the Trappisten are in 17. Century developed branch of reform within the Cistercian medal, a Roman-catholic medal. Since 1903 the medal calls itself officially „medals of the Cistercians of the stricter Observanz “(lat. Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae, briefly:OCSO or Ordo Cisterciensium reformatorum, briefly: Ocr). The Ordenstracht of the Trappisten corresponds to that the Cistercian: white garb with leather belt and black shoulder dress (Skapulier) as well as the white of monk kukulle. Admits is the Trappisten nowadays above allby the Trappistenbier. Contrary to other abbey beers the Trappistenbier is brewed by Dutch and Belgian monks in the monastery.
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arm and Jean Le Bouthillier de Rancé, starting from that 14. July 1664 abbott in the Cistercian monastery La Trappe, continued reform movement within the Cistercian medal and spread it. Fundamentally for itsReforms was de Rancés consciousness of the necessity for the penalty. In the foreground of the reform stood self denial, humility and Askese. De Rancé rejected any scientific studies in the monastery from humility. The Askese of the Trappisten expressed itself in strict being silent rules,hard manual work, in particular in the agriculture, and Abstinenzregeln.
The reforms de Rancés were taken over by four man monasteries and a woman monastery. After death de Rancés continued the monks of La Trappe its reform work. 1790 became La Trappe inCourse of the French revolution waived. Augustin de Lestrange, since 1785 Novizenmeister of La Trappe, fled with 21 monks into Switzerland. At the 1. The monks the abandoned Kartäuserkloster La Valsainte fled from France settled June 1791. 1794published de Lestrange the Règlements de La Valsainte, the life habits of the monks of Valsainte. In the same year formed a Kongregation of monasteries, which had taken over the reforms for itself. Thus the Ordo developed et congregatio for Beatae Mariae deLa Trappe.
1798, when French troops into Switzerland broke in, the monks also La Valsainte had to leave. They wandered through Germany, Austria, Böhmen and Poland until Russia. From there they were proven 1800. The monksdivided themselves into different groups and arrived to Westphalia, Flanders, England and America. In this way the Reformkongregation spread world-wide. 1814, after which fall Napoleon became, also La Trappe again-settled. In Francethe reformed ones in addition several monasteries based again and settled old Cistercian abbeys again.1830 belonged to 10 man and 4 woman monasteries to the Kongregation, which formed still no independent medal at that time, but was subordinated to the general abbott of the Cistercians.
1847 became the reformed ones of Pope Pius IX. in two Kongregationen divided: some obeyed the rules de Rancés and the other one the rules de Lestranges. Only 1892, under Pope Leo XIII., a common medal of both Kongregationen, „the medal of the reformed Cistercians developed “. 1902 got the medal the today valid designation „medals of the Cistercians of the stricter Observanz “. In the course 19. Century created the medal also addresses in Australia, Africa, Palestine, in the Empire of China and Japan. In the coursethe second Vatikani council penalty and Askese were limited the medal to a reasonable measure.
After the conditions of 2000 the medal counts world-wide 100 man monasteries with 2510 monks< ref name= " OCSOStatistikMoenche ">http://www.ocso.org/net/stats99m.htm< /ref> and 67 woman monasteries with 1905 nuns<ref name= " OCSOStatistikNonnen ">http://www.ocso.org/net/stats99n.htm< /ref>. In the German-speaking countries there are today ever two to man and woman monasteries of the Trappisten. The only Trappistenkloster Germany is created the abbey Maria forest (the Eifel), 1864. Besides there are two Trappistinnenklöster, the Trappistinnenabtei in GermanyMaria peace in Dahlem (circle Euskirchen) and the Trappistinnenkloster Gethsemani in THEN rock. The only Trappistenkloster Austria is angel cell.
Characteristically of the Trappisten a strict Askese was, particularly in the form of silence and penalty. After the second Vatikani council this Askeseregeln was however somewhat loosened.
Traditionally determine prayer, reading and manual labor thatDaily rhythm of the monks. Seven times on day the monks meet to the hour prayer in the abbey church. Religious reading is the thoughts to collect and on God direct. By their manual labor the monks do not only solidarize with simple humans,by manual labor their living costs to earn must and therefore often hard on them rests. The manual labor gives also the necessary balance to the religious life of the monks.
The Marienverehrung takes an important place in the life of the Trappisten.Thus the individual prayer times end to Maria niches with anti-phon, a leftover old Maria niches of the Offiziums in most houses.
of monasteries in the German-speaking countries
- abbeyMaria Frieden in Dahlem (the north Eifel)
- abbey Maria forest in home brook (the Eifel)
- monastery angel cell in angel cell (Austria)
- monastery Gethsemani in THEN rock
to medal history
- Karl Suso franc, history of the Christian Mönchtums, Darmstadt 1996 ISBN 3-896-785001
- Karl Suso franc, Trappisten, in: LThK ³ 10 (2001) 193-195
- David Knowles, history of the Christian Mönchtums. Benediktiner, Cistercian, Kartäuser, Munich 1969
to the Ordensspiritualität
- Maria Magdalena Aust, La Trappe: Load and inspiration of a legend.The Spiritualität of the Trappisten in their historical development, in: Edith stone yearbook 9 (2003) 92-111.
- Henri J. M. Nouwen, I heard on the silence. Seven months in the Trappistenkloster, Freiburg i.Br. 1999 ISBN 3-451-180235
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Trappist - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- http://www.ocso.org - side of the Trappistenordens
- http://www.trappistinnen-maria-frieden.de - Trappistinnenabtei Maria peace
- http://www.kloster-gethsemani.de - Trappistinnenkloster Gethsemani
- http://www.kloster-mariawald.de - Trappistenabtei Maria forest
monk medals: Benediktiner | Kamaldulenser | Kartäuser | Trappisten | Cistercian
Regularkanoniker: Augustiner choir gentlemen | Prämonstratenser
begging medal: Dominikaner | Franziskaner | Kapuziner
knight medal: German medal | Malteserorden | Templerorden
Regularkleriker: Dehonianer | Jesuiten | Legionäre Christi
Klerikale Kongregationen: Steyler of mission acres