the term tourism science exists as word creation only since beginning of the 90's. The term is not established yet and it is disputed whether there is its own tourism science or whether one not rather of tourism sciences with different explanation beginnings or partial sciences such as z. B. Tourism sociology, tourism history, tourism economic science to speak should.
Table of contents
the term tourism science appears again, however thereby the impression is not to be aroused that a scientific discussion took place over the tourism only since beginning of the nineties. Already 1929 had itself Robert luck man in his citizen of Berlin Institut with questions of the tourism employ (see. History of the research on tourism). Luck man is called today a joint founder of the modern tourism science. However also still the tourism science stood on wackligen legs, critics doubted after the war that there could be at all an independent tourism science.
The critics set - logically quite entitled - usually already with the tourism term. Actually conditions a science on weak legs, if it were not able to support perfect outlined realization object fulfilled with independent existence (Hunziker). In addition, E. Sparrow treated 1975 the topic the tourism teachings as science and came to the result that this question could be answered only from the realization object. Because in the realization object as it were all experienced and experienced circumstances of an existence range unite, as far as it can be arranged on the basis of uniform criteria. Only since beginning of the 90's the tourism science with itself begins to become dissatisfied, becomes sensitive for its limitness and looks for ways, which lead to a broad founded tourism science (see. Spode). Some authors titelten even: „The tourism and concomitantly its teachings have retired, are no longer modern and also not more adequately “see. M. Shepherd). The tourism science at that time was of a strongly economiceconomics aspect coined/shaped, since now several scientific disciplines of the tourism took care of, became it time for an advancement. The development of the today's tourism science could begin.
establishment of the tourism science
general becomes in the tourism, particularly in Germany, which criticizes still existing science distance, during world-wide the tourism science and - research within the academic and social range a high value has, is clearly underrepresented the tourism science in the German research landscape. At German universities tourism science functions mainly as subsection of the management economics (University of Lueneburg, University of Rostock, University of Dresden, University of Trier) or mainly it is arranged for geography (University of Paderborn, University of grab forest, University of Trier, university calibrate-corrode, University of Kiel, University of Goettingen, University of Aachen) however very much practice and application orientated at the professional schools. In the year 1993 by cock and Kagelmann the manual in such a way specified was published to the tourism science (tourism psychology and - sociology). Starting from this time the discussion took place around an establishment of the tourism teachings as science (tourism science) in Germany.
“Doubt many tourism scientists that it is at all possible, a general tourism science science-theoretically to establish.” (Kulinat 2003)
in such a way z would leave itself. B. after Professor. Feeding EDT the tourism science as follows develop:
- Research on tourism in existing disciplines (e.g. Geography of the tourism, economic science of the tourism, history of the tourism etc.)
- interdisciplinary research on tourism in co-operation of several disciplines.
This development also already took place, training further courses of studies, e.g. Tourism (University of Berlin) or to approx. 1997 the training further study tourism science at the University of Bielefeld were interdisciplinary taught, i.e. that several scientific disciplines are involved in the tourism training and the tourism from the view of the respective science examine z. B. the sociology, psychology, science of history, economic science, jurisprudence, geography or also the Pädagogik. At the professional school Eberswalde was introduced the course of studies “lasting tourism”, which is likewise interdisciplinary put on.
- Tourism science: Research on tourism due to a uniform scientific paradigm for the article tourism as total phenomenon. This perspective still stands to the discussion. Many scientists submit suggestions for a paradigm, however still no paradigm was found, that of all scientists accepted and/or. would be compatible with their scientific disciplines.
Crib village means for this: More qualified research is urgently necessary, but, we do not need their own tourism science or Tourismologie in addition. The methods of other scientific disciplines are completely sufficient, in order to examine the tourism. Also Hansruedi Mueller expresses itself against its own tourism science, because this could exist only, where the tourism in its whole and/or. in individual problem areas completely specific aspects does not exhibit with the help of other sciences to analyze would be. (See. MUELLER, Freizeit and Tourismus 2002). A tourism science could exist only if it itself:
- by isolation from the term (with exactly definable, measurable, problem oriented and time-dependent definitions) or
- by isolation from the system-theoretical beginning (summary of the scientifically relevant elements and characteristics) from other sciences to distinguish would leave.
Since momentarily these requirements are not yet fulfilled to a tourism science, the definition of the tourism science of Mueller reads as follows:
We understand thus the tourism science as applied science. We refer the bases for the realizations from different fields of knowledge. (See. MUELLER, Freizeit and Tourismus. An introduction to theory and politics, 2002).
What we find today at the professional schools and universities, is additives in such a way specified a tourism science, with which the individual scientific disciplines to a large extent unconnected next to each other.
Pompl criticizes that it concerns with so a tourism science around no own science, but science-theoretically only a klassifikatorischen generic term, which requires its own tourism science of its own paradigm (conception of the world) to the reason and existence.
A goal should be it, the tourism science as independent academic institution (faculty, Institut) etc. to furnish. Since concerns the problems of the tourism, but a multiplicity of different science disciplines, the integration strength, such an institution would have terribly largely its (see. Meder 1999). As science potentially which can be united, Meder calls: The economic science (management economics and political economy), geography, science of history, sociology, Freizeitpädagogik and culture work, the general time and leisure science, biology and ecology, traffic science, the political science, the psychology, the jurisprudence, the health science, medium and Design science, the information science and logistics, as well as civil engineer nature and architecture science (see. Meder 1999). Whether this enumerating is already complete, may be doubted, then e.g. falls me. still the culture science, medicine or the space planning, which could make a contribution to the tourism science. For Meder now the question, how all these disciplines arises be combined or even (studyable) a course of studies under the label “tourism science” can be realized. For Meder the problem of the tourism science is not actually the organizer and also not the traveler as well as the journey, the problem is the common thing of our way of life in the mode of the mobility.
For a tourism science as “science” thus own methods and a paradigm would have to be developed, this however presumably still some years will take. Therefore there is still no “genuine tourism science separates only additives in such a way specified a tourism science. The existing scientific disciplines must be sufficient, in order to analyze the tourism. There should be however problems and questions, which are not to be solved with the instruments of the other sciences, its own tourism science would be necessary. The tourism is thus still no science, but a research object or a Forschungsgebiet.
a question mark would know disciplines of the tourism science behind this heading, because like so often, disagreement prevails with the tourism researchers also with this question. For the Dipl. A psychologist Heinz cock, is the tourism science a integrative science, thus no konstitutive science, which is carried by four central disciplines. As these central disciplines cock calls; the sociology, the economics, geography and the Pädagogik (see. Cock in tourism science 1994) the psychology is in cock opinion only one subsidiary science to the tourism science. One year before (1993) become in likewise by cock, together with Kagelmann published book “tourism psychology and - sociology” eight disciplines, as disciplines of the tourism science mentioned, this are; the historical research on tourism, tourism anthropology, tourism sociology, tourism economics, geography of the leisure and tourism, culture anthropology of the tourism, Tourismuspädagogik, Freizeitpädagogik. Also the leisure and tourism researcher Opaschowski, have its own conception of the tourism science, then its diagram “tourism science exists in the overview” out:
- Tourism terminology/tourism economics
- tourism theory/tourism criticism
- tourism history
- tourism psychology
- tourism analyses
- tourism prognoses
- tourism politics/tourism ethics
as fundamental disciplines for a tourism science can be called thus after Opaschowski the tourism economics, tourism history, tourism psychology and tourism politics/policy. Why Opaschowski probably the spaceeffective aspects of the tourism and/or. the leisure and tourism geography in this edition of its book exclude? In the first edition (the diagram was called still research on tourism in the overview there) it still added, other interdisciplinary problem and questions of sociology and economics, ecology and geography also in the view is, but to be not isolated treated (see. Opaschowski: Research on tourism 1989) Well, this question can not be answered here probably. The tourism researcher W. Freyer calls in its models to the tourism science six konstitutive disciplines, this is the economic science, political sciences, psychology, sociology, ecology, geography these disciplines forms the basic stick to the tourism science and is therefore briefly described.
Economics (tourism economics: (Micro + Makroökonomie of the tourism + BWL of the tourism)
- supply and demand of and/or. after routistic products
- effects of the transnational passenger traffic
- gross and net value creation of the tourism
- computations to economic effects
- cost benefit analyses
- analysis of the routistic offer
- analysis of the routistic demand/markets
- methods marketing and management
sociology (tourism sociology
- transmission won of the results of the general Sociology, e.g. over the nature of the social one, over the Sozialität of humans, over social structures and processes on the tourism. (Vester, the social organization of the tourism, in tourism journal 2. Jg 1998)
- Description and explanation of the social and cultural features, causes and causes of the tourism. (Vester, contribution tourism sociology in cock/Kagelmann S. 36)
- The sociology examines the tourism in its social dimension, like group activities, social orders, social values (and its change), organization, bureaucracy etc. (Freyer, bases of the tourism economy for the culture tourism script of the far from University of Hagen)
- tourism sociology has social
- tax factors of the tourism
- travel behavior of sozi demographic groups
draft from travel motive theories to Bachleitner (tourism sociology or for the sociology of the travel) the priority task:
A) the social basic conditions for the tourism genesis are crucial to identify and analyze b) the effects of the travel on traveler (=Reissozialisationsprozesse), to examine bereiste and in the service sector a transacting as well as the interactive processes resulting from it on culture to light up space and time level (= cultural, social, economic and ecological Touristifizierungsprozesse); from this results altogether to force C) the theory development particularly in connection with the Ausdifferenzierung of the system tourism, since the explanation beginnings for tourism might be more success-promising over its concrete manifestations as only over individual motivations (curse theories vs. Exploration theories)
psychology (tourism psychology)
- travel motives (influences, groups of motives,…)
- Travel satisfaction (evaluation, Ratings)
- environmental perception of the tourists tourism psychology and must
- something can contribute
- travel decisions (tax factors, expiration) to the analysis of the human, the socialcultural and economic conditions for mobility
- of concepts e.g. Crowding, Behavior Setting, Territorialität and their applicability on the tourism
- journeys as means of symbolic self addition
geography (tourism geography)
- geography seizes the regional effectiveness of the tourism
- evaluation of landscapes, climatology
- spatial conditions for recovery and tourism
- spatial differentiation of the offer (leisure and/or. Tourism attraction factors)
- spatial differentiated distribution of the demand (leisure and/or. Recovery-looking for)
- of pouring and target areas
- spatial effects from tourism
to pure hard Bachleitner (tourism sociology or for the sociology of the travel) takes geography an intermediate position in the meaning positioning of the sociological research efforts, since it connects both culture-geographical and socialgeographical beginnings with spacespecific and human-ecological aspects in the tourism. In my opinion, geography, due to its fan-spreading, probably is international research, to contribute at best suitably to a uniform tourism science the something.
Ecology (tourism ecology)
- environmental impact by tourism
- gentle tourism, ecological tourism, lasting tourism, tourism with insight.
- Environmental design of the tourism
- Sustainable tourism
political science (tourism politics)
- Explanations for the political activities in the tourism
- tourism promotion
- regulations in the national passenger traffic
- creation of the infrastructure and the framework for the tourism
In the meantime, also the culture science tries to be established in the area of the tourism science. Thus e.g. became. in the book “journeys and everyday life, contributions to the culture-scientific research on tourism” tries to subordinate an independent contribution of the culture science in the field of the research on tourism operated in the meantime by many disciplines. Also H. Mueller master employs following considerations in its article “the contribution of the culture anthropology to the tourism science”. One usual objections against tourism science is argument, which is tourism now once a complex research article, with which different specialists from different disciplines must be occupied, everyone with its tools and methods. For an individual scientist, a tourism scientist thus, who must be inevitably a universal Dilettant, the subject is much too complicated (see. Mueller master 1998). This argument sounds impressive, is however after Mueller master not been suitable a Ethnologen to be convinced. Because a Volkskundler must itself also with different peoples, their restaurant economics, the legal order, the art etc. employ. Could this the tourism scientist also? The culture-scientific beginning in the research on tourism is 1942 pursued not again, already Hunziker and Krapf, a broad culture-scientific study of the tourism (see. History of the tourism science). --Dr-schnaggels 04:43, 2. February 2006 (CET)
paradigm of a tourism science
of the historical scientists Spode (in on the way to a theory of the tourism) makes the following demands, which must be fulfilled for the establishment of the tourism science as own science:
Its considerations rely on formal requirements the macro theories to fulfill would have, then they would have:
- getistic its, i.e. they would have to possess the potential ability, social, to seize economic and psychological aspects as synthesis.
- dynamically its, i.e. the change of the manifestation explainably make
- komparatorisch its.
The joint founder of the modern tourism science, Paul Bernecker considers the basic research in the tourism finally, this opinion can Spode however not divide. After Spode basic research is only possible after derivative of a recognized scientific paradigm. But in addition only once the macro theory would have to be opera-nationalized, as basic questions as well as basal acceptance/axioms is selected, and these are examined for their logical consistency. So measuring procedures would have to be developed and formed derived hypotheses. If all this does not happen, then the tourism teachings remain art teachings after Spode. Art teachings supply only theories about short range as „operating instruction “to be understood can. While the science uses theories, in order to place being inquiries, the art teachings want to answer the isolated argument
of the individual disciplines with the phenomenon tourism to the development of a uniform tourism science by theories how/as questions face. Different science disciplines do not analyze the tourism from view of the respective nut/mother science, it exist a generally accepted reference framework, into which the knowledge acquired by single research is brought into a theoretical connection. The past occupation with the tourism is therefore nearly always a perspective science - in such a way e.g. analyzes. the sociology the travel behavior of soziodemographischen groups, geography seizes the regional effectiveness of the tourism and the economics concerns itself with offer and demand of and/or. after routistic products etc.
In order to legitimize itself as scientific discipline, each science needs at least two different kinds: an assignable and definable research article and an interest of realization (P. Schimany, tourism sociology… a provisional trial balance). So far is not to be established however yet succeeded the tourism science as independent discipline, because it lies a common research object (the journey, and/or. the phenomenon of the change of location and the relations between humans, institutions etc., which is connected with it) however none the discipline own method forwards. To the tourism science the determination of a common scientific conception of the world (paradigm) is missing with all fields to identify itself can. Thus e.g. strikes. Pompl the application of the system theory to the tourism assuch paradigm forwards. Also Kulinat sees in the system theory a possible tourism theory which all aspects of the tourism as considered as possible (Kulinat, tourism demand: Motives and theories S. 102). But unfortunately succeeded so far not yet sufficiently establishing the system theory for a general tourism science science-theoretically (see. Kulinat). Also the sociologist Vester suggests also the system theory and several other tourism theories, however none can satisfy as general paradigm. W. Freyer 1995 suggests the term of the journey, however this paradigm would not seize the tourism in its whole. Like that beginning a large part of the surrounding field of the tourism is excluded in Freyers (e.g. Guest trade, entertainment enterprises). Meder (1999, S. 120) the whole complexity of the market sector sees “tourism” “only in the unit of the problem of the mobility in the spare time and/or. with reference to the spare time " detectably (see. M. Shepherd 2003) This definition enclosure two of the substantial components (mobility and spare time) of the tourism, forgets however the acting persons and institutions in the tourism. Feeding EDT strikes before a paradigm of the tourism science in support of the tourism definition and/or. to develop the tourism term the World Trade Organization. The suggestion of feeding EDT „local changes of a person on time with a certain purpose “is substantially too inaccurate, because it seized only the traveler person, the tourist, and leaves the relations at the resort outside forwards. Wegner Spöring (1991) finally sees „paradigm changes to one toward quality of perception. “There is thus both the suggestions for a paradigm in the tourism science and the conventional theory offers (see. Vester 1999) insufficiently, in order to explain and make the phenomena of the tourism understandable (M. Shepherd 2003)
current conditions of the tourism science
in a thing is itself the routistic knowledge municipality united: In order to meet the whole of the phenomenon adequately, tourism must as scientific Forschungsgebiet be multidiscipline worked on and may not not on one side individual fields be left (M. Shepherd: The way to a tourism science). The following positions of the tourism science are still discussed:
Additative tourism science
the questions of the tourism seen as partial disciplines of other branches of science
different partial disciplines to analyze the tourism in the respective tradition of the nut/mother discipline. From the view of the respective partial science the phenomenon tourism with different questions and objectives is analyzed. No independent methods are developed and it give no uniform realization object. With addidativen tourism theory - models, the views of the respective single sciences are joined to a universal model and/or. added. This beginning the reductionism is science theoretical to assign (see. Freyer, tourism economics or economics of the tourism)
the tourism teachings as own branch of science
as starting point for their own tourism science serve the nature elements and characteristics of the tourism. For this the temporary local change of persons and the relations with humans and institutions at the vacation or destination count and/or. the local change, the aspect of time, the motives of the journey, and/or. the total phenomenon tourism. The tourism science represents one „to roof science ", which phenomenon tourism of this background analyzed and which individual science disciplines to carry out as so-called. „Subsidiary science “a contribution to “the general tourism teachings” this independent tourism science places quasi “an over” or “Metatheorie” with a uniform method, the Ausformulierung of independent partial disciplines of the tourism science, also which can be corresponded, like e.g. Tourism sociology, tourism psychology or tourism economics lead (see. Freyer, tourism economics or economics of the tourism).
development of the tourism science
with the establishment of the German society for tourism science and INIT-Forschungsinstitut for interdisciplinary tourism sciences at the University of Salzburg shows itself in beginnings a unification of the individual technical disciplines to a multidiscipline tourism science.
At the German society for tourism science it concerns a combination of representatives of the universities, professional schools and other tourism-scientific combinations. Among the goals z ranks. B. to contribute the scientific argument with questions of the tourism and for the establishment of an interdisciplinary tourism science.
The INIT consists of a union of culture sociologists, communication science-learns, psychologists and science of history-learns, which the goal to have sat down of seizing the tourism holistic and of participating in the conception and development of a lasting tourism.
At the university Lueneburg became with Professor. Better in the specialist area occupies culture sciences the Professur “applied and empirical tourism science” and/or. created. Because this university had recognized that the dynamics of the tourism happening cannot be attributed already long to no more to an aspect. Because equal which tourism-caused articles and features discussed and/or. , come fast economic, political, ecological and soziokulturelle (reciprocal effect) conditions are analyzed into the field of vision. With the Professur “empirical and applied tourism science” is undertaken the institutional attempt unique in the German-speaking countries to catch this complexity if not to bundle so nevertheless at least. For the fulfilment of this task can on a sociological and an economical (Professor. Dr. Better) as well as culture-scientific and economical (coworkers) training and/or. Authority to be fallen back. Primarily in the research, in addition, in the teachings the “empirical and applied tourism science” wants to represent that the tourism not on one side and/or. to be analyzed closely and/or arranged can. (see. Internet side of the University of Lueneburg).
From these examples that interdisciplinary research on tourism in co-operation with several disciplines already takes place, still research on tourism shows itself due to a uniform scientific paradigm was operated now, then one could speak of a “genuine” tourism science.
- academy Loocum: On the way to a theory of the tourism 1998
- feeding EDT, W., Piwodda, M., Vodde, Th. (Hrsg.): Tourism science - practice and theory in the dialogue. Documentation 1. Bielefelder tourism colloquium (1994)
- cock H., Kagelmann, H.J. (Hrsg.): Tourism psychology and tourism sociology. A manual to the tourism science (1993)
- Hunziker, walter: Present presence of the modern tourism science. In yearbook f. Tourism; 2 1954
- shopkeepers/Lutz: Journeys and everyday life. Contributions to the culture-scientific research on tourism
- Pompl: Tourism science between paradigm search and coalition.
- Mueller, Hansruedi: Spare time and tourism. An introduction to theory and politics. 9. extended and updated version. Berne: Forschungsinstitut for spare time and tourism of the University of Berne (2002)
- Spode, Hasso in C. Cantauw work, spare time, travel the fine differences in the everyday life.
- Sparrow, Ernst: General tourism teachings (1975)
- Gohlis, Henning, Kagelmann, shopkeeper, Spode: Voyage. Yearbook for travel and research on tourism 1997 (interview with crib village)
- Bachleitner, Kagelmann, Keul: That checked up tourist. Work to the research on tourism
- Meder: The unit of tourism and/or. Tourism science. In: Spectrum of spare time 1999 Bd.21
- Margit shepherd: The way to a tourism science, in spectrum of spare time 25 (2003)
- Margit shepherds: The responsibility of a multidiscipline tourism science - the paradigm of a lasting
- Mueller master: Civilization and mobility. The contribution of the culture anthropology to the tourism science - in Bensberger of minutes 1998
- Freyer: Tourism economics or economics of the tourism; in Fischer/Laesser, theory and practice the tourism and traffic economy in changing values
- Freyer: Tourism, introduction to the tourism economics 1995
- Freyer: Tourism and science, in field man, tourism chance for the location Germany
- Freyer, walter: Tourism economics or economics of the tourism - the contribution of the economic science for the theory of the tourism/in Fischer/Laesser: Theory and practice of the tourism and traffic economy in changing values
- Bachleitner/Schimany: Boundless society - boundless tourism?
- Bieger: Tourism teachings
- Vester: Tourism theory
- Kulinat: Tourism demand: Motives and theory in Becker/Hopfinger/Steinecke, geography of the spare time and the tourism
- University of Lueneburg: EMAT
- better, Kh: Sociological research on tourism in before paradigm tables the condition - in Bachleitner/Kagelmann/Keul: That checked up tourist - work to the research on tourism