Dead sea

Dead sea
Totes Meer
data
layer Anterior Asia
countries Israel, West Jordan territory, Jordanian
surface 600 km ²
water surface under 400 m under NN
sea-depth approx. 400 m
sea-soil 794 m under NN
of supplies Jordan
discharges dischargeless
places on the bank EN Gedi, Sedom, aluminium-Mazra
characteristics
  • tiefstgelegenster lake of the earth
  • third-deepest Kryptodepression
  • deepest land place of the earth
  • extremely salzhaltig
  • to a large extent bacterial life

the dead sea (hebr. יםהמלח Yam HaMelach and/or. „Salt sea “; Arab: بحرالميّت Bahr aluminium-Mayyit or بحرلوط Bahr Lūt, „sea of death “or „sea plumb bob “) is a lake, which is fed by Jordan. It borders on Israel, the Israeli occupied West Jordan territory and on Jordanian ones.

The name probably goes on Hieronymus from that 4. Century back. Before the lake was called „salt sea “or „bitumen lake “.

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geography

sunrise at the dead sea

the dead sea forms onedischargeless and approximately 600 km ² large salt lake, which lies as so mentioned „final lake “in a depression. This is part of the Jordan ditch, which represents the northern continuation „of the large African Grabenbruchs in such a way specified “. Its water surface becomes frequentlyindicate as values around 396 m by NN; the water level actually already is with a progressive drainage for some years below -400 meters. Newest Israeli maps (2006) indicate already -418 m as sea-mirror height. The coast of the lake forms therebythe deepest freely accessible point of the earth's surface; the dead sea is the most deeply lying sea of the earth, but not the deepest. The reason of the lake is with 794 m under NN; with it it acts herearound the third-deepest Kryptodepression of the earth.

Salzgehalt

salzverkrustete Steine am Toten Meer
of salzverkrustete stones at the dead sea

the Salzgehalt of the dead sea amounts to up to 33 per cent, on the average approximately 28 per cent (to the comparison: the Salzgehalt of the Mediterranean is with approx. 3Per cent). Only the Assalsee in East Africa is still more salzhaltiger with scarcely 35 per cent.

The dead sea does not have a discharge, i.e., all water, which flows in, remains in it. Actually the water level would have to rise now ever further, until the water sometime inanother sea flow off (overflowed) became. Does not happen however: At the dead sea a dry desert climate prevails. It falls hardly rains and it is very hot (in the summer up to over 40 degrees). Thus so much water evaporates that itself thatWater level on a certain height settles down. The quantity of water, which flows, evaporates also again. But only the water evaporates: Minerals, salts etc., which are registered particularly from Jordan into the dead sea, stay themselves and to enrich inWater ever further on. Thus it comes to a Salzgehalt of over 30%.

Against its name the dead sea is biologically not dead, however the life is limited to a large extent to different micro organisms, in particular to anaerobic, Nitro, sulfur and Cellulose diminishing bacteria. Also some plants with large salt tolerance, the so-called. Halophyten, can survive in this extreme environment.

Is by the constant taking out water from Jordan to the supply of Israel and Jordanian one with drinking water the dead seafrom creeping drainage threatens. The water level of the lake sinks for years, since the supply quantities decrease with continuous evaporation. Plans for the rescue of the dead sea plan to dig a channel from the Red Sea to. Appropriate planning already started. Thatsupplied water could hold the water level stably, at the same time could the downward gradient for energy production be used.

That global Nature find warns however of these plans. Driven would exist on the one hand for the corral reefs at the gulf of Akaba, of where forthe dead sea meant water to be taken is. On the other hand could do the mixture ten times salzhaltigeren sea water with the sea water to the wide gypsum formation in the dead sea to lead.

Schwimmen im Toten Meer
Swims in the dead sea

interestingly enough is the composition of the salts in the dead one Sea hygroscopically, D. h. that one of the sources of supply is to a certain extent the air humidity. This has the consequence that at moderate temperatures water from the dead sea never evaporates completely and itself also no salt crusts or - crystals form.

Tourism

newspaper vintages in the dead sea

Touristisch interesting places at the dead sea are a Bokek, Neve Zohar, oasis EN Gedi as well as Massada, Jericho and the caves of Qumran. On the Jordanian eastern side of the dead sea are on reading on peninsula the places Numeira and Bab Edh Dhra (more well-known as Dhra). There are acceptance that they were the cities Sodom and Gomorrha, which were destroyed after Biblical excessive quantity. Dhra is one of the archaeologically oldest places with vouchers for thatearly agriculture (here 9,500 v. Chr.) more than 20,000 bronze-temporal pit graves assumed, only few are excavated here.

Importantly for the region is also the bath tourism. Because of the nearly tenfold Salzgehaltes opposite other seas the water carries for each bodyas polystyrene, one can not go down thus practically. Since the salt however already causes burning pain with smallest skin injuries, increased caution is required, particularly since the riparian zone verkrustete stones and sharp edged salt plugs exhibits. It becomes still worse, if sea waters into thoseTurns out for eyes: the way to the next fresh water cock is usually far.

On the other hand the minerals of the dead sea are not only processed in many Köperpflegeprodukten, but to have also one welfare-ends effect with skin diseases, so that in some cases of shed lichen of cure stays alsopaid by German health insurance companies are.

water level

Pegelstände des Totes Meeres von 1930–2020
of level conditions dead of the sea of 1930-2020

the present water level amounts to 417 m uNN and sinks since the 1980er annually around approximately a meter. Dropping the water level is human originand by deriving the Jordan water for the potable water supply and the agriculture one causes. In the past 30 years the surface of the lake shrank around approximately a third. Up to the year 2020 a decrease of the water level on 430 becomesm uNN prognosticates. It is mind-measured that the level around 2000 v. Chr. with 250 m uNN most highly stood.

Into the 1930er years flowed annually approx. 1300 million m ³ water in the dead sea, today are it still about 350Million m ³. There the dead sea to drain threatens it the lake of the yearly 2006 threatened by the environmental donation global Nature find „“was appointed. For the maintenance of a certain water level Israel and Jordanian ones plan the building 300 km are enough andfive billion US Dollar expensive channel of the Red Sea to the dead sea.

see also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Dead sea - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 31° 29 ′ 27 " n. Break, 35° 28 ′ 47 " o. L.

 

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