Transposition (music)

by Transposition one understands a changing of the pitch of a piece or a part from it in the music. The simplest kind of the Transposition is the Oktavierung, with which the tones remain named, but around a Oktave to be shifted upward or down. With Transpositionen with other intervals in most cases also the kind of clay/tone and thus the general signs must be changed. One transponiert for example from D major to F major, one exchanges the marked two crosses for a b and lowers then all tones around a small third up or large Sext .

The most important reasons for Transpositionen are:

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historical designs

with historical instruments (for example nature trumpets or nature horns) was possible it by the absence of chromatic play ability to play distant kinds of clay/tone from the basic tendency (see also partial clay/tone row). Thus the musicians Stimm- or Wechselbögen of different lengths set (e.g. with the trumpet A-elbow, C-Bogen, it elbow, F-elbow), in order to change so the basic tendency. So that they did not have to again learn the new clay/tone rows for the changed basic tendency, the composers considered this and set the notation in such a way that the instrument valleyists could to be further-played only the elbow to change and as used. These places for changing the elbows marked the composers with the Transpositionsvorschriften (e.g. “Trumpet in F”). With the modern, chromatically playable instruments this problem is omitted, so that the musicians are forced to cancel this change of the notation again “in the head” and to convert each note again into the sounding. Otherwise one would have to describe the entire literature, whereupon one could not inform oneself until today.

a changing of the being correct situation

professional singers know just as well like amateurs annoyance over songs, which lie for the own voice too highly or deeply. Here the Transponieren can be into a more suitable situation a large assistance. This tradition was always maintained by musicians: From most song cycles of the large composers exist own expenditures for the different being correct situations, which were transponiert into appropriate kinds of clay/tone.

With instrument valley music it can be likewise the fact that a piece, which “lies” for example on the flute pleasantly, for a Oboisten uncomfortablly and is too high and is played by it better in a deeper situation. Johann Sebastian brook, which reworked often own melodies or whole pieces for other instruments, used this practice again and again.

technical easement

if music pieces in difficult kinds of clay/tone, is often heavy it for beginners to master the abundance at signs. The famous English horn - solo ones from Antonín Dvořáks symphony from the new world, which is located in the original in D flat major, one could transponieren in a piano album for children for instance after C major, so that it can be played exclusively with white keys:

(a) Dvořáks Neue Welt im Original, (b) in einer leichteren Fassung
(A) Dvořáks new world in the original, (B) in an easier version

in addition, for Professionisten can be meaningful it to transponieren a music piece: Works for Bläser often are in B-Tonarten and those for strike ago in kinds of cross clay/tone, because that comes to meet the sound and the technology of the instruments. Now for instance if a Cellist plays a bassoon - piece in A flat major, it can sound more brilliant and more natural, if it transponiert it into a kind of clay/tone more pleasant at the cello, about A major.

Transponierende of instruments

Transponierende of instruments do not have normally single voices, which are already transponiert noted, the musician must thus about it worry, but play, which is located in the notes, and the correct pitch sounds. In the following cutout from Beethovens fifth is shown the voice of the B-clarinets, which sound deeper a complete clay/tone, than one notes them. (A) is (hinauftransponierte) the orchestra voice, (B) is deeper the desired and obtained sound, a complete clay/tone:

Transposition bei der B-Klarinette
Transposition with the B-clarinet

occasionally must play a musician however on its transponierenden instrument from a transponierten, so-called C-voice, if a Klarinettist takes over for example the part of the flute or violin. In this case the Transposition must take place in real time in the head of the musician.

In the orchestra literature one finds sometimes also C-Klarinettenstimmen, so for example in the Symphonien Beethovens or thrust RTS, or the “bar beer of Sevilla “from Rossini, whose sometimes racing fast passages would be to be mastered common C-clarinets on that today hardly more around some lighter. In some works of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations bunch and smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner even are being correct for a bass clarinet in A, which must being played in the absence of such instruments with a bass clarinet in B around a half-tone more deeply than noted.

Particularly complex can be with buglers, who must master the most diverse Transpositionen with nature horn voices. The following illustration shows a further Ausschitt from the Beethoven Symphonie: In the notes (A) is located, to sound is to (B), for which on the F-horn (C) must be seized:

Das doppelte Transponieren aus alten Hornstimmen
The double Transponieren from old horn voices

electronic Transposition (Sampling)

Transposition prozentual
Transposition proportionally

with a Sampler the tones scanned by the original instruments can be transponiert.

  • If the playing speed is changed at the same time, also ddie pitch changes (similar as with a record). Thus changes however also the course of the sound, which worsens the result. Descriptive example is the so-called “Mickey Mouse voice” with electronically hochtransponierten photographs.
  • Differently those computationally up few “little by little” treatment of the Samples, with which extremely short temporal sections of the clay/tone oscillation are faster played and duplicated in such a way afterwards that the length of the sound does not change. As problem however the shift of the Formanten remains also with this procedure, because more highly/deep played or sung clay/tone has usually also another sound characteristic than electronically more transponierter.
Transpositionstabelle (in per cent):
-8    158,74 -7    149,83 -6    141,42 -5    133,48 -4    126,00 -3    118,92 -2    112,25 -1    105,95 no 100,001     94,392     89,093     84,094     79,375     74,926     70,717     66,748     It

follows 63,00 thereby the exponential function y = 100 * 0,9439^x. Doubled or half pitch is reached with a Transposition of 12 tones.

see also

Wiktionary: Transposition - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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