Topografi map

a topographic map or topografische map is presumptuous and topographical a map, those the visible features of the earth's surface (topography) and/or. situation-faithfully mapped represents.

Topographic map

table of contents

contents

in a topographic map are areas, situation and name property represented. By the area (relief) one understands the earth's surface as boundary surface between soil/air and/or. Soil/water. By situation one understands the objects, in particular waters, connected firmly with the earth's surface, vegetation and/or. Ground cover, settlements, traffic and/or. Infrastructure, as well as administrative units (borders). The name property are the names of the represented objects and landscapes.

purpose

a high accuracy of the topographic map permits an employment for planning, administration, science, in particular geosciences, economic and military interests and private activities.

Topografi maps are published today usually as framework map work and contain, a right-angled grid network based on Gauss jug he or UTM coordinates. Likewise it is possible to take out of these maps geographical coordinates.

The maps are characterized by a uniform graphic and kartografische organization and them form yardstick rows so mentioned. Basis of the production of a topografischen map is an area admission and/or an aerial photograph and/or. Satellite photograph evaluation. In order to hold topografische maps on certain conditions of the topicality, they must be continued and updated editorialally.

Topografi maps form particularly in their subsequent yardsticks the basis for all other maps and special maps.

The first maps, which had the character of a topografischen map in form and contents, originated in in 17. Century due to military interests. Historically and partially this very day topografische maps are subject to the national secrecy.

situation in Germany

topographic regional map works are worked on and given change in Germany by the land surveying authorities of all Lands of the Federal Republic. The map works with yardsticks 1: 200,000 and smaller (general maps) is published by the Federal Office for cartography and geodesy (BKG). Federally uniform indication regulations (“sample sheets”) guarantee the homogeneity of all maps manufactured in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The topographic maps are published after a yardstick row:

Name yardstick contraction publisher remark
German basic card 1: 5,000 DGK5 LVA
German basic card 1: 10,000 DGK10 LVA regionally in place of the DGK5
topographic map 1: DGKs is to replace 10 ,000 TK10 LVA
topographic map 1: 25,000 TK25 LVA
topographic map 1: 50,000 TK50 LVA
topographic map 1: 100,000 TK100 LVA
topographic general map 1: 200,000 TÜK200 BKG
general map 1: 500,000 ÜK500 BKG
international map of the world 1: 1,000,000 IWK1000 BKG

the official topographic cartographic information system (ATKIS) makes the topographic information available digitally . These are available as digital topographic map (DTK) in raster form or as digital landscape model (DLM) in vector form.

situation in Switzerland

topographic map works are given change in Switzerland by the Federal Office for Landestopografie. The maps are based on one inclined-oh-triumph, bending regret cylinder projection (Mercatorprojektion) with their own Swiss coordinate system (CH1903+). All map sheets are completely adjusted with a cycle from 7-8 years.

The topographic maps are published in the following yardsticks:

Name yardstick envelope color number of sheets
of regional map 1: 25,000 brown 247
regional map 1: 50,000 green 78
regional map 1: 100,000 red 23
regional map 1: 200,000 yellow 4
general map 1: 500,000 1
regional map 1: 500,000 1
regional map 1: 1,000,000 1

the normal map sheets are raster-moderately arranged. Additionally there are special compositions over sheet borders around dyes or in routistic areas. Many of the map sheets on a scale 1: there are 50,000 also as moving maps (with emphasized moving way) or ski route maps.

The Federal Office for Landestopografie publishes the also following digital products: Regional map 1: 25,000 on DVD (Swiss map 25), regional map 1: 50,000 on DVD (Swiss map 50), regional map 1: 50,000 on CD-ROM (Swiss map 100); and for professional applications: digital landscape models as pixel maps for all yardsticks, digital landscape models as vector data based on the regional maps 1: 25,000 (VECTOR25) and 1: 200,000 (VECTOR200), digital elevator models with mesh sizes 25 m (DHM25) and 2 m (CATHEDRAL/DTM-AV).

see also

moving map, Bathymetri map

to literature

  • Ogrissek, Rudi (Hrsg.): Of Brockhaus ABC map customer. 1. Aufl. VEB F. A. Of Brockhaus publishing house, Leipzig 1983

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