Traditional counties of England
The traditional counties existed over centuries as administrative and iurisdiction districts. Since that 19. Century was frequently reformed the English administrative arrangement. For this reason the traditional counties are to be differentiated from the ceremonies counties (ceremonial counties) and the today's administrative counties (adminstrative counties). See in addition the article county (England) and for the today's organization of the administration the article administrative arrangement of England. Nevertheless also today still many Englishmen identify themselves with traditional the counties, because these became in the course of the time geographical designations.
The emergence of the first counties goes back in 10. Jh and is enough in 16. Jh. inside.
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the traditional counties
The county Monmouthshire was regarded for a long time as part of England, is ranked today however among Wales. The town center OF London belonged today no more county on, lies however historically in Middlesex.
in legal regulations the counties were called frequently County OF, followed by the name of the principal place (z. B. Yorkshire as County OF York). Later those counties, which are designated after their principal place (county town) or whose names would be otherwise einsilbig, by the ending almost were marked. From this rule there are two exceptions:
- County Durham. This anomaly is explained with the privileged position Durhams as Bischofspfalz (county palatinate).
- Kent was originally a jütisches kingdom. The designation Kentshire which can be expected was used at no time.
In the past also the designations Devonian-almost , Dorsetshire , Rutlandshire and Somersetshire were common. They became outdated today, although there is this very day the title Duke OF Devonian-almost.
In the English linguistic usage for many counties abbreviations are used. It in most cases concerns a Verkürzung with an attached “s”, so for instance with Berks for Berkshire or Bucks for Buckinghamshire. Some abbreviations are not completely so obviously, as for instance Salop for Shropshire, Oxon for Oxfordshire or Hants and Northants for Hampshire and/or. Northamptonshire.
for history the traditional counties in the process of several centuries; they have different origins and are also differently old.
In Südengland there were appropriate partitionings already in the kingdom Wessex; same applies to later areas come to it - e.g. en Kent, que se convirtió del reino de Kent. From the counties which were because of the coast to the English Channel leads only the additive - an almost. Hampshire is designated after the place Hampton, which is called today Southampton.
After Wessex the Kingdom of Mercia in 9. and 10. Jh. had conquered, its area into several almost was also divided, which after their principal place as well as the additive - almost were designated. To it z belong. B. Northamptonshire and Warwickshire. In some cases the name was shortened later (e.g. Cheshire was called first Chestershire).
Width of parts of the Kingdom of Northumbria were into almost divided , most well-known likewise are the counties Hallamshire and Cravenshire. Because this partitioning of the Normannen was not used however, they are not regarded in principle as all counties. After the invasion of the Normannen 1066 under William the conquerer the population left far parts of the north; the Domesday Book of 1086 registers the counties Cheshire and Yorkshire for the north of England only. The area lain in the northeast is not registered; here later the counties County Durham and Northumberland developed.
Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire, County Durham and Northumberland originated in in 12. Jh., for Lancashire is certain the year 1182. As part of the rule area of the bishop von Durham Hexhamshire was regarded until 1572 as independent county.
The border of England to Wales was only specified by the act OF union 1536. In the Domesday Book belong to the counties at the border of areas, which belonged later to Wales; Monmouth belonged to z. B. to Herefordshire.
Due to their different origins are also of various sizes the traditional county. The surface-moderately largest county Yorkshire developed from the kingdom of York. A las épocas del libro de Domesday pertenecieron a Yorkshire también el Lancashire , el Cumberland y el Westmorland norteños. Lincoln-almost came out from the Kingdom of Lindsey . Rutland was originally a Soke and belonged to Nottinghamshire, became however later a its own, the smallest county of England.
some the traditional counties had meant subunits. The most important were the three Ridings of Yorkshire (East Riding, west Riding and North Riding). The Ridings developed as geographical designations due to the size of Yorkshires.
The second largest county Lincoln-almost was divided into three parts (Lindsey, Holland and Kesteven). Similarly Kent into East Kent and west Kent as well as Sussex in East Sussex and west Sussex divided
In addition there were subunits on local level in almost all counties. Most counties were so-called. hundreds divided, Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire and Lincoln-almost in wapentakes and Durham, Cumberland and Westmoreland in wards. In Kent and Sussex gave it between the major subdivisions and hundreds still the further stage, which were called lathes and in Sussex rapes in Kent.
The Hundreds and/or. their appropriate subunits in other counties were for their part in tithings and parishes divided, whereby the latters to today an administrative unit represent. These for their part were again in townships and manors partitioned.
enclaves and divided cities
to several of the traditional counties belonged to surfaces, which were on the area of another county (enclave). 1844 issued the parliament a law, after which the enclaves were to be counted from now on as to denjengen counties duly, in which it lie. In England it exists to today controversy over the fact whether this regulation was compelling.
Even if the law is considered of 1844, the traditional counties had further a whole set of smaller Exklaven. The regulation of 1844 concerned above all the Exklaven Iceland-almost, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire belonging to to County Durham, which were assigned Northumberland.
Not the area was affected by this law around Donisthorpe, which belonged to Derbyshire, but lay in Leicestershire. The same applies to most the larger Exklaven of Worcestershire, e.g. the city Dudley, which lay in Staffordshire. Also the Furness area mentioned of Lancashire remained separate by this county by a narrow strip, which belonged to Westmorland.
Some cities were historically divided between two counties, z. B. Newmarket, Royston, Stamford, Tamworth and death murders. In some this cases the border ran over the center of the main street. In death murders the border between Lancashire and Yorkshire is to have run by the center of the city hall.
until today are in England the designations of the traditional counties, which were formally never dissolved, in use.
Administrativo visto los condados tradicionales fueron substituidos a partir de 1888 de los condados administrativos. These differ according to the borders and their number substantially from the traditional counties. Between 1974 and 1996 developed a row more newly administrative counties and were again dissolved. Vea para esto el condado de los artículos (Inglaterra) y los condados administrativos de Inglaterra
para los propósitos del señor Lieutenancy que existe en Inglaterra además desde 1888 a las ceremonias los condados. They are essentially based on the borders of the traditional counties, deviate in some cases in addition, from these and became in 20. Century several times changed. See in addition the article of ceremonies counties of England.
Web on the left of
Bedfordshire | Berkshire | Buckinghamshire | Cambridge-almost | Cheshire | Cornwall | Cumberland | Derbyshire | Devonian | Dorset | County Durham | Essex | Gloucestershire | Hampshire | Herefordshire | Heart-Ford-almost | Huntingdonshire | Kent | Lancashire | Leicestershire | Lincoln-almost | Middlesex | Norfolk | Northamptonshire | Northumberland | Nottinghamshire | Oxfordshire | Rutland | Shropshire | Somerset | Staffordshire | Suffolk | Surrey | Sussex | Warwickshire | Westmorland | Wiltshire | Worcestershire | Yorkshire