of these articles is occupied with the holy writing of the Judentums. For the maximum take-off run of the airports see TORA.

Tora /the books Mose (Pentateuch)
Bereschit * 1. Book Mose = genesis
Schemot * 2. Book Mose = exodus
Vajikra * 3. Book Mose = Levitikus
Bemidbar * 4. Book Mose = numbers
Devarim * 5. Book Mose = Deuteronomium

Tora (hebr. תורה; etymologisch hebr.: jarah = instruct, chew-sown. ; other ways of writing: Torah, Thora) meansTeachings, instruction, instruction, instruction, law.

Tora is at the same time the first and most important main part of the Hebrew Bible, the Tanach. In it altogether 613 Tora of requirements is contained. It covers the five books Mose, those in the modern Bible research Pentateuch to be called. These form also in the old person will of the Christianity the first main part, which contains fundamental faith contents with God revealing at the ore fathers and Israel.

To the geoffenbarten requirements that Tora has itself in the Judentum a long tradition of theirverbal interpretation, specifying, consideration and addition attached: This is since 70 n. Chr. in the Mischna and tradiert in the Talmud collected and obligatorily on Jews. The most important requirements that Tora are in these rabbinischen just like in the urchristlichen Tradition the ten requirements and the requirement of the next love. Also a part of the remaining Tora requirements is in the interpretation, which gave Jesus of Nazaret them (e.g. in the mountain lecture), obligatorily on Christians further.

Table of contents

written Tora

Tora role
of Tora role

Tora consists of five individual books (in the Christianity the five books Mose or called in the Greek Pentateuch), those in the Hebrew one after the first wordin the book are designated:

Bereschit (בְּרֵאשִׁית) (in the beginning created…)Genesis (1. Book Mose)
Schemot (שְׁמוֹת) (these are the names …)Exodus (2. Book Mose)
Wajikra (וַיִּקְרָ) (and it called JHWH …)Levitikus (3. Book Mose)
Bemidbar (בְּמִדְבַּר)(And it talked JHWH in the desert …)Numbers (4. Book Mose)
Debarim (הַדְּבָרִים) (these are the words …)Deuteronomium (5. Book Mose)

in the Jewish tradition is called it, altogether 613 regulations (Mitzwot) in that would be Tora: 365 requirementsand 248 prohibitions. Both numbers are numbers of the perfection: 365 symbolize the number of the days in the year, 248 the number of the bones in the human body.


the Hebrew word has several, differently far meanings. The closest designatesthe five books Mose, which received the people Israel according to its excessive quantity at the mountain Sinai. Jews do not talk about the old person will, since this presupposes a new will, which does not give it in the Judentum; there is here only one will.

the scroll

in the connection with it is often the Tora role meant with „Tora “. This is a large role from Pergament, on which the five books Mose are by hand noted in Hebrew letters (without vowels). Tora roles becomegenerally in the synagog keeps. In services, particularly to T/plate-asked, in addition, one reads at holidays, from this Tora role in the synagog „“. Usually the text is not spoken but is not sung thereby. Sense of these 2000jährigen tradition is,the Jewish people with the text that Tora trusts to make.

For the public service use planned Tora is written particularly for it to a writer in principle trained by hand by a Sofer. In the case of good keeping a Tora role can do several hundredsYears „live “, i.e. remain intact and thus ritually useful. The oldest existing Tora role comes from approximately 900 n. Chr., i.e. 1500 years, after the final version had been written to that Tora. Tora roles, those mechanically or by wear or highOlder damaged and thus useless became, from respect are not thrown away, but bury in a Genisa kept or on a Jewish cemetery. To the Tora decoration belong Mappa (cloth), Me'il (coat), Tass (sign), Jad (staff) and Kether (crown) or depending uponCause a special essay, Rimonim (Granatapfel) mentioned.

verbal Tora

sound of traditional Jewish excessive quantity received Israel over Mose however not only these writings (written Tora), but also of them verbally delivered interpretation, those the key for thatUnderstanding written Tora supplies. This became of the prophets (Neviim) and the further teachers of the people verbally delivered. Finally they were written down of Rabbinern as Mischna and as Gemara, i.e. together as Talmud. The Mischnabecame around the year 200 n. Chr. in written form fixes, the Gemara up to 6. Century. While in the Pentateuch beside the telling parts 613 Ge and prohibitions are listed, become in the Mischna and the Gemara these regulations concretizesand partly actually changes.

the Hebrew Bible

a further meaning marks the entire Jewish Bible (Tanach), thus Tora strictly speaking, the Neviim (Prophetenbücher) and the Ketubim (writings).

meaning that Tora

Tora is for more than 3000 years with their clear Monotheismus, their on the right of and philosophy history, its Mystik and above all its high ethical content a substantial element of the Judentums.

With the Judentum in the Diaspora, but forwardseverything with the Christianity and the Ekklesia (Greek; German: Church) became those Tora coining/shaping for the western evening country and coined/shaped the Islam, by which, which has to actually or say Tora allegedly, and in the view, throughwhat one accepted, what it to say has. For the Judentum those is Tora important background for the understanding of its past as a people and as civilization.

fundamentalism - literal Bible understanding

the orthodox and particularly the fundamentalistTradition within the Judentums regards those Tora as God word, which was given Mo at the mountain Sinai by God. It is quite granted in some orthodox circles that itself in the Tradierung of the God word here and there some write errorsto have in-crept it could, does not contest the fact that those was Tora the word of God, however not. Like that the orthodox to fundamentalist point of view a sentence is as “created God humans in its image there…” (Gene 1.28) a fact,since the word of God is by definitionem the truth. This implies also that each word that must have Tora a sense, since no letter of God of word can be redundant. Where the modern sciences with the Tanach would stand in contradiction,once it would show up that the modern sciences erred or we would not understand the Bible appropiately.

one already

knows progressive Bible understanding of the Jewish ways of the antique ones that they did not take Tora literally, although them thoseTora as of God written regarded. The ways recognized the fact that the Tanach (the Jewish Bible) and numerous subtle metaphors, wordplays and allusions contains everything else that had been delivered to them, and that he uses different literary means and poetry, thoseoppose a linear approach. They regarded it as legitimate to contradict Tora.

Fundamentally the differentiation between orthodox Judentum and progressive Judentum is the understanding of revealing. The non-orthodox Judentum sees revealing in that to Tora not asabsolutely and unchangeably, but as a progressive dialogue of the people of God with its God. The Jewish progressive civilization is particularly endeavored around the Observanz ( that means observance ) of the moral laws in the time of human rights, democratic decisions and natural sciences.She does not believe that the Tanach, which is Tora the unalterable word of God, but that these are göttlich inspired in the core. Revealing is a progressive process. God reveals contents of its will and its requirements of each generation again. ThisAttitude makes it possible to change the tradierte Jewish law practice where it does not correspond to the ethical standards of the Judentums after progressive view any longer. In addition certain rules count regarding divorce, Mamser (i.e. from a inzestuösen or an adulterousRelationship coming child), Kohanim (priest), homosexual one etc. and above all the full religious equal rights of women. In the progressive Judentum the execution of the Mitzwot is adapted and placed in the responsible person decision of the particular.

The progressive Judentum intends for itself howeverParts of the tradition, which have always-lasting meaning, separately from such, which are, in the Jewish civilization changing conception of the world following, time conditionally and relative. Value elements of the Jewish tradition and the Judentums of duration are T/plate-asked , a striving after Justice and the holyness of the life. Time-relative, relative value elements are for example the temple victim and the absolute power of the man over its wife (as legal thing). Today those becomes Tora of the majority of the Jews in modern way, alsoAssistance of epistemological criteria interpreted. The meaning and the effect of the examples , requirements and prohibitions of the Tanach , that limit the conscience, the reason, ethical considerations, realizations of nature, spirit and social sciences Tora.

the five booksMose in the Christianity

old persons the will (RK) is three-arranged, like the Tanach. The Pentateuch opens the Christian Bible, like the Tanach. Those forms however no own unit for Tora, but is usually with the front prophets (Josua, judge,Samuel, kings) and the books Ruth, chronicle, Esra, Nehemia and ester as group of the historical books sorts. The catholic church ranks the books Tobit and Judith, which are not part of the Hebrew Bible among the historical books still. In other orderconcerning the Tanach RKs the writings (Ketubim ) follow and then only the rear prophets in (Nebiim). With the deviating assortment deviations of the understanding of the Pentateuchs accompany in the Christianity. The five books Mose do not become any morewhen teachings, law read, but as historical books. Stand for promise in the Christianity no longer the theories and laws in the foreground, but the promises - particularly the Abraham - - and the narrations of God historical acting. By the new will, in particular the mountain lecture, Mose are particularly the ten requirements of large importance of the teachings and laws of the five books.

written Tora in the Islam

in its basic attitude and world view refers the Islam to thatInheritance of the prophets and on the clear Monotheismus Abrahams. Judentum and Christianity are considered to the Islam as religions, which have also a certain, however smaller portion of göttlichen revealing. From different Suren of the Korans (Sura 2.5 - Sura 5,45ff.- Sura 6.75-80 - Sura 21.52-69 - Sura 20,42ff. and. A.) is common the gläubigen Muslims, which the Qur has `at (Koran) roots in that Tora.

Although those are often positively mentioned Tora like also the gospel in the Koran, they becomefrom Muslims however hardly studies. To be avoided after orthodoxislamisacher view Tora and the gospel falsified are and therefore from Muslims to.

The statement that the Koran roots in that has Tora, is a not-Muslim interpretation of the similarities between Kur'an andTora. From the view of a Muslim is the reason for the similarities that in that despite changes in the run by human influence still elements of original göttlichen revealing contain Tora of the time and thus in last revealing Allahs(the Qur'an) to regain are.

knowledge value

  • those is carried or read Tora, then she is held only at the two Holzstangen. The Pergament is if possible not affected. Thus the writing remains legibly and “to manufacture” because Torais very aufwändig, since it is written by hand. In addition a particularly trained writer, that is called Sofer, is assigned. A Sofer needs a full year for the letter Tora about.
  • Tora becomes in synagogs at a specialShrine, for which Aron keeps haKodesch. Usually this is locked with a door and a curtain. This is opened during special prayers, or to opportunities at those from the Tora role one reads.
  • In that Tora is not not one spelling mistake.
  • EverythingLine lengths and - lengthen are continuous alike remaining.

see also


Hanna let, in co-operation with Anette M. Böckler and Bruno Landthaler: TANACH - Text book of the Jewish Bible. Heidelberg2005.

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