Tonga

of these articles is occupied with the State of Tonga. For a description to people of the same name in the south of Zambia see Tonga (people).
Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga (tongaisch)
Kingdom OF Tonga (English)
Kingdom of Tonga
Nationalflagge Tongas
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: Ko e Otua mo Tonga ko hoku tofi'a./God and Tonga acres my heritage.
Tonga./English., „God and Tonga are my inheritance. “
Office languages Tongaisch, English
capital Nuku'alofa
system of government constitutional hereditary monarchy
head of state king Taufa'ahau Tupou IV.
Head of the government Prime minister
Feleti Sevele
surface 748 km ²
number of inhabitants 112,422 (CIA estimation July 2005)
population density of 150.3 inhabitants per km ²
independence 4. June 1970
(before protectorate of the united Kingdom of)
currency Pa'anga (TOP) (also: Tonga dollar)
time belt UTC +13
national anthem Koe FasiOe Tui Oe Otu Tonga
Kfz characteristic CLAY/TONE
Internet TLD .to
preselection +676
Lagekarte Ozeaniens, Tonga hervorgehoben
Karte Tongas

the Kingdom of Tonga (tongaisch: Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga, English: Kingdom OF Tonga) is an island state in the south Pacific. The archipelago covers the 169 in former times also friendship islands (English: The Friendly Iceland) Tonga islands mentioned, by those only 36 are inhabited and the Minerva reef. Tonga is the only state in Ozeanien, that by Europeans was never kolonalisiert and one of the last monarchies of the world.

Table of contents

geography

Tonga consists of over one hundred islands and atolls in the Pacific east of Fiji, south of Samoa and north of New Zealand. In a proclamation to 24. August 1887 determined king George Tupou I.that Tonga lies between 15° and 23,5° southern latitude and 173° and 177° of western length (and thus west the date border).

To 15. June 1972 put king Taufa'ahau Tupou IV.firmly that the area of the northern one and the southern Minerva reef (Teleki Tokelau and Teleki Tonga) and everything in a periphery of twelve nautical miles likewise for the territory of Tonga belongs. Both reefs lie for instance with 23°70 southern latitude and 179° of western length southeast in the south of Tonga lyingIsland 'Ata.

Tonga lies with its many volcanic islands in the area of the Pacific Feuerrings. East Tonga lies the Tonga ditch deep to 10,882 m. Here the Pacific plate dips westward with 15 to 24 cm per year under those Australian plate and forms a Subduktionszone. The average depth of water amounts to therefore in approximately only 500m, why Koralleninseln can develop such as Tongatapu here. Capital and largest city of the country are Nuku'alofa.

See also: List of the places in Tonga

population

and denominations Tonga about

from north to

south Niuafo'ou Niuatoputapu

Fonualei Vava'u Ha'apai Tofua Nomuka Tongatapu Eua Ata [ work on]. The remaining inhabitants are usuallyEuropean or Chinesen. A large part of the tongaischen citizens lives permanently abroad, particularly in Australia, New Zealand and the USA.

The predominant part clay-ferment is member of a Christian religious community. Prevailing denominations are thereby those Free Wesleyan Church, the Roman-catholic church, the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days, the Free Church OF Tonga and the Church OF Tonga.

Humans from Tonga eat gladly, much and above all traditionallyvery fat (Yams and Kokosöl). Although thick humans on Tonga are still considered as beautiful and embody the healthy, the state introduced a program for the nourishing consultation and animated the population to more sport. That became necessary, becauseapproximately 58 per cent of the men and 75 per cent of the Mrs. a Body measure index exhibited, which lay well over 30. At that time Taufa'ahau Tupou IV. initierte. also a national competition, in which the Tonganer with the largest weight reduction 500 dollar won.That it succeeded to reduce 1918 born king into the early 90ern its weight by 70 kilograms to approximately 210 kilograms. <ref>[1] Marisa Pavlik: Tongan king gives health talc, July 2001. </ref>

history

it givesarchaeological opinions that the first settlers of the Santa Cruz islands came in the course of a people migration beginning around 3000 before Christ from Southeast Asia over Mikronesien to Tonga. On Tonga the oldest pieces of find of these Lapita became - culture in form of the characteristicCeramic(s) articles opened, on 800 to 750 the v. Chr.are dated. The members of this culture lived, segelten, acted, fought each other and married between the islands, those today to Samoa, Fiji or evenly Tonga belong for approximately thousand years, before itselffurther discoverers and finally settler after the Marquesas and Tahiti and afterwards to further islands of the south Pacific applied. For this reason Tonga, Samoa and Fiji von Anthropologen the cradle of the Polynesian culture are called.

In the twelfth century were clay-fermentand their highest chieftain, who admits Tu'i Tonga, in the entire Pacific area from Niue to Tikopia. Some historians speak the description of a tongaischen Imperium, as a net from sailors, chieftains and adventurers meet the condition probably better. In 15. Century and then in 17. Master feuds between the chieftains broke century off again and again. At this time it came to first contacts with Europeans: 1616 with the Dutch discoverers Willem Schouten and Jakob Le Maire, with theirfirst contact unfortunately one clay-ferment before Niuatoputapu shot [2], 1643 with Abel Tasman (the one little trade with the native ones floated), later around 1773 above all in addition, with James Cook, that the islands in the consequence stillvisited two further marks (1774 and 1777). 1781 reached Francisco Maurelle Vava'u. First mission acres followed twenty years later, an important role should the Methodist walter Lawrey play, which however only 1822 came to Tonga.

The tongaischen master feuds upto all islands from 1799 to 1852 ended by the agreement of Tonga under Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupou (later:George Tupou I.). It united all islands of Tonga 1845 to the oldest Polynesian kingdom. Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupous woman came of to the king line of the Tu'i Kanakopulu. It left itself later in the course of the Christianisierung on the name king George Tupou I. baptize.1875 became Tonga with the aid the mission acre Shirley Baker a constitutional monarchy. Tonga became to 18. May 1900 in the context of a friendship treatyto a British protectorate. Tonga is its own member in the Commonwealth and since 1999 also member United Nations. It is to today the only (constitutional) hereditary monarchy in the entire Polynesian Pacific area and Kolonialisierungsbestrebungen always oppose could itself- a fact, which clay-ferment with pride, in addition, confidence fulfills into their system of government.

politics

Königlicher Palast auf der Insel Tongatapu
royal palace on the island Tongatapu

Tonga are a constitutional monarchy, and the condition grants larger powers to the king thanfor example the English king. The respect for the royal rule existed still invariably as at that time in past centuries, opposite as a holy judged highest chieftain the Tu'i Tonga. Criticism at the monarchy is rejected as untongaisch and simply impolitely. King Taufa'ahauTupou IV., direct descendant of the first king lives with his family, unites influential noble ones as well as the increasing non-noble elite in relative wealth, while the remaining population is comparatively poor. The effects of this inequality are moderated by three factors: Education,medical supply and Landbesitz.

Tonga has a well equipped educating system, which makes free entrance possible to education. For all children up to the twelfth Lebensjahr exists compulsory schooling, the fees for resuming schools is small and it gives scholarships for a furtherTraining abroad. The Alphabetisierungsrate amounts to 98%, and universitäre conclusions are common.

In addition there is free entrance to medical supply. The condition forbids land acquisition to foreigners (however they can lease which). There is a land lack on the poets settled HauptinselTongatapu, on the remaining islands is open however mostly field. The majority of the population produces food to the internal requirement, for instance half produces her basic food by agriculture, fishery and cattle breeding. Women and men have same entrance to education and medicallyAre approximately alike to supply, also the employment figures, but women are disadvantaged with the Landbesitz, since he is entitled only to men legally. In the parliament only a woman was represented.

Domestic abuse and rapes are problems, it on local, family level are usually treated,Prostitution exists usually in poor localities (e.g. in Popua, contact in Discos, or private parties). Transsexuelle Fakaleiti and homosexual men are accepted and celebrated with the measure Galaxy choice, which as a screen lady Lupepau'u'u, granddaughter of the king and Honorarkonsulin of China, manages.The number of force criminal offences is small, but rising, which is attributed in the public to the return of abroad grown up Tongaern.

There is a democratic movement on Tonga, those for a reform of the existing system, in particular a better agencythe simple population and in the commonwealth occurs larger transparency. An abolishment of the monarchy does not belong to its goals. The monarchy enjoys large support in the population, even if reforms are demanded. Until recently the circumstance became that Tongano democracy is ignored, by foreign heads of the government, it appears however a course change or at least criticism on some government actions particularly on the part of Australia and New Zealand , the largest neighbours and giver countries.

The example of its nut/mother, queen Salote, and thatAdvice of foreign advisors following has the government under king Taufa'ahau Tupou IV. the economy monetarisiert, the medical supply and the education system adapted to international standards and the population entrance to material prosperity (in the form of dwellings, cars and other goods),Education and journeys abroad provide. The government supports olympic and other sport events and soldiers for discord missions (particularly in Bougainville) made available.

However the government made also some doubtful economic decisions and put money into eccentric projects,like the search for oil in areas, where there is no oil according to geologists, considerations, to use Tonga as ultimate waste disposal for radioactive waste (of the present Crown Prince), the sales of tongaischen passports, the permission of foreign ships, then into illegalActions were complicated, letting Casino attached by “park positions” for earth satellites in the universe to other states, whose profit flows into the bags of the princess and not the state, the long-term chartering of an useless Boeing 757 and the structure of an airport hotel withtogether with a criminal one looked for by interpole.

The king seems a slope to speculative large-scale projects, which promise a high profit to possess. It already lost several millions to a financial adviser, who called himself as a royal yard fool. ThosePolice arrested two leaders of the democratic movement and the government has repeats the Tongan Time (a newspaper, which is printed in New Zealand and sold in Tonga) konfiszieren to leave, when it denounced the absence rides of the king. The newspaper Kele'a, Language pipe of the per-democratic movement around 'Akilisi Pohiva and sharpest critic of the government, was not censored however, whereas Pohiva had to appear again and again before court.

In the middle of 2003 came into force a constitutional amendment, which tongaisieren the press „“should, it inTruth however limited. As justification traditional tongaische values were consulted. In order to receive a press license, it is now among other things necessary that the newspaper is to at least 80% in the possession of a Tongaers living on Tonga. Under those magazines,the Taimi 'o Tonga (Tongan Time), the Kele'a and the Matangi Tonga received , was no license, while all magazines with license are church or royalistisch coined/shaped.

The law encountered violent resistance, among other thingsa protest march with several thousand participants in the capital took place, the Tu'i Pelehake (a nephew of the king and selected member in the parliament) Australia and other countries requested to exert pressure on Tonga in order to drive the democratization in front, andthere was a collection of signatures, which requested to examine the procedures legally. Among the 160 signers were also sieve that altogether nine representatives of the people.

This politics of the hard hand and further Ausrut overshadow a little the otherwise positive life's work of theKing and the positive reforms of his popular son and prime minister prince 'Ulukalala Lavaka 'Ata. The Crown Prince Tupouto'a and the royal princess Pilolevu held back themselves with this topic remarkably. Altogether these measures weakened the community and the co-operation, butalso to the monarchy to stronger democratic elements increases the pressure.

Heads of state
reign name
1875 - 1893 king George Tupou I.
1893 - 1918 king George Tupou II.
1918 - 1965 queen Salote Tupou III.
since 1965 king Taufa'ahauTupou IV.

see also: List of the prime ministers of Tonga

relations with Germany, Austria and Switzerland

responsible person diplomatic agency of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Swiss Confederation is the respective message in Wellington (New Zealand), for the republicAustria the message in Canberra (Australia). For Germany, Austria and Switzerland responsible tongaische agency is the message of the Kingdom of Tonga in London (united kingdom). For Germany there is the also following address: Fee consulate of the Kingdom of Tonga meadow mouths STR. 64 40489Duesseldorf Tel.: 0203/74 12 11 fax: 0203/74 28 52

regional administrative bodies

Tonga is partitioned in five administrative units (division) (in parentheses the capital): Eua (Ohonua), Ha'apai (Pangai), Tongatapu (Nuku'alofa), Vava'u (Neiafu). Far, 650 kmnorth of Tongatapu and 250 km north of Vava'u lying islands Niuatoputapu and Niuafo'ou belong to the division Niuas and by the capital Hihifo on Niuatoputapu are out administered.

The national parliament putrefies to Alea has 30 seats, about which 12 cabinet members are,9 delegates are selected by that altogether 33 tongaischen aristocrats and 9 delegates of the people. The 9 delegates selected by the people build themselves up in such a way: 1 delegate from 'Eua, 2 delegates from Ha'apai, 1 delegate from Niuas (Niuatoputapu and Niuafo'ou),3 delegate from Tongatapu and 2 delegates from Vava'u. The legislative period does not last 3 years and political parties is certified.

economics

general

the economy of Tonga through-lives at present, like probably in each south Pacific state,a difficult phase. Large farmers from other countries and enormous fishing fleets make competition for the country on the market, besides is the tourism much too badly developed. Most products of the daily life must be imported.

Internet

a welcomeSource of income is the sales of .to - Domainnamen as jump.to or come.to for 83 euro per year (2001). Somewhat Tuvalu ( Domainname .tv) and Niue ( Domainname .nu, Netherlands and Swedish for now”) make something similar. Likewise Tonga improved the national budgetwith the sales of tongaischen passports, which are however internationally not recognized. Otherwise the country exports tropical fruits, also vanilla. Principal clients are Japan with 55%, the USA with 25% and New Zealand with 7%.

There would be enough possibilities,into the economy from Tonga to to invest, however hardly is someone, which also makes this.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

infrastructure

for a flight to Tonga one can select between air new Zealand, air Pacific and Polynesian airlines. Thus there is new Zealand connections with air after Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane in Australia, Auckland in New Zealand and Apia in Samoa. Air Pacific approaches Tonga von Nadi on Fiji and Polynesian the airlines of Apia, Sydney, Melbourne, Auckland and Wellington in New Zealand. Tonga possesses after the bankruptcy thatRoyal Tongan air only an own inland airline, the Peau Vava'u air. This approaches regularly all larger Inselgruppen of the country. Altogether 3 airplanes of the type DC-3 are to the airline at the disposal.

Ferries drive daily from Tongatapu to Eua,once weekly after Ha'apai and Vava'u and once monthly on the Niuas.

culture

work-free holidays
date name German name
1. January new Year´s Day New Year's Day
29. March Good Friday, variable Karfreitag
1. April Easter Monday, variable Ostermontag
25. April ANZAC Day Australian holiday - Tongai soldiers fought in the Australian army.
4. May Crown Prince´s Birthday Crown Prince birthday
4. June Emancipation Day independence day
4. July King´s Birthday (beginning of the Heilala week, the day within Saturday Saturday) birthday of theKing (king Taufa'ahau Tupou IV.)
4. November Constitution Day day of the condition
4. December King Siaosi Tupou I. Day king George Tupou I. Day
25. December Christmas Day 1. Weihnachtstag
26. December Boxing Day 2. Weihnachtstag

To

the Polynesian languages, the one branch of the austronesischen languages sees Tongai language [to work on ]

sport people sport in

Tonga is belonged

to language

the Tongai language is Rugby. Approximately 20% of the population exercise this sport actively.The Rugby national team qualifies itself regularly for every 4 years the taking place world championship (2003 in Australia, the next take place last 2007 in France). In the newest world rank list the island state assumes rank 17.

Tonga has however in the sport with manyTo fight problems. Due to the absence of large-scale enterprises hardly sponsor money for the sport can be lukriert, which makes a professional working unfortunately impossible, particularly in the youth work is missing to much money. Australia and New Zealand take advantage of this. These two countriesseals the best players from Tonga (and the other island states) by means of sport-tip-served, it gives them the respective nationality whereby the islands lose their best players.

Tonga succeeded it in the last years to build an ultramodern Rugbyarena these stands howevermost time empty. There are hardly opponents, which ready explain themselves to take the far journey to Tonga on itself. Australia and New Zealand refuse delivering at all plays against the island states. In order to be able to deliver nevertheless international plays, becamesome time ago the tournament “Pacific trichloroethylene nation” based, in which the national teams of Tonga, Samoa and Fiji begin against each other.

In the southern hemisphere there is two recognized an Rugby applying - the “super 14 League” (in each case five associations from New Zealand andSouth Africa, as well as four from Australia) and the tri nation tournament (the national teams of the three countries). In both competitions Tonga is not taken up despite repeated request.

environment

fauna

on Tonga gives it to flight dog. They fly alsoBreak-down of the dawn on food search, but contrary to the bat without echo ranging. They nourish themselves exclusively vegetarian of Nektar, Pollen, fruits and blooms.

sources

<references/>

Web on the left of



coordinates: 15°-23,5° S, 173°-177° W

 

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