under drinking water one understands fresh water with a high measure of purity, which is suitable for the human use. Besides technical requirements (aggressiveness against pipings , avoidance of deposits) must be ensured. The limit values, which permit it to release a water as drinking water are legally given and at the thought of the health care oriented. In Germany the condition of the drinking water is regulated by the drinking water regulation (TrinkwV 2001). At the 1. January 2003 into force stepped amended version represents the conversion of the EEC guideline “over the quality of water for the human use” (98/83/EG) into national right.
In the drinking water no ill-making (pathogenen) germs may be contained. The water must be smell and colorless as well as appetitlich and energize from its nature to the benefit. The limit values for nitrate and nitrites are very low. Impurities due to Überdüngung on agricultural surfaces in the last decades lead in many areas, whose potable water supply is based on the withdrawal of groundwater, to problems.
Likewise a minimum of minerals should be present. The most frequent minerals, which are dissolved by water, are calcium and magnesium carbonates as well as the sulfates of these metals. Their concentrations are indicated as hardness (German hardness) of the water. Drinking water should have at least 5° and is at the most 25° of German total hardness (dH). The pH value must lie between 6,5 and 9,5.
table of contents
a hygenic and safe potable water supply is probably the crucial contribution to the health and epidemic avoidance. Humans need about 2 to 3 litres water per day in order to survive. In Central Europe must be counted however on a total water requirement from approximately 150 to 200 more l/Einwohner on the day (to wash, toilets, cleaning etc.). Mostly for technical reasons for it also drinking water is used, since it is also economically hardly realizable, to establish and operate separate lines for drinking and industrial water. Besides the technical requirements are today high to the industrial water just as as those at drinking water. If the water stands in the lines or is not taken, always acute germinating danger exists.
Drinking water is mostly won as groundwater from wells ( see building of wells , Artesi well) and sources, in addition, Oberflächenwasser (for instance from dams or the Bodensee) or also river water (direct taken out of waters or as bank filtrate) from wells in waters proximity is prepared to drinking water. Transport to the consumer takes place mostly via a water distribution system, consisting of containers, pumps and lines and in rare cases (mostly in emergency situations) via tank cars or mobile bundles (bottles, barrels, plastic bags).
In water-poor coastal countries also sea water desalination plants are used to drinking water treatment.
organization of the water supply
the establishment, preservation and the enterprise of water supply plants take place in most countries via individuals, enterprises and enterprises, water cooperatives, municipalities and water federations.
- Thomas intelligent one, Engelbert scratch: Water shortages: to the history of the drinking water. Cologne: People sheet, 1988 (2. Aufl.), ISBN 3-923243-38-3
- Giulio Morteani, Lorenz Eichinger: Arsenic in the drinking water and Dearsenierung. Laws, toxicology, hydraulic chemistry. Water, air, soil 48 (6), S. 24 - 26, ISSN 0938-8303
- M. Exner: The infection-epidemiological meaning of Helicobacter pylori with special consideration of untreated Brunnenwasser as infection reservoir. Hygiene and medicine 29 (11), S. to 418 - 422 (2004), ISSN 0172-3790
- water, tap water, groundwater, seawater desalination, spring water
- water law, water protection, water crisis
- waste water, purification plant, plant purification plant, activated sludge process, anaerobic waste water purification
- water management, mineral water, welfare water, world water day
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Drinking water - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Federal Office for Environment Protection: Article about “drinking water”
- agenda 21: Drinking water prices in selected countries
- current and fundamental about “water”
- quality of drinking water in Switzerland
- The 2nd United nation World Water development report: “Water, A shared responsibility” (March 2006)
- Heiko Wimmen, cause for conflict water: Embittered controversy in the Near East (Deutschlandfunk, 22. March 2006 - also as audio on and)