Toyotomi Hideyoshi (jap. 豊臣秀吉 Toyotomi Hideyoshi; * 17. March 1537; † 18. September 1598) was a Japanese field gentleman and politician, who contributed crucially to the agreement of modern Japan. He took over the office as a general of Oda Nobunagaafter its murder and from Tokugawa Ieyasu one replaced, which caused the agreement and which Tokugawa - dynasty of the Shogune justified.
Hideyoshi was born as a first son of a farmer in the village Nakamura (today quarter of Nagoya) in the province Owari. Itsfirst name was Hiyoshi or Hiyoshimaru. It served first Matsudaira in the province Mikawa and afterwards Oda Nobunaga in the province Owari. It began its career as a simple soldier, but with some successes it acquired itself higher ranks. On the battleground was it throughto recognize impressive deer antlers on its helmet. It called itself at that time Kinoshita Tokichiro (木下藤吉郎) and married Nene (or One). They got a child that died however shortly thereafter. In that time he became acquainted with Maeda Toshinaga, with which he itself made friends.
Hideyoshi showed instrategic and tactical regard talent on the battleground. After it was successful in the war against the Asai and Asakura in the provinces Omi and Echizen, Oda Nobunaga raised it 1573 to the Daimyō from Nagahama in Sudomi. Tokichiro changed its names and called themselves from nowat Hashiba Hideyoshi (羽柴秀吉), which probably decreased/went back to the initiative of two of the höchstsituiertesten men Nobunagas: Niwa Nagahide and Shibata Katsuie.
As Nobunaga to 21. June 1582 in Kyōto a notice of his Gefolgsmannes general Akechi Mitsuhide to the victim fell, was Hideyoshi in itsOrder on the way to a campaign against the Mori - family in Chūgoku. Hideyoshi made Bitchū with its men in the province immediately turns and defeated Akechi thirteen days after Oda Nobunagas death in the battle with Yamazaki before Kyōto.
With this victory grewits political influence and he demanded in such a way that the grandchild Nobunagas, which is to beerben only son of the first son Nobunagas, its grandfather. With this decision it became in fact the successor Oda Nobunagas and maintained ground against the resistance of the second and third sonsNobunagas as well as some other influential men of the realm.it established the castle Osaka, in the province Settsu, to 1583 in order to prevail from there out over Japan.
Hideyoshi wished itself to become Shōgun which was however by its low origin out of question. Thereupon became1585 another office for high to it at the imperial yard lent: Kampaku. 1586 gave the emperor the new surname Toyotomi it and its wife. When it could defeat 1590 the clan of the Hojo in Odawara in the region Kantō, it had its rule over Japansecured.it gave its Kampaku to 1591 - seat to favour of its nephew, Toyotomi Hidetsugu up, remained however further ruler completely Japan.
Hideyoshi wanted to control also Korea and the Empire of China, against what however the Daimyō opposed. Against the pieces of advice of the Daimyōs it pulled to 1592/93to Korea into the Imjin war. It succeeded to it first to bring Korea nearly completely under its control. But when China at the side of Korea occurred the war, the Japanese had to deplore high losses. In addition the Koreans destroyed those with the help of the turtle shipsSupply fleet of the Japanese.
A second invasion attempt 1597/98 failed likewise. The relations to Korea remained thereafter until 1607 on the zero point. 1598 died Toyotomi Hideyoshi in the castle Fushimi with Kyōto (today a quarter Kyōtos). At its dying bed he asked the five Daimyōs,itself around its son Ohiroi, inheriting Japan to care.
Its goals of creating and the realm of uniting a dynasty, failed however. Tokugawa Ieyasu, one of the five Daimyōs, which he appointed into the “advice of the five regents “, switched its competitorssuccessively out, the realm united and finally secured its rule in the battle of Sekigahara. The descendants Hideyoshis were killed.
- Eiji Yoshikawa: Taiko. A. Knaus publishing house, Munich, 1993, ISBN 3813503038
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||jap. 豊臣秀吉|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Japanese Field gentleman and politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||17. March 1537|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Nakamura (today a quarter of Nagoya)|
|DYING DATE||18. September 1598|
|DYING PLACE||lock Fushimi with Kyoto (today a quarter Kyoto)|