of Togo is to one degree and ten Bogenminuten of eastern length with eight degrees northern latitude and in west Africa. Togo has a national surface of 56.785 km ² (world rank 126) with an expansion in north south direction of approximately 550 km and in west east direction from 50 to 140 km. Of it 16% are wooded, 25% field and 3.5% pastureland.

From the palmengesäumten lagoons and sand beaches of 56 km are enough coast extends the Ouatchi plateau in the higher Tafelland. In the southwest of the interior wooded Togo mountains northeastward until Benin runs. In the low situations in the north and the south a savannah with Antilopen and elephants prevails forwards.

The highest mountain in Togo is the Mont Agou with 986 m height over NN. The longest river is the mono with approximately 400 km length. It runs from north to south and is usable on 50 km as water way.

The daytime temperatures vary between 23 and 27 °C, on the average approx. 26 °C. The precipitation reaches in some areas up to 900 mm in the entire year.

The largest cities of Togo are (conditions 1. January 2005): Lomé of 760,000 inhabitants, Sokodé of 117,811 inhabitants, Kara of 104,207 inhabitants, Kpalimé of 95,974 inhabitants and Atakpamé of 80,683 inhabitants.

population

ethnical composition

social

  • life expectancy man/woman 55/69 year
  • Alphabetisierungsrate man/Mrs. 75.4%/46.9% (2003)
  • population growth amounts to 2.17% (2006)
  • 4.61 children/woman (2005)
  • infant mortality 7.9% (2001)
  • child number of deaths 14.1% (2001)
  • 0.2 Ärzte/1000 inhabitant

languages

beside Ewe, Kabyé and different Kwa - and Gur - languages also the office language French is spoken.

to religion

nature religions of 50% of the population are practiced, 30% live after Christian principles (12% catholic, 18% Protestanten), 20% are Muslim (Sunni direction).

politics

Togo are since 1967 a Präsidialrepublik. From there president Gnassingbé Eyadéma prevailed on diktatorisch. In the year 1993 he had to prepare a new liberal condition, which permits opposition however after international pressure. This is ignored and however often and it becomes with elections again and again the reproach electoral fraud loud.

The parliament (Assemblée national one) has 81 members and becomes every 5 years newly selected. The president is determined in a step-by-step selection likewise every 5 years. It is current Faure Gnassingbé, a son of the former dictator.

Edem Kodjo in the discussion with Jacques Chirac

in the parliament went since the choice 2002 from the 81 seats 72 to the Rassemblement you Peuple Togolais (RPT), the party of the president at that time Gnassingbé Eyadéma.

2005 became Edem Kodjo the prime minister. He is a chairman of the Convergence Patriotique Panafricaine (CPP), which came out from the fusion of the small opposition parties PAD, UTD, UDS and PDU.

administration

the state is divided into five regions:

Name capital
Centrale Sokodé
Kara Kara
maritime Lomé
Plateaux Atakpamé
Savanes Dapaong

to history

see major items: History of Togo

of 13. January 1967 to at the beginning of of February 2005 controlled president Gnassingbé Eyadéma the country. Pursuit and violations of human rights forced many humans in the exile.

After the death of Gnassingbé Eyadéma to 5. February 2005 appointed the army of the country its son Faure Gnassingbé, up to then Ministers for telecommunications, to the new president. The African union speaks of an unconstitutional Militärputsch. The westAfrican Economic Community ECOWAS suspended to 19. February as reaction to the unconstitutional seizure of power the membership of Togo. Apart from further sanctions the ECOWAS imposed among other things also a weapons embargo.

To 25. February withdrew Faure Gnassingbé due to the international pressure and the resistance of the opposition. The ECOWAS main header thereupon the sanctions up. The parliament president Abass Bonfoh president became provisional. The new head of state should be selected within 2 months, which to 24. April happened.

The opposition (leading candidate was the 74-jährige Emmanuel Bob Akitani) however already warned the choice day ago before organized fraud and therefore already designated the elections - among other things with reference to irregularities with the exhibition of Wahlscheinen - to 23. April as futile. Also foreign choice observers reported of substantial irregularities. Wahlurnen were destroyed, refused to choice observers the monitoring of the counting and other more.

To 26. April was explained to Faure Gnassingbé with allegedly 60.22% of the voices as the choice winner. Also the opposition candidate Emmanuel Bob Akitani called himself however to the choice winner out and recognized the election result not. Because of electoral fraud also the opposition leader Gilchrist Olympio , which was not allowed to begin to the choice, raised reproaches. Into that the choice the following days came it to road fights with up to approximately 500 dead ones and numerous hurt one. Around 35,000 humans Benin and Ghana fled in the following weeks particularly into the neighboring countries.

In the process of unrests became to 29. April 2005 also the Goethe Institute in Lomé after an advance notice of (supposed governmentnear) persons fired at, stormed and partial into fire been. Nobody was hurt. The government of Togo accuses Germany to stand on the side of the opposition. The German Foreign Office condemned the notice. Federal Minister of Foreign Affairs Fischer demanded an end of the “anti-German agitation “. To 30. The first Germans followed April 2005 the call of the Foreign Office to leave Togo.

To 10. June 2005 appointed president Faure Gnassingbé, which is not recognized because of its disputed choice until today by the European Union, the leader of the moderate opposition party “Patriotic Pan African party” Edem Kodjo the prime minister. Kodjo was already under Gnassingbes father from 1994 to 1996 prime ministers, before it from 1978 to 1984 Secretary-General of the organization at that time for African unit (OAU), today African union. Before the choice Kodjo had suggested the mechanism of truth and a reconciliation commission according to the model of South Africa.

military

  • of 8700 armed forces
  • defense expenditure per year 35.500.000$

infrastructure

the railway system of Togo is developed on at present 517 km, which fastens road system on 7250 km, of it 2376 km. A few years ago the railway traffic was stopped. Lomé besizt the only high sea port of the country, over which nearly the entire in and export are completed.

Togo has two international airports: Lomé Tokoin, IATA code LFW and Niamtougou /Lama Kara, IATA code LRL.

  • Mobile telephone network: GSM 900 in urban areas.
  • Network carrier: Togo Cellulaire
  • Internet/E-Mail: Cybercom. Internetcafés are country-wide present.

economics

general

Togo is mainly a tropical, raindependent agricultural country. Nearly 2/3 of the employed persons are in the agriculture. Among the cultivated basic food rank Yams, Maniok, corn, millet, peanuts and Sorghum (Sorgho). The agriculture contributes 38.6% to the BSP , industry 21%. The BSP is about 225 euro per head and the foreign debt amounts to 1,318 billion Euro (both estimated 2003).

foreign trade

the phosphate dismantling, which contributed 1985 still 8.4% to the BSP, came 2001 only on a portion of 2,2%. Are imported industrial goods, machines, vehicles, food and fuels. Most important export goods are calcium phosphates, finished cotton (27%), coffee (10%), dte, cocoa as well as cement.

Further economic incentives were given to a foreign trade zone by the creation. See Togo foreign trade zone.

between

1990 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Togo - word origin, synonyms and translations

of consulates



coordinates: 8° 15 ' N, 1° 11 ' O

 

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