Table of contents
filters important stations from the beginnings of the history of the film and the film music:
- 1895: First public demonstration of mute Kurzfilmen with predominantly documentary contents by the brothers Lumière in Paris
- 1905: In America the first cinema with ca.100 seats is opened. Thosedemonstrated silent movies are accompanied and under-painted mainly by pianists musical.
- 1908: Camille Saint Saëns (1835-1921) writes dür the film “the murder of the duke de Guise “the first original film music.
- 1910: In the meantime it gives in the USA approx. 10,000 cinemas.
- 1920: The numberthe cinemas has itself in the USA doubled on 20.000. The film export to Europe flowers up. In special cinema orchestras play approx. 50-60 musicians. So-called “cue rings out sheets” as film music under painting (literally: Reference sheets): arranged Volkslieder, opera excerpts and European Sinfonik from the 19.Jahrhundert, to thatappropriate film scenes fit.
- 1926: Premiere of the first Tonfilms of the world: “Don Juan “(Warner Bros.)
- 1928: The silent movie is generally replaced by the Tonfilm. The film companies develop own music departments. For each new film a new film music develops. Pictureand clay/tone photographs (language, noises, music) take place separately.
The motion picture film was never mute; it was accompanied from the outset by piano or orchestra musicians. First attempts of the synchronisation of phase pictures with the Grammophon come from W. Donnisthorpe from the year 1877. Around 1900 then Thomas combinedAlva Edison the Kinematographen with its Phonographen and designed also different other combinations such as camera phons and Kinemaphon.
needle clay/tone procedure
during Edisons Phonograph still with rollers worked, used the Grammophon a needle as pick-up; the features of the late 20's became upRoles presents, which had a demonstration length of 11 minutes; afterwards the role had to be changed. For this purpose the long playing record was developed, which had first one Spieldauer of eleven minutes. One calls this medium group also needle clay/tone procedure; it became in the 30's of Photographic sound recording replaced.
Of many critics as the first adequate speech feature “the jazz singer “(the USA, 1927) regarded with aluminium Jolson under the direction of Alan Crosland was under his prominent actor also more a music film and still in the Vitaphone procedure (clay/tone on plate) manufactured. ThoseMonologe and dialogues were improvised.Warner Bros. it had only intended to turn a film in which music and singing were synchronized, whereby no dialogue manuscript was necessary. Thus also contents of the first mono log explain themselves Jolsons: “Control rooms it one minute. Wait one minute. Itup to now still nothing heard. Want they Toot toot tootsie to hear. All right. One moment. “ With it were “it up to now still nothing heard. ” one of its most famous idioms, which it presented also with its usual stage appearances. The only further language sequence was with at least 354Finally words clearly longer and Eugenie of better ones (13) and walter take place Oland between Jolson (340), which was allowed to say even only one word - characteristically to “stop”.
The first film with dialogues continuous synchronized was Lights OF New York, 1928 underthe direction turned by Bryan Foy, it scarcely one hour had play time.
knows photographic sound recording procedures as inventors of the photographic sound recording procedure German engineer Hans Vogt (* 25. September 1890 in Wurlitz (Upper Franconia)) designate. With its colleagues Joseph Massolle (1889-1957) and Jo Engl (1893-1942)carried out it in the common society trichloroethylene Ergon (griech. - lat., “work of the three”) the clay/tone film idea.
To 17. September 1922 was presented to the public in Berlin in the Alhambra cinema on the cure prince dam before 1000 spectators the first Tonfilm, with which the synchronous running difficulties of past clay/tone film systems were overcome. Vogt,with his idea of an integrated photographic sound recording-purely, had hieran relevant portion.
One of the films was the first dramatic dialogue film “the fire founder”. All remaining were pure orchestra films with vowel company, which were taken up mixed by the criticism. Remarkable way did not arrange itself the criticism of the press approximatelythe technical level, but against the contentwise level of the dialogues. With regard to the future recognized it that by it the actual art of the silent movie, which was destroyed Pantomime, in the long term.
With Tonfilms clay-purely beside the pictures on the film one applied. With a lamp this becameTrace behind-shone and to an electrical photoelectric cell transfer. The different electrical tensions, which caused the different brightness, by means of amplifiers and loudspeakers into audible tones one converted.
Because the film for the representation of the pictures is moved jerkily with most projectors, while those clay-purelyto move evenly, is necessary it must to produce an appropriate reconciliation. In addition the film is led loop-shaped across guide rollers and across a momentum role, which cushions the switching impacts. Disturbances of the peripheral speed are avoided so to a large extent. The distance between Bildprojektion and the appropriate place on that20 pictures amount to clay pure.
At first there was two procedures, the Zackenschrift and the Sprossenschrift. With the Zackenschrift the modulation is reached by differently broad exposure, with the Sprossenschrift by differently strong exposure with constant width that clay-purely. Later the Zackenschrift became generally accepted .
End that 1930er years agreed the film producers and owners of cinema on a clay/tone admission and a clay/tone rendition standard.
The photographic sound recording procedure is used also today still for the Tonwiedergabe.
magnetic sound procedure
with the magnetic sound procedure was tried for the 30's to replace the photographic sound recording; these attempts were not durable howeversuccessfully. Today a combination is used: The clay/tone admission is noted on magnetic tape, made of it a photographic sound recording negative, which is copied again on the Positivkopie of the demonstration.
newer clay/tone procedures
since 1992 even gives it with Dolby digital , DTS and SDDS qualitatively very high-quality clay/tone systems, those to 5 and/or. 7 clay/tone channels and one Subwoofer - bass channel support (channel pattern 5,1 and/or. 7.1).
- Mühl Benninghaus, Wolfgang: The struggle for the Tonfilm. Strategies of the electrical and of the film industry in and the 30's 20's, Droste publishing house 1999, ISBN 3-7700-1608-4
- Joachim Polzer (Hrsg.): World miracle of the cinematography - contributionsto a culture history of the film technology. (6. Edition 2002) - ascent and fall of the Tonfilms. Polzer Media Group, potsdam 2002, ISBN 3-934535-20-8
- Joachim Polzer (Hrsg.): World miracle of the cinematography - contributions to a culture history of the film technology. (3. Edition 1996) - SOUND - the clay/tone in the cinema. Publishing housethe DGFK Berlin.
- Michaela Krützen: Esperanto for the Tonfilm: The production of language versions for the early clay/tone film market. In: discourse film (Munich) No. 8 (1995), S. 119-154
- Karl Röwer: The technology for film before leader, VEB William scarcely publishing house, resounds (Saale), to 1953, No. 380/49/51, without ISBN