Route de France

of these articles concerns itself with the route de France generally. For the current route, see route de France 2006.

The route de France [ˌtuʀdəˈfʀɑ̃ːs], also Grande Boucle [gʀɑ̃dˈbukl] („large loop “) orsimply Le route [ləˈtuːʀ] mentioned, is the most famous and Radrennen of the world most meaning for the drivers. Since 1903 the route becomes annual - with exception of the time first (failed 1915-1918) and the Second World War (failed 1940-1946) - duringthree weeks in July delivered and thereby the close foreign country leads in changing routing across France and. Running is organized by the Amaury sport organization (ASO). Since 2005 the route belonged to at that time the again introduced UCI pro route, a series of the most important Radrennen of the yearly; starting from 2007 the route will not any longer belong to.

A route de France of the Mrs. (Grande Boucle Féminine international one) with clearly shorter stages was driven between 1984 and 2003. It stood medial completelyin the shade of their male model. Due to of lack of interest, a law case and lack of sponsor is not since then any longer delivered it.

Siegerpodest der Tour de France 2004
Winner landing of the route de France 2004

table of contents

routing and - profile

the route de France becomes as the heaviest wheel round travelthe world outstandingly, although the Streckenprofil is more fastidious often not than that of the two other large national round travels giro d'Italia and Vuelta A España. Actually there is however the wheel running drivers, who make a running heavy: With the route becomescertainly faster, harder and more compromiseless driven than with each other round travel. Each individual stage is contests as usual only the a daily classical authors.

Auf den Champs-Elysées
On the Champs Elysées

usually

begins stages the route de France since 1967 with thatpro log so mentioned, a short individual time driving (approx. 5 to 10 km). If the opening time driving exhibits a length of over 10 km (last 2005), it as the first stage designated.

On it following the usually 20 stages, of toto be interrupted, draws for two quiescent days then the French Hexagon after, whereby France alternating in and/or. against the clockwise direction one drives on. Those route distance altogether which can be completed was reduced after the Dopingskandal of 1998 clearly and amounts to since then approximately 3,500 kilometers. ThoseRouting and the stage places change thereby each year. A constant represents the Avenue of the Champs Élysées in Paris , on which the route de France ends since 1975. Also certain mountain passes are headed for on nearly each route.

The first days thatRoute de France are nearly always of fast and sprinterfreundlichen flat groping in the north of France coined/shaped, before then in the high mountains of the Pyreneeses and the alps the total valuation of the route decides. Further de France become two individual time driving and during the routebetween 2000 and 2005 also crew time driving delivered.

mountains

the total valuation of the route decides in each year apart from the time driving particularly in the high mountains. Some mountains and passports are located very frequently in the program of the routeand in the course of the years an almost mythischen call acquired.

The three „holy mountains “of the route de France are the Col you route-painted (2,114 m, Pyreneeses), which in the year 1910 as the first high mountain pass to erklommen became, the Col youGalibier (2,645 m, alps) was taken up, the one year later to the program and the Mont Ventoux (1,909 m, Provence), its lonely rising, volcanic-like cone 1951 was for the first time driven on and by the death of Tom Simpson 1967 too more sadlyCelebrity arrived.

In addition still the rise comes to the alpine ski station L'Alpe d'Huez, whose legendary 21 turns were mastered up on 1.850 m for the first time 1952, with that at that time first arrival of mountain in the history of the route.

The ten tomost frequent started mountains are:

foreign country

in the early period of running the French national borders in individual stages were already exceeded, since 1954the start of the route in irregular distances abroad close finds instead of (so far in Germany, Spain, Italy, the Benelux countries, Switzerland, England and Ireland). The long preserved plan, the route in New York oron a French overseas section to start, due to the immense logistic problems so far one did not convert.

Past starting places of the route de France outside of France:

1954: Amsterdam, 1958: Brussels, 1965: Cologne, 1973: Scheveningen, 1975: Charleroi, 1978: Suffer, 1980: Frankfurt/Main, 1982: Basel, 1987: Berlin, 1989: Luxembourg, 1992: San Sebastián, 1996: 'S-Hertogenbosch, 1998: Dublin, 2002: Luxembourg, 2004: Lüttich, 2007: London

participant

since 1969 becomesthe route de France of professional firm teams denied, like already in the start time of running. From 1930 to 1961 and then again 1967 and 1968 began against it national teams .

At present becomes annually 21 to 22 professional crews with evernine drivers invited to the route de France, among them the 20 teams of the UCI pro route. Most teams come usually from France, Italy and Spain, to it individual crews from Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Switzerland and the USA. ThisNations place also the majority of the drivers. Individual wheel professionals originate from central and Eastern Europe, Scandinavia as well as Kazakhstan, Colombia, Australia and South Africa.

The Dutchman Joop Zoetemelk has to exhibit most participation in the route de France, which drove the route 16maland each mark also terminated, of it seven times on the podium (victory 1980). 15 each times denied two Belgians the route de France: The water carrier of many years Guy Nulens (best placement: 22.) and the mountain specialist Lucien van Impe (victory 1976). Udo Böltsholds with 12 participation the German record.

organization

the route de France was created by the sport newspaper L'Auto considered on an edition increase. The editor-in-chief of the sheet, Henri Desgrange, took over the post up to its death 1940the director of route. In this office it concentrated all important decision-making processes for the organization of running. In order to make a running more attractive, Desgrange introduced 1919 the yellow leotard and 1933 the mountain valuation. 1930 it invented the advertising column, a set of advertising vehicles,to today before the driver field the racing course drives off and Werbegeschenke to the spectators distributed. To his successor both and editor-in-chief and and director of route developed Desgrange the journalist Jacques Goddet, that him as director of running starting from 1936 represented andas a director of route from 1940 to 1986 officiated. Goddet was unlocked to the employment of technical innovations contrary to its predecessor: Directly in its first year as a director of CO it permitted the gear shift to 1937.

After the release of France 1944 L'Auto was adjusted, twoLater Goddet however the new sport newspaper L'Équipe, which accomplished the organization of the route again, created years. 1965 took over the Amaury Verlagsgruppe the newspaper and arranged up to then nearly all-powerful director Goddet second, particularly for the economic sideresponsible person director. After a short transitional phase 1989 accompanied for the first time Jean Marie Leblanc, which likewise came like its predecessors from the journalism, the route as a director. The organization of running ignored on the Amaury sport organization (ASO), their bosssince then officially highest control of the route exercises. The concrete decisions were made however further by Leblanc, under whose management the marketing of the route de France achieved a new degree of the professionalism. Starting from 2006 Christian Prudhomme becomes thoseManagement of the route take over.

history

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< /timeline>


The 1903 in the life called route de France were thatfirst genuine stage running in the history of the cycle racing. Enormous distances had been put back already before during remote travels such as Bordeaux Paris (for the first time 1891, 577 km). Again however the idea developed by the French journalist Géo Lefèvre was, several Radrennen acrossTo accomplish France directly successively and add the times. The title by program „route de France “served thereby quite consciously the patriotic tendency of the time.

At the 1. July 1903 began the first route de France to the former „Auberge Reveil Matin “in Montgeron with Paris. 60 drivers took part. The round travel led across six stages with altogether 2,428 km of Paris across the stage cities Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nantes back to Paris. Between the stages becameseveral quiescent days inserted. The favored Frenchman Maurice Garin was the winner of the first route of history, with an hour means of over 25 km/h; prize money for the victory amounted to 3,000 francs.

The following expenditures of the route were first ofa set of scandals coined/shaped, culminating in the exclusion of the first four of the Gesamtklassements with the route de France 1904 among other things due to bad use of the railway. In the course of the 1900er years could the route de France be however established. ThoseTime before the First World War is called retrospectively heroische epoch of the route, because regularly daily distances of over 400 km were put back at that time - from today's viewpoint just as unbelievably as the modest technical equipment at that time of the racing cycles and the miserableQuality of the roads, which one finds today only with short head restraint A PLASTER PASSAGEs of the wheel classical author Paris Roubaix. Delivering of stages in the high mountains, for the first time 1910 in the Pyreneeses on mostly adventurous cattle ways, added the increasing myth of running as „route that a suffering “a further dimension in addition. One year later the alps followed.

The number of the stages gradually increased to 11 (1905), 15 (1910), 18 (1925) and finally up to 24 stages (1931). The overall length of the route rose to up to5,500 kilometers. The length of the individual stages was in response constantly shortened. The number of quiescent days, which had been inserted starting from 1906 regularly after each stage, was reduced. For the 1950er years the route de France becomes large in theirtoday's shape delivered.

The average speed of running increased in the course of the years continuously. After the first route with 25,67 km/h had been completed, it exceeded 1934 for the first time the border of 30 km/h, 1956 from 35 km/h. finally 1999reached the average speed for the first time 40 km/h and 2005 with 41,65 km/h the past record. The fastest individual stage of a route won 1999 Mario Cipollini after a distance of 194,5 km with an average speed of 50,35 km/h.

Death overshadowed four timesa driver the route de France. 1910 had an accident to Adolphe Helière on one quiescent day with a swimming accident to the Côte d'Azur. To 14. July 1935 fell down the Spaniard Francisco Cepeda with a departure a slope at the Col you Galibierand died three days later in the hospital at the fall sequences. Briefly before the summit of the Mont Ventoux broke to 13. July 1967 the English wheel professional Tom Simpson dead together. A cause were a mixture from Amphetaminen to Aufput as well as alcohol toBeta-practice the pain. 1995 again succumbed the young Italian wheel professional Fabio Casartelli to its injuries, which he had tightened himself with a fall with the departure of the Col you Portet d'Aspet (Pyreneeses).

winner

of the Americans Lance Armstrong could win from 1999 to 2005 the route as first drivers seven times. Five victories reached Jacques Anquetil (France, 1957 and 1961 - 1964), Eddy Merckx (Belgium, 1969 - 1972 and 1974), Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Hinault (France, 1978/1979, 1981/1982 and 1985) and Miguel Indurain(Spain, 1991 - 1995). Most placements on the podium reached Raymond Poulidor that five times three times second and third, the route became however neither to win, still another only once the yellow leotard to conquer knew.

The youngest route winner was the 20-year old Henri Cornet 1904, which was however only later explained as the winner. As oldest drivers won 1922 Firmin Lambot at the age of 36 years. Greg Lemond celebrated the knappsten victory with the route de France 1989, as it with onlyeight seconds lead over Laurent Fignon won. In the modern era of the route (since 1947) Fausto Coppi put the largest distance 1952 also over 28 minutes between itself and the second Stan of ocher.

The first non--Frenchman, that the routeto win, was the Luxemburger François Faber could (1909) and the first and only driver, who carried the yellow leotard from first to the last stage, was likewise a Luxemburger, Nicolas Frantz (1928).

With 36 successes so far France could those most route victories reach by far, followed from Belgium with 18. With clear distance follow the USA (10), Italy (9), Spain (8), Luxembourg (4), Switzerland and the Netherlands (ever 2). French-Belgian dominance in the statistics does not reflect however thatcurrent balance of power against. The last winner from one of the two nations was gekürt before nearly 20 years: 1985 won the Frenchman Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Hinault its fifth route. Since this time a set of new nations registered itself into the winner list:1986 gave first of the ten US-American, 1987 the first Irish and 1996 the first Danish victory it. finally 1997 achieved that at that time 23-jährige January Ullrich the first and only German route victory.

See also: All winner of the route would listde France (with the winners of the mountain and Sprintertrikots)

prize money

since establishment of the route for the wheel professionals prize moneys were expenditure-praised, in the first year 1903 to altogether 20,000 francs. Since then prize money was continued to supplement always. With the routede France 2004 paid the supervisors altogether to approximately three million euro, of it alone approximately 400,000 euro for the total winner. Although large sums are absolutely seen this, the doping of the route is however far under for instance from tennis orGulf tournaments. The meaning of prize moneys for the route decreased the best drivers the majority of their content in the course of the years actually rather, there not over prize money, but obtain by the long-term contracts with their cycle racing teams. However that is measuredMarket value of a wheel professional very strongly after its balance with the route de France, so that a success affects itself with the route indirectly financially enormously.

Doping

during the route de France 1998 experienced the cycle racing a heavyReliability crisis: With the Festina affair in such a way specified in the point team Festina (with star the smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Virenque and Alex Zülle) was uncovered a systematic, surface covering Dopingpraxis, after with Willy Voet, a responsible person of the crew, by accident large quantities of bad substances - forwardsall Erythropoetin (EPO) - found were. This discovery clarified also the inefficacy of the Dopingkontrollen at that time: None the Festina driver had been tested positively. It came finally to the exclusion of the crews Festina and TVM; the Spanish crews pulled themselves from protestagainst the methods of investigation of the French authorities of the route back. The route de France 1998 was finally won by Marco Pantani, which was then excluded one year later because of a strongly increased Hämatokritwerts referring to Doping from the giro d'Italia.

The Festina affair represented however only the high point of the Dopingproblematik accompanying the route de France for decades. When 1966 at the route unangekündigte Dopingkontrolle took place for the first time, the drivers struck on the following day. 1967 died that and. A. with Amphetaminen dopedTom Simpson with the rise to the Mont Ventoux. In the 1970er and 1980er years despite extremely unsatisfactory controls repeats drivers positively tested, among them the route winners Felice Gimondi, Joop Zoetemelk, Pedro Delgado and Laurent Fignon. Numerous other point driversmore or less clear Doping confessions put down, among them Eddy Merckx after completion of their career. Both the legal and the public condemnations about Doping failed long time rather mild.

The world cycle racing federation UCI carried with its often littleconsistent handling with the Dopingproblematik to the fact that the cycle racing is brought in the public ever more frequently with Doping in connection. Also the route winner of the years 1999-2005, Lance Armstrong, had to set itself, be again and again with the suspicion apartSuccess would be to be due to medicines, which were used with the therapy of its heavy cancer illness. In the year 2005 a French has Dopinglabor sieves positive B-samples of Lance Armstrong during its first route victory 1999 uncovered. This has which consequences, is still uncertain.Today the cycle racing has one the strictest Dopingkontrollsysteme in the international sport, in regular intervals new Dopingfälle is proven. Remains unclear, in which mass Doping represents further a usual means of the increase in output in the cycle racing.

To consider critically it is however thatalthough the athletes drive allegedly without forbidden achievement-increasing substances, it power loss with the results of the route to give does not seem (see smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Virenque), rather the opposite is the case.

Klassements

a set of leotards coloured taken offmark the best drivers of different valuations. The leotards are tightened the drivers after each stage in a solemn ceremony. Each leotard is presented thereby by its own sponsor. The drivers are obligated to wear the appropriate valuation leotards. If a driverin the possession of several leotards is, carries he the more important. Hereunder applies the following sequence: Yellow, green, mountain leotard, white leotard. In this case the next lower leotard is presented by the Zweitplatzierten in the respective valuation. As only driver it succeeded Eddy Merckx1969 to win in the same year the three most important valuations.

yellow leotard (total valuation)

the driver with the smallest total time carries the famous yellow leotard (le maillot jaune) of the leading of the total valuation. But become from the driversneeded times of all stages summed up. Possible time credit notes are subtracted from the total time: Thus each stage winner receives a time credit note from 20 seconds, the stage second and - third 12 and/or. 8 seconds. With intermediate prints becomes 6, 4, and 2 seconds credit note for thosefirst three drivers assign. Who has the shortest total time on its account after the last stage, the route wins. Credit several drivers a Zeitunterschied of less than one second, with hundredths of a second the stopped time driving results are drawn to rate. The bestDrivers separate nowadays usually only few minutes, while the last one of the Klassements exhibits approximately three to four hours arrears.

the yellow leotard was introduced 1919, in order to simplify the identification of the front runner for the spectators.The first carrier of the leotard was the Frenchman Eugène Christophe. Longest the Belgian „Kannibale “and fivefold route winners Eddy Merckx carried the yellow leotard - altogether for 96 stages long (inclusive. Quiescent days 111 days). The only driver, of thatthe Luxemburger Nicolas Frantz drove, was first up to the last stage in the yellow leotard 1928: As a previous year winner it already carried the yellow leotard on the first stage and did not put it down up to the last stage not again.

Literary consecrations attainedthe yellow leotard by a Epigramm of Günter Grass:

When the top group was overhauled of a Zitronenfalter, many cyclists gave a running up.

green leotard (Sprintwertung)

the best Sprinter becomes since 1953 with becoming green leotard (le maillot vert) honoured. The valuation takes place via a point system, which evaluates above all arrivals of stage, in addition, intermediate prints. Flat-grope count here clearly more than mountain groping. The citizen of Berlin Eric Zabel has the Sprintertrikot six times in consequence (from 1996 to 2001) afterTo carry thereby exclusive record owner before the Irish Sean Kelly (four victories between 1982-89) knows and is Paris. The green leotard is coloured settled in the dark-green range. The chromatic spectrum of the leotards is strictly fixed from the route line.

The rank list of mostStage-wins one states by two five times total winners:Eddy Merckx won 34 stages, Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Hinault with only seven participation altogether could 28 times triumphieren. The twice route winner André Leducq follow (25) as well as the Sprinter André Darrigade (22). Lance Armstrong lieswith 21 stage-wins (exclusive two crew time driving) on fifth rank.

mountain leotard

a mountain price is already expenditure-praised since 1933, but only since 1975 a mountain leotard becomes also here - knows with red points (le maillot à pois rouges)- lent. Points for the mountain leotard become after rises of the categories 4 (easily) to 1 (heavily) as well as hors the catégorie (extraordinarily heavy) assign. As only driver it succeeded smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Virenque to win between 1994 and 2004 the mountain valuation seven times,followed of Federico Bahamontes (between 1954-64) and Lucien van Impe (1971-83) with ever six victories.

white leotard

since 1975 will assign a white leotard for the best young professional with the route. This valuation determines the best drivers,in the year of the respective route are at the most 25 years old. Between 1989 and 1999 this Klassement was not an official valuation of the route de France, however in the year 2000 was again introduced.

red back number

„the red back number “in accordance with each stage to the kämpferischsten driver of the entire driver field one assigns. This honor is the only one with the route, which is determined by a specialized jury. The jury, consisting of eight members (under it sportsmen, running leaders and journalists) decides after everyoneStage, which the driver showed the best combat spirit. The price is then presented each morning on the official podium to the driver. Am Ende der Tour wird in Paris der kämpferischste Fahrer der gesamten Tour gewählt.

crew valuation

Since 1930 are determined also the best crew. For this valuation with each stage the times of the best three drivers of a crew are added.

regulation

and time limit

in the goal becomes the distances betweenthe individual drivers and/or. Groups of drivers registers. All drivers of a closed group are evaluated with the same time.

With all stages except the pro log a time limit is specified, within whose each driver must come into the goal. Time limit becomes after degree of difficultyand average speed of the respective stages computes. The limit varies accordingly between 4 and 18% (25% when time driving) of the time of the stage winner. However the Rennleitung has the possibility of extending time limit flexibly which is regularly used, if a largerGroup time limit misses.

food supply

the food supply of the drivers is extraordinarily important, since it mountain-gropes with a heavy 6,000 to 10,000 calories uses. On each stage it gives therefore to two as such characterized food supply zones,where the coworkers of the teams the drivers of the route organization approved food supply bag are enough may. Receiving food and beverages, which offer spectator the professional, takes place on own danger. To briefly before end of running may do besides the sporty ladderare enough to their drivers water bottles or energy latch plates from the team vehicle. Thereby four vehicles are to each crew of the route at the disposal, by which only two in running may be used. The vehicles must drive always right, behind the cars of the route line andthe medical service. The crew cars may drive only to the request by the internal „radio route “forward.

technical and medical assistance

a breakdown assistance is accomplished either by the team or the independent material car. With a flat tyremay the wheels only within the crew be exchanged. Breakdown assistance is only behind a group of outliers and permitted behind the main field at the right roadside. If a driver needs a physician, it may be only one physician of the official medical service. ThatDriver is then treated at the end of the Pelotons.

With falls or breakdowns on the last three kilometers the drivers are rated with the same time as the group, to which they belonged.

offences

the rules become of thatRunning commissioners supervises, who accompany a running on motorcycles. If they see running offences, they can punish these with certain punishments. Offences against the regulation are punished with fines (in Swiss Franconia), time-met or the disqualification. Bad Sprints becomes with neglects in the Tagesklassement(without time punishment) punishes.

The regulation forbids to be able to be pushed to be able to be pulled from cars or motorcycles or to use these as lee. An exception represents, if the driver is medically treated while driving by official route physicianor its wheel of a mechanic to repair leaves. If a driver had a breakdown, it often uses the cars of the sporty ladder, in order to get in their lee again connection to the Peloton. Such offences are nearly never punished.

[] If drivers

,

who give a running up, work on task, their must at the framework as well as at the leotard starting number fastened at the broom car to deliver.

is considered

to fan the route de France as one of the publikumsträchtigsten Sportveranstaltungen of the world. Millions pursue each yearCycle racing fan (and/or. interested adjacent resident) the happening.

For the inhabitants of the places which can be driven through the route is a large event. This is strengthened if a route participant originates from the place which can be driven through. Often it sets off then briefly from the fieldor and welcomes friends and family continues. Such „greeting actions “are waited by the Peloton by Passivität. For the end of each stage on such Boni however no more consideration is taken.

Often one sees greetings in the transmissions in exposed placeor desires or „works of art “of the fans also route-referred as for instance straw balls, which were arranged from farmers to situations of the route.

In particular with the mountain groping a caravan of live-mobile draws with the route unit train also, around each day again the cyclistsanzufeuern. Most well-known German fan is Didi Senft, which is to be seen disguised as a devil for years with route transmissions on the television. By the reporting the innumerable active fans are not seized, each year on own fist or by organizersorganize original groping post or move forward. Are organized for example also for this everyone running, which original-gropes over one leads.

The French post office presents entered fan letters directly after stage end to the drivers. In order to address a letter correctly at route participant X, is sufficientthe following address: „Coureur X, route de France “.

small route de France encyclopedia

a completely special car from the advertising caravan 2005
Die „flamme rouge“ oder „Teufelslappen“, das Zeichen für den letzten Kilometer einer Etappe
„flames rouge “or „devil rags “, the indication of the last kilometer of a stage
  • attack - S. Peeling off attempt
  • peeling off attempt - attempt,to drive out a larger lead over the main field, spoken in the level usually under use of the surprise effect
  • Belgian gyroscope - form of the lee driving in the group. In fast consequence from the front to the rear one changes, so that also the dropping backDriver a row educate. Both within the number of the dropping back and within the number of the drivers moving up forward thereby the drivers give themselves protection from the wind. With cross-wind the drivers drive laterally transferred - in both rows,so that the formation over the road extends diagonally.
  • Broom car - spacious vehicle (usually minibuses), which gathered driver dropped back in the early history of the cycle racing „“. Today drivers, who give a running up, must their starting number with the responsible person commissioner one toEnd of the field driving official Begleitwagen deliver.
  • caravans publicitaire - advertising caravan, those before the drivers drives
  • chapeau - „hat off “, honour testifying for the champions and/or. before a large, special achievement of a driver
  • contre la montre - „against the clock “, time driving
  • finisseur - Sprinter
  • flames rouge - „red flame “, marks the beginning of the last kilometer (see accompanying picture), also as „devil rag “designation. It was introduced 1906.
  • grande boucle - „large loop “(by France), other name for the route de France
  • grimpeur -„Kletterer “, mountain drivers
  • gruppetto - who mountain-grope last group with one, usually Sprinter, which must fight together against the expiration of the qualifying period.
  • hors catégorie - mountain valuation of the heaviest („extraordinary “) category
  • king stage - the heaviest (mountain) stage of a route
  • Lutscher - driver that(in a group of outliers) in the Führungsarbeit does not take part - see. in addition, the role „of the Bremsers “ and/or. „Aufpassers “
  • maillot jaune - yellow leotard of the leading of the total valuation
  • Peloton - main field
  • poursuivant - pursuer
  • radio route - the official route radio150.575 MHz
  • tête de la course - „head of the field “, top group
  • route d'honneur - „honour route “, last stage, which ends on the Avenue of the Champs Élysées, with that the carrier of the yellow leotard traditionally any longer one does not attack
  • voiture balai - S. Broom car
  • water carrier - the favorites of the team supporting and supplying drivers.

literature, music and film

of special books

  • 100 years route de France 1903-2003, Delius Klasing publishing house 2003, ISBN 3895951897 - shortening German translation of onethree-restrain documentation from archives of the French sport newspaper L'Équipe, with summaries, statistics, photos and original reports of the individual route years (until 2002)
  • Hans's looking villages: Route de France. Myth and history of a Radrennens, victory hole edition 1997, ISBN 3893931600 - descriptionthe route de France from the view of the Doyens of the German (wheel) sport reporting (until 1997)
  • Les Woodland: Half Gods in yellow. The reader to the route de France, covadonga 2003, ISBN 3936973008 - rather reader feuilletonistic put on of a British told in episodesJournalist
  • Ralf Schröder/Hubert Dahlkamp: Not all heroes carry yellow. The history of the route de France, Verlag the workshop 2003, ISBN 3895334065 - like „half Gods in yellow “one rather anekdotisch, with told history of the route Roland
  • Barthes would background: ThoseRoute de France as Epos, in: Gunter Gebauer/Gerd stronghold leather: Sport Eros death, Suhrkamp 1986. - Philosophical analysis of the route as archaisch heroisches event. ISBN of 3518113356

novels

  • André Reuze: Giant of the highway, new edition sport publishing house 1998, ISBN 3328008071 (at present. out of print)- for the first time, a view to „the heroische epoch “Hans looking villages /Hennes Roth gives 1928 published novel
  • of a French sports journalist to the route: Salt in the coffee, new edition covadonga 2003, ISBN 3936973040 - novel of the journalist and writer of looking villages, its main figure stronglyagainst Didi Thurau ajar is

music

film

Web on the left of

Commons: Route de France - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikinews: Topic portal route de France 2005 - current message


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