tradition designates the excessive quantity of the knowledge, the abilities as well as the habits and habits in a culture or a group. The use of the word is not uniform however. By tradition one understands among other things
- the delivered, the excessive quantityeven (traditum)
- delivering, the passing on (tradendum)
- customs, conventions, customs
table of contents
tradition comes from Latin traditio („delivery, distribution, excessive quantity “). The noun leads itself again ago from the verb tradere (out „trans ““over there” and - dare “give”). The word meaning corresponds to a large extent to the old-Greek word paradosis.
Altogether two main meanings can be differentiated: 1. Tradition as cultural inheritance and 2. Tradition as Tradierung. Research to the term and for the relationship of the two main meanings falls into the range of the tradition theory.
tradition as a cultural inheritance
under traditionusually becomes the excessive quantity of the whole of the knowledge, which abilities as well as the habits and habits of a culture or a group understood. Tradition is in this regard the cultural inheritance, who is passed on from a generation to the next.Scientific knowledge and art relating to crafts belong to likewise, like rituals, moral rules and food rules.
Beside these advanced cultureal contents occasionally also only temporarly valid usualnesses is called tradition. In this sense the expression is traditionally used; it is thatUsual one and used one. The rather education-linguistic expression traditional is referred against it to advanced cultureal contents.
tradition as Tradierung
of rare designates tradition the Tradierung, thus the process of the excessive quantity, even if in systematic regard the tradition process thoseBasis for the tradition as a cultural inheritance forms.
tradition theories gives it in very different connections: In the Ethnologie, the Volkskunde, the sociology, philosophy, theology, the literature science and the jurisprudence.The individual sciences concentrate in each case on partial aspects of the phenomenon tradition. So far no beginning for a systematically developed tradition theory is present.
Above all the sociology turned tradition to the phenomenon: Max weber counts orientation at traditionto one of the four Grundtypen of social acting. Edward Shils and Shmuel N. For the sociology great importance and stated its considerations attached iron city to the development of the tradition theory in addition monographically.
Also the philosopher Karl Popper saw the development to oneTradition theory particularly as task of the sociology.
On philosophical side have themselves in particular Josef Pieper, which concerns knight school and Alasdair so mentioned MacInytre with tradition-theoretical questions: Pieper has above all the connection of medieval philosophy and catholicism into thatView taken. The knight school discussed tradition particularly because of the historical imbedding of all cultural life. MacIntyre referred as coming unitaryist to the necessity more traditionaler and regionally valid yardsticks for the present ethics and policy.
tradition criticismon the one hand the name of a method is in the historical-critical text research, on the other hand a designation of the criticism at tradition and tradierten contents themselves.
tradition criticism as historical-critical method serves for it, in writing-light texts the underlyingverbally versions spread to reconstruct (for example with Biblical texts, training fairy tale, prayer collections, myths).
The tradition criticism stands in the group with other historical-critical methods, for example the textual criticism and the criticism of form, and cannot from the research connection not than independent method be extracted.
criticism of the tradition
tradition criticism means also criticism at tradition as the delivered, cultural existence. Tradition becomes problematic if forms itself independent, whose original sense was lost: „Reason becomes nonsense, Wohltat of troubles “(Goethe).
In Europe began alsothe reformation, later with rationalism and clearing-up, a critical Infragestellen of delivered forms of the knowledge, faith and the moral. With the stress of the reason principle (to the place of the reformatorischen writing principle stepped) the validity of each tradition principle becamein question posed. Whereupon already promptly the French Traditionalismus, expression of the conservative reaction reacted.
The test of strength of tradition and reason continues into the present. Together with the self-dynamics of a rationalizing capitalism and the consequences more culturally andeconomic globalization is a world-wide revision of traditional values and excessive quantities to be observed at present. As counterreaction likewise world-wide fundamentalist tendencies are to be registered. Like already the French Traditionalismus the conservative reaction is frequently religiously legitimized and ready for violence in the present.
tradition in the culture and Geisteswissenschaften
science of history
also the science of history understand by the term tradition of everything that was delivered by occurences in any form and passed through by human view andis shown.
In the past years „invented traditions so mentioned are “(invented tradition, Eric Hobsbawm compares), which for the legitimacy certain things and ways of acting to serve are, increasingly in the field of vision of the historians come.
in thatantique legal terminology (Roman right) was tradition (traditio) the delivery act (mobile) of a thing for example with the transmission and with the purchase. Therefore also the use of tradition as distribution, meeting this very day sometimes, (compares English: trade).
In the modernJurisprudence designates tradition theory a certain beginning for the demarcation of the public right of private law. The tradition theory designates thereafter the view that certain right areas are assigned traditionally to the public right. In addition for example law cases belong within the police, the order and of theAdministrative law. </br> Apart from the tradition theory there is the interest theory, the Subordinationstheorie as further demarcation theories (also: Subject theory) and the special right theory (also: modified subject theory]].
tradition and religion
tradition in the Judentum
tradition always are in the Judentum inConnection seen by Tradierung, teachings and memory. In Deuteronomium 6 (5. Mose 6) is the instruction to give the Jewish Glaubensbekenntnis as sum (göttlichen) of the law to the son further that this continues to give it to its son.In addition is to be tradiert the memory of the history of the own people, its emergence and of with God at mountains Sinai the closed federation.
Core of the Jewish tradition understanding is the law, Tora. During the excessive quantity that Tora becomesdifferentiated between written Tora (the five books in such a way specified Mose) and verbal Tora, (first) verbally delivered interpretation written Tora. This is again partially writing light in the Talmud.
There is its own term for such traditionin the Tanach not. There is probably the word magan, which deliver in the sense of deliver means, not however in the sense treated here. Such a word develops only later from the word masorät (the obligating, binding). From this lead themselvesthe designation Masoreten off, which is used in the special for a Jewish group of scholars of the Middle Ages. The Masoreten strove for as exact written an excessive quantity as possible that Tora. They provided that to an extensive text-critical apparatus under add the Masora,so-called Masoreti text. Masora is considered today as core term of the Jewish excessive quantity understanding.
tradition in the Christianity
in the Roman-catholic church becomes under tradition, but the just as obligatory faith teachings standing beside the Bible since that Aposteln and church fathers understood. As tradition principle this faith teachings in the Roman-catholic Exegese the holy writing Christian for interpretation serve; after Roman-catholic view the true statement of Christian-Biblical texts can be understood only by the interpretation interpretation of the church. The tradition principle supplementstherefore the writing principle.
the term of the Orthodoxie refers already to the two substantial aspects of the orthodox tradition understanding: Orthodoxie is called at the same time „correct faith “and „correct praise price “. „The Rechtgläubigkeit “refers particularly to thoseBiblical excessive quantity. For the orthodox faith is important to turn to the original one and for this original one remain faithful. The Biblical text is considered as guarantor, heart and core of the tradition. At this point the Orthodoxie differs substantially from the Roman catholicism,that the church training tradition rather equally beside the Bible places. In the beginnings of the reformation the first Reformatoren in the orthodox churches saw possible allied ones. First establishments of contacts already in the first half 16. Century remained however without consequences at the end.
„The right praise price “refers to the liturgical service. The so-called „Göttliche Liturgie “decreases/goes back in the core to Jewish and frühestchristliche forms; for well 1000 years she is celebrated in unchanged form. However different variants of these have themselvesLiturgie develops. The most well-known form decreases/goes back to the Liturgie from Konstantinopel and is in all orthodox churches used. This liturgical tradition, to beside the texts also the melodies, courses of action, garbs, liturgical devices, the building of churches, icons etc. belong,just as great importance has as the Biblical teachings and for the interpretation of the Bible is also often consulted.
since the reformation time, in which the Roman-catholic tradition understanding was criticized, developed the term contrast of Christian Holy writing and tradition. The tradition principle was given up in favor of the writing principle as necessary element of the true writing understanding; after Evangelist teachings the holy writing is self-describing and therefore alone the writing obligatory on questions of the faith (compares sola scriptura). Infor this the new traditions, which developed in the individual Evangelist denominations, stand for a certain tension.
In addition, the modern tradition criticism of the clearing-up owes itself substantially the tradition-critical impulse of the reformation, went substantially beyond that, by it also thoseBible as tradition which can be criticized understood.
tradition in the Islam
in the core of the Islamic tradition understanding stands the term of the Sunna (Arab for „tradition, excessive quantity “). Because in the Koran as the geoffenbarten God word not for all areas of life rules written downwere, after death Mohammeds developed a lehr and a juridical system, which took up different secular on the right of and customs traditions and founded in connection with Mohammed religiously. After first verbal excessive quantity in four different right schools, those on different Imame as successorsMohammeds decrease/go back, became the Sunna well 200 years after Mohammeds death in several books writing light.
The delivered right collections do not apply in all Islamic faith directions. The Sunniten regards all four right schools as orthodox and accepts the entire Sunna. The Shiites holdonly the right tradition of those scholars for orthodox, who profess themselves to Ali ibn of Abi Talib as an only legitimate successor Mohammeds.
- Aleida ASS ASS: Time and tradition. Cultural strategies of the duration (1999) ISBN 3-412-03798-2
- Karsten Dittmann: Tradition and procedure (2004) ISBN 3-8334-0945-2
- Samuel N. Iron city: Tradition, change and modernity (1973; dt. 1979) ISBN 3-518-57901-0
- Josef Pieper: Over the term of the tradition (1958)
- Leonhard Reinisch (Hrsg.): Of the sense of the tradition (1970) ISBN 3-406-02468-8
- Edward Shils: Tradition (1981) ISBN 0-226-75325-5
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