Transparency international, briefly TI, is a non--government organization with seat, acting world-wide, in Berlin, which engages itself in the national and international people and economical corruption fight.
Transparency international were created 1993 in Berlin friends from all world, engaged by the former director of World Bank Peter Eigen and, and developed in shortest time to one of the most influential non-profit and party-politically independent movements of the more recent time, which can be compared concerning its political influence in for instance with Attac or Amnesty international. The head offices of TI and TI Germany are in Berlin zoo and/or. Berlin center.
background and history
cause for the establishment of the organization was the idea, the world corruption, which had accepted unbelievable extents and intolerable effects in the time of the cold war to fight by independent influencing control of an outstanding and particularly control instance standing for itself.
The world-wide resonance on the establishment of TI in the year 1993 was unexpected. The historical framework offered a favorable surrounding field: The old iron curtain was with the German unit finally pleases, the core of the European Union joined themselves straight, the Gulf Wars in Iran and Iraq and the civil war in Yugoslavia humans for injustice had sensitized and from the USA „blew the democratic wind “ the Clinton - era. Much was ready in paging and for new. The ideals of TI fell on fruitful soil, however in response also defense and criticism provoked. (See also for this chapter criticism at Transparency international.)
philosophy of the movement and its proceeding
Transparency international already carry their basic concept in the name. In the variety of the different kinds of corruption is according to the principles of the organization as large common denominator, when solution, to prevent simply transparency in handling the things crucially, which it makes possible, corruption and/or. to lead into constructional courses. Because - so paradoxically it sounds has from the point of view of this system also jedwede corruption in society and economics their sense - it is the symptom for a malfunctioning in the system and if one liked to fight the corruption, one must extract their fertile soil from her:
- by consistent disclosure and transparency of the things and linear paths
- by current control by independent supervisors
- by persuasive power and acceptance opposite concerning and authors
- by careful selection and rotation of the personnel within the ranges concerned
- multi-eye principle with financialeffective decisions
- complete documentation, in particular in the assignment and procurement area
most corruption accusations those take place under poverty suffer on international level in states, (South America, Africa…). Straight one in these states formed a proper vicious circle from poverty and corruption, which from own Kraft of the states hardly more is to be broken through and it makes susceptible thereby for outside political influencing control. When the fact appears particularly paradoxical that a certain „corruption impact is already presupposed “in investment funds (usually 10% of the sum total), financed in development assistance projects predominantly from tax fundses, but tax fundses to be at the same time used, in order to fight in the same country the corruption again! So seen it very often is in the interest of foreign ruling powers or companies to promote the corruption in a country to induce if not straight, in order to enrich itself.
The beginning of TI is not konfrontativ but konsentativ contrary to Amnesty international or Greenpeace, D. h. the government and/or. To stand company head as supporters and aids on an equal footing in things corruption to the side and meet them with reason and understanding. A beginning, that always and does not become and pretty often in the cross fire of the criticism was gladly seen stands - straight of other non-governmental organizations (English. non governmental organization, briefly NGO s), like Attac or Greenpeace, those their popularity from the power of the mass and/or. the road refer. Peter Eigen justifies this proceeding with his origin:
Someone like it as a director of World Bank within the range East Africa nearly 25 years „more over the top “in the political, social and economic High Society operated, could demonstrate badly also over 60 years again with a protest poster before company buildings. It had to continue, where it had stopped: Above in the executive floors. In addition, this explains the success of Transparency international. Before scarcely 15 years in particularly citizens of Berlin mansion as bare vision based, applies for TI today as one of the most successful anti-corruption movements of the world, which operates in the meantime offices in over 90 states. The work beginning of Transparency international is to work „from above “itself thus with the powerful ones made of government to set economics and society to a table and to convince it from the Sinnhaftigkeit the non--corruption to. At the soundest one still it is that corruption is simply expensive. This argument convinced so far most frequently to co-operate in the context of the TI-consultation with the responsible anti-corruption experts.
financing and organization
the foreign offices are subject to bilateral and multilateral financing and organization. The parent company Transparency international attaches importance to the fact that the daughter offices as selfly-sufficient as possible in its respective homelands and/or. Operational areas to become active to be able, since from country to country and from culture to culture other rules must to be considered and be supposed. Also the definition of corruption is individually made in each country; Transparency international is been to consider sensitivity locally.
TI subdivides its national offices (national chapters) in groups of regional and working groups, which can act dropreferred also independently. Transparency international avoids it to interfere directly into the interests of their national chapters and depends in their international work exclusive on their instructions („decentralizedism “). So the local civilian-social forces are to be mobilized and promoted. „One would like to prevent missionary “tendencies, with which or straight slowly increasing already existing „recover “to Gesellschaftsethiken be rolled over or suffocated could, if possible.
Transparency international is generally recognized and anxious as a non-profit society to remain both politically and economically and civilian independent. Critics point out that one tries again and again in this way to take on decisions and proceedings influence. TI strives to hold their finances exemplarily transparency. A comprehensive list of all financial rivers is on the homepage www.transparency.org to be seen. Executive committee and members work honorary. The bulk of the money comes from
- the Ministry for development assistance (in Germany department of Heidemarie Wieczorek Zeul),
- European Union funds,
- donations like the Bertelsmann donation, the skirt skin he donation or the McArthur Foundation,
- the GTZ - society for technical co-operation (which by the way therefore belonged to the supporters of the first hour)
- the KfW - kreditanstalt fuer wiederaufbau
- donations of cooperative companies (which in a list on the homepage to likewise see are and an average contribution of 10.000 € in the year carry out) and
- donations of private people and club members.
Besides TI Germany penalties are placed from various public prosecutor's offices to the order. After own data Transparency international z orders. Z. internationally over a budget of over 6.000.000 US-$ in the year.
goals and function
the work basis of Transparency international is the around and demand in population, enterprise and politics. In order to arrange for example the annual corruption index of the countries, questionnaires provided with questions how:
- Which sectors are according to their opinion affected particularly by corruption? -
- (With a valuation of 1 [corruption-free] to 5 [particularly corrupt])
- as strongly their life is affected by corruption? -
- (With valuation scale 1 [not at all] to 5 [totally])
- credit it or a member of their household in the last 12 months in any form bribe paid?
- (Answer yes/no)
on the basis of these data monthly to the different topics diagrams for the respective countries are provided and published, which seek to draw a picture of the situation in the different nations. In the Transparency International´s Quarterly new type character (TI Q) are the intermediate results as well as other messages to see or than booklet from TI to refer free of charge events and results approximately around the world of the corruption to the homepage.
In the Annual report (annual report) the analyses and research results are combined into the previous year. Additionally single results are published about special (Bribe Payers Survey, corruption special brochure) separately.
The indices and statistics are constantly renewed on the basis the collected information and analyses. Importantly for the work the constant contact is both to concerning and too „authors “. Transparency international assumes corrupt governments and companies can abuse co-operation with TI for masking their activities. This co-operation is criticized straight of other NGO again and again, constitutes however from view of TI own success: Transparency international tries not to force oneself upon to reach but the reason of the concerning and involved ones in the material dispute coalitions to form, in the clear knowledge that reorientation is done not in a few hours, but via hard work in combination with constant Nachhaken with control and consequences during neglect of the rules. As good example of the freiwillige self-check in America practiced sentencing guideline stated. This sets on the self obligation of the companies to entrust themselves control of an independent institution and seize counter measures if necessary. In view of the high punishments for proven corruption is cheaper and more practical this for companies in the USA - particularly they not to be afraid must to have to be excluded denounced on „black lists “or from advertisements.
to Transparency international offers on the homepage different materials for the free Download:
- A SOURCE Book, a kind „example book “against corruption, that in the meantime in 25 languages available is
- the ABC of corruption prevention, a kind manual for enterprises as an assistance to the self-help. It contains the relevant references of A such as dependence to Z such as cases of doubt.
- The statute of Transparency international, in all members and was interested to the corruption fight also the corruption fight international national in „smallest
- circles “obligates regional ones and supraregional meeting information about Workshops, lectures and other Events in things and.
the principal purpose is the idealistic vision of total and world-wide eliminating of the corruption. On the way to this vision Transparency international could already obtain some successes and partial successes:
- change of consciousness with world-wide organizations such as z. B. the World Bank to prevent completely particularly advanced by their new president Jim
- wolf son world-wide convention against corruption at the United Nations (presented 2003 in Mexico
- ) OECD convention against the bribery of foreign sovereignty carriers of 1997, in which 34 „hands oneself “export countries obligate, the bribery abroad by their export your
- conversion of these laws to national right, z. B. can be accused in Germany for a bribery abroad taken place and condemned also validly.
- development of an evaluation of the OECD convention in German right and demand of the development and application of the anti-corruption laws. Thus TI Germany submitted a detailed statement in June 2002 for the phase II of the monitoring process to the conditions of the corruption fight.
- Influencing control on the formulation of the tax adjustment law from the March 1999, which formally abolished first the fiscal removability of bribery and bribes. Transparency international pursues the goal the fact that the practice of the fiscal authorities follows the clear will of the legislator and de-facto-removability of bribe payments is not waited at home and abroad.
- Since beginning of the yearly 1999 opposite TI and TI-Germany the OECD, the European Union and the Federal Government it was active, in order to reach that the export credit and institutions for export insurance of the OECD member states ( the ECAs) may not cover , export trades, if they came by bribe payments or corruption. For a long time is tried to obtain by clear regulations for the public export credit promotion an internationally effective basis.
- In Germany the organization pushes a more restrictive among other things on a general right to file inspection, party-PEND-tightness-sets, the disclosure of supplementary income, more transparent regulations in the assignment nature and more transparency in the health service.
criticism at Transparency international
relationship with the World Bank
a large point of criticism was, particularly under the old director of World Bank Barber Conable that the public employment of a director of World Bank harms the good reputation of the house against corruption. A further point of criticism was, in what respect it was to be handhad legally that companies and enterprises, which were transferred of the corruption should be registered after TIs demands, on „black lists “, which should be free to see of the homepage on the World Bank.
The solution lay finally in the statement that the World Bank rises from its own legal regime and is not not subjected therefore national regulations. Counterarguments of representatives of economical syndicates, which deplored that with one „“also innocent coworkers of the companies would come to black list into general suspicion, became with the statement repelled that the employees of a company concerned by corruption were not worthy of protection not concerned as the one of corruption. Finally concern it with the assignment of orders a zero-sums game, with which the advantage a company opposes always the disadvantage of the Konkurrenzfirmen.
feared relationship with international
banks in connection with the prosecution of money laundering many credit institutes the absence of „poet act funds “, z. B. of internationally outlawed dictators such as Suharto and Abacha, if they engage themselves too offensively against corruption - however in the long run a reorientation began also here, particularly in increasing co-operation with Swiss and also German determination authorities. None decorates itself very gladly with the reproach to support people murderers and dictators - even if it only the keeping of their funds goes. Relevant law projects over introduction uninformativeness in Germany failed in legislative period 2003 mainly on pressure industry, in addition, to resistance individual Ministries, whose representative of the opinion was, too much transparency would be perhaps harmful, although against-spoke that according to experience countries, in which traditionally an awake consciousness affects in things transparency (for example the Scandinavian countries), always right at the top the national corruption index to be found is, contrary to Germany, which 2004 quite reduced at place 20.
relationship with the large-scale industry
criticism at TI arises also from the fact that the federation finances itself to a large part from donations of the large-scale industry. According to a report of the magazine of the mirrors more than one third of the donation incomes in Germany von Firmen ref< Claudia> Eltermann comes: Fig sheet of the large-scale industry, the mirror, 4. November 2003< /ref>. Their entry coincides temporally frequently with the introduction of an appropriate preliminary investigation. In this way serve TI as public „fig sheet “and political group of lobbies of the large-scale industry. As the further indication the affiliation becomes stellv. Chairman of the board Dr. Peter von Blomberg for the management of the alliance and to the supervisory board of the RWE aforementioned.
The French journalist Christian de Brie of the newspaper Le Monde diplomatique formulates its criticism at the organization still more sharply:
„Transparency international is an enterprise, which was placed by large corrupt ones on the legs, i.e. all large multinational enterprises of the world are there with in it […] - that is so, as if one would transfer the fox the supervision over a chicken house and him for it asks, systematically the mice to denunzieren, which nibble the corn grains of the chickens.“
- Christian de Brie in the 2003 of arte radiated documentation “the white west - black cashes”
relationship with the German health service
TI published to 12. November 2004 in Berlin a study („weakpoint analysis “) over fraud and corruption on the part of health insurance companies , physicians , pharmacists , Pharmaindustrie , researchers and insuring of the German Federal Republic. The TI-spokeswoman Anke Martiny estimated the loss, which results from it to the German health service, on 3 10%, that would be between 6 and 20 billion euro. Pharma such as physician federations objected promptly that TI would have transferred arbitrarily numbers from the USA to Germany. The Nichtregierungsorganisation answered to the fact that a European conference had explained such a transmission for permissible and for appropriate as the corruption in the health service in October 2004 in London.
Susceptibility for fraud in the German health service is among other things due to the vagueness and uncontrollableness of the föderalen system. Because in the most densely populated member state within the European Union there would be also still 16 land Ministries, at least just as many cash-medical combinations and about 300 health insurance companies, which were involved as participants in the administration of the national expenditures for health beside a federation. Particularly „structurally corrupt “the Pharmakologe Peter Schönhöfer from the adviser of TI on the press conference called in particular the Pharmabereich. The Pharmaindustrie marked its products out, by affecting physicians, pharmacists and scientists with gesponserten conferences, software and other allowances substantial. A relationship between competitive ability and corruption became for the first time in a TI-Workshop Corruption - how and why tons avoid it in Prague discussed (November 1998).
relationship with the German Blognetz
in March 2006 went to TI Germany against the author of a private Weblogs <ref> Blog: thought carrier< /ref> forwards, which had written unfair notice to its opinion in January over those after a friend after their Probezeit with TI Germany. The Justiziar and ethics-assigned the organization, Jürgen Marches, required the deletion of the article and threatened with legal steps. This procedure was not only commentated throughout in different Weblogs, in the German-speaking countries, critically and rejecting. Media also established reported David Fischer Kerli on <>the incident ref: Gebloggte opinions, taz, 29. March 2006< /ref>. TI was made the reproach not to adhere in this case to the own ethical principles. After the author of the Blogs had for its part announced a charge over their lawyer against TI because of slandering and bad Nachrede and had called an omission explanation in against the statement, it had spread untruths, done without TI on further legal steps.
In the context of the medialen interest in the procedures the expenditure for on-line of the news of the day ( news magazine of the pool of broadcasting corporations ) published an article, in also yokes the Bäumel, a member of the board of TI Germany and correspondent A. D. the pool of broadcasting corporations, one quotes. The report was judged of Bloggern as on one side TI-friendly and the fact that the first version of the text <ref> Fiete Stegers: Transparency international in the Clinch with Weblogs, tagesschau.de, 28. March 2006< /ref> ref Fiete Stegers <was revised> a little later: Transparency international in the Clinch with Weblogs, tagesschau.de, 30. March 2006< /ref> as confirmation of this opinion rated. In this connection they pointed out also that yokes Bäumel had expressed itself before in the name of TI against additional legislative measures for the fight against corruption with the public transmitters („I to hold the legal regulations for sufficient. The institutes could undertake however additional efforts around corruption to prevent. “ <ref>Corruption with the publicly legal ones - interview with yokes Bäumel, member of the board of “Transparency international - Germany registered association.. medienhandbuch.de, 11. August 2005< /ref>) and see in this incident an example of how personnel entwinements with other organizations can impair the reliability of TI.
- to corruption
- official secret
- administrative ethics
- administrative transparency
- European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Conference
- Web on the left of www.transparency.de Transparency Germany
- www.transparency.org TI international headquarters
- Corruption Perception index 2003 (English, pdf - file)
- Corruption Perception index 2004 (pdf file)
- Corruption Perception index 2005 (pdf file)
- TI Germany findings: Corruption in the health service up to 20 billion euro
- EHFCC: What is healthcare fraud and corruption? (English)
- TI-critical Blogbeitrag (copy of rebel market)
- wirres.net press mirror to the Transparency Blog incident
- the lost press release press release of TI Germany to the Transparency Blog incident