Tonality (music)

tonality is not a characteristic of the abendländischen music, but covers each kind music, which circles around a tonal center, similarly as a planet around the sun circles. Without placing this order in question, the planet can be center and Bewegungstärger of its moon.The same Kraft, which align everything to a center, works also between all other tones, only more weakly or temporarily.

The clay/tone, which works as tonal center, is called basic clay/tone. The basic clay/tone is however more than only one point in the Tonraum, it is a sound.The physical clay/tone is consisting already a sound, of the witness clay/tone and its overtones. There are also different part and combination tones - both objectively measurable and inter+subjective, which develop only in the hearing. These tones arranged the Tonraum and cause that two tones, itselffrom each other steplessly remove or approach one on the other, times consonantally, times dissonance sound.

By practical making music the musicians discovered: in order to represent a clay/tone as sound, one must only realize its most important partial tones. Already the overtone row supplies a reference: the Tonraum of the Oktave (1: 2) becomes with thatQuinte divided (2: 3: 4); the Tonraum of the Quinte (2: 3) with the Durterz (4: 5: 6). Our feeling after, the Tonraum of the Quinte can be divided also with the small Mollterz. Briefly: the basic clay/tone works as basic sound (Tonika), more exactly: as triad in Dur or Moll.

That leaves itself easytest in the practical hearing execution. It is sufficient to lead itself the simplest form of tonal music before ears: the unanimity unfolding over a continuous bass note itself (boron dune, Ogelpunkt). Also cultures, which diminuieren the Tonraum differently, umspielen the same sound layers in the background as we. Even exotically seeming clay/tone systemscontain the sound-related tones the basic clay/tone. Therefore we are enbeso able to hear classically Indian music how turned around each Indian can enjoy about brook or Mozart.

Tonal music is in the special measure art in the time. The basic triad, the Tonika, does not workonly vertically together, but also horizontal, temporally gedent, as a chord together, in addition, broken as Arpeggio to ring out can. In order to glangen from one sound level into the next, one must jump actually - in the musical sense -. If one wants to diminuieren gradually a sound, must one as it were draw in stages. In such a way won intermediate steps are called “passages” and work always dynamically, even then, if them temporarily consonantally occupy appear, what their direction impulse lower clearly.

Same applies to the modulation. With its assistance another sound than moves temporary in the classical clay/tone artthe Tonika in the center of the happening. The architectural basic direction is not lost to the ways however (as the moon around the earth circles, without this would contradict the basic movement around the sun). To actually inform the modulation, as a means to arrive away from the basic clay/tone,is doubtful. The question would actually be, why a composer out-composes another sound than the Tonika temporarily? Actually the modulation is like the motive only one vehicle, a means for the purpose.

And the purpose of the tonality is it to arouse the expectation of the basic clay/tone,aufrecht zu erhalten und vor allem - die Auflösung hinaus zu zögern und auf diese Weise spannend zu gestalten. A history, in which the hero knows immediately and settles, what is to be done, would be without tension. The same, if the hero forgets his mission andfrom now on directionless roams.

The ability not to lose the basic clay/tone over far section from the hearing called William Furtwängler appropriate “remote hearing”. For the first time music theoretician Heinrich donor, its teachings described himself this connection of the Viennese in the last 50 years over thoseThe USA and to English linguistic area until the Asia spread.

After donor the complexity of tonal music results not from complex rules, but from iteration or back concerningness. We know from the chaos research: even simple rules know complex things out charms. Their conspicuous characteristic: Self similarity. Sothe complex crown of tree develops, as the simple instruction is applied to divide to different levels - by the trunk over the branches to up into the branches. Or the complex course of the moon develops, because its center moves again around a center.

Which meansfor the tonality? The passage diminuiert the basic sound, does not belong to it harmoniously not, dissoniert therefore with the basic clay/tone. Nevertheless the passage can be occupied by other voices consonantally. The relationship with the green tone remains untouched, but its movement impulse is so far reduced that it asPart another sound to appear can. The consonantally occupied passage is probably a phenomenon of the Mehrstimmigkeit and the largest discovery of the abendländischen musicians [the Indian music against it remained unanimous, which more complex rhythms and Diminutionsschritte compensate].

Deeper layers fulfill additionally a basic function and are therefore more solidly, more simply built (completely similarly harmonious obligations limit the melodische liberty of the bass). Higher layers enjoy more liberty, then dissonante passages can be also started, a phenomenon, which is strange to the background. Just as dissonances can remain in the foreground for sake a sound effect sake unaufgelöst, aboutin the jazz. In the background against it passages are led gradually and occupied consonantally - also in the jazz. Briefly: the “blank record” prolongiert the “strict sentence”.

This brings it with itself that in a music piece the chords follow hierarchically one another. Here tones and sounds become as dissolution-needy Dissonance or resting Konsonanz rated. We feel the deviation from the tonal center as increasing tension; the return as relaxation. Whereby the perhaps most important tension moment consists of the fact that relaxation, which we expect, retarded and only over detours occur.

history

the tonal music solvedthe modale music of the Middle Ages off, which was based on the kinds of church clay/tone, whereby many of the characteristics of tonality applied already there. In 18. Century were finally only the clay/tone sexes Dur and Moll remaining. Stage theory and the function theory formed as systems of the musical analysis.(„The supremacy of the tonal one works as connecting link for all tones of a piece “- Hermann of Helmholtz)

in 19. Century with smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner and other composer were extended gradually the borders of the tonality, to them in the musical Impressionismus (z. B. Claude Debussy)no more gradation or function-harmoniously to be regarded could not.

The complete release from the restriction on the tonality brought in 20. Century the composer Arnold beautiful mountain, its atonale composition way theoretically of Theodor W. Adorno in its is represented „philosophy of the new music “.

Neverthelessstraight of the popular music further through more or less extended tonality are coined/shaped to today almost all ranges also and. Only new music is in the predominant cases atonal.

see also

 

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