Tropfsteine stones, which result from dripping water, are general. With respect to the colloquial language neither the place at that is differentiated it to develop (cave, mine, building, etc.) still the chemical composition. In the last years hasitself however increasingly the restriction on lime deposits and the emergence in caves interspersed. kalkhaltiges, flowing and in particular dripping water with usually very small water river is thereby a cause of the slow deposit of Kalzit.
In recent time findsincreasingly the term Speleothem use, which is derived from the English spelothem. It designates however all kinds of secondary deposits, in particular in caves, and covers thereby Tropfsteine.
Table of contents
chemistry and forms
While the char-acid water flows by the Karst, it dissolves the limestone up to the lime saturation in itself. If it meets then a cavity, the Sickerwasser at the cover flows along,drop loses at velocity of flow and forms due to the surface tension. It delivers CO 2 , what leads to the precipitation of crystalline CaCO 3. This sinter - lime forms Tropfstein down-hanging of the cover, for the Stalaktiten. Upsome more lime contains the soil hitting drops. In the case of the impact of the drop CO 2 is set free and lime precipitates again. Accordingly further Tropfstein of the soil grows up and forms for Stalagmiten. Stalagmiten and Stalaktiten can also as column grow together and Stalagnat are then called. The evaporation of the water plays only in few caves and/or. Cave parts, z. B. at cave entrances a role. Through in the water loosened minerals can exhibit Tropfsteine different colouring.
- covering inter (at the excavating corner)
- sinter tube
- covering interborders
- sinter flags
- of sinter curtains
- wall sinters (at the cave wall)
- sinter crusts
- of cases of sinter
- of canopies
- brine sinter (within the soil range)
- of sinter barriers
- sinter covers
- sinter basins
- of wall sinter rings
- of lots sinter forms (free lying in the cave area)
- cave beads
- wall sinter borders
- Excentriques (at cave wall and - coversoccurring)
- covering inter (at the excavating corner)
- CaCO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 <=> Approx. 2+ + 2 HCO 3 -
- or also
- CaCO 3 + H 2 CO 3 <=> Approx. 2+ + 2 HCO 3 -
growth rate and dripping A AGe
Tropfsteine develop and grow in the human yardstick seen only very slowly. The exact speed of dripping A GROWTh varied however and depends on several factors:
- Lime concentration in the water
- CO 2 - content in the water and in thatAre
- very popular to cave quantity
of the down-dripping water temperature with cave leaders data concerning the growth rates of Tropfsteinen. Quite realistic measurements from 8 to 15 millimeters per 100 year are at the basis put. Not legitimately however the Verallgemeinerung is on thoseentire cave, as well as linear projecting on the dripping A SIZe. A Stalaktit with a meter of length is thus most likely not exactly 10000 years old.
In the Charlottenhöhle can one a three centimeter large Tropfstein see, to that on the Stromleitungen of the historicalwas up to to electrical lighting. Thus the age is well-known (since installation of the line, about 110 years) and possible the growth rate is to be calculated. Unfortunately the result cannot become alga my ore, also neighbouring Tropfsteine can very unterscheidliche growth rates possess. The mentionedTropfstein is under a Doline with humus filling and very high CO2 and Huminsäurenproduktion. Thus the Wahchstumsgeschwindigkeit is spatially very closely limited verfünffacht.
In addition the temporal component comes. The growth rates vary themselves with climatic changes, there thereby those aboveindicated four parameters change. With the change of cold times and interglacial periods growth varies very strongly. During a cold time it, by the sealing of the soil by Permafrost , can do to complete suspends growth to come. In interglacial periods it was frequentmore warmly and damper than today, so that the growth rates were measured more highly than today. Thus one can assume the education with the example specified above that a substantial part of the dripping unity before the last cold time developed, then suspended and alsothe end of the cold time before approximately 8000 years again began. One means the interglacial period general therefore today with the age of a dripping unity, while that was formed the largest part of the dripping unity.
Finally it is still pointed out that frequently only ofthe growth rate about “Tropfsteinen” one talks. It is neglected that the speed depends also on the form. Sinter tubes can grow very fast, after the transition to the Stalaktit become the speed however clearly smaller, there now the same quantity material upa larger surface one deposits. The growth rate associated Stalagmiten differs again drastically. Any indication, which does not consider these differences, does not have any scientific value.
The growth rate is however an important characteristic number if it from meaningful measurements is derived. In additionsamples are taken and the age with a suitable geophysical method is intended for the age determination (C14, U/Th or O). Now a aussagekräfgtige growth rate can be calculated between suitable measuring points, with recognizably homogeneous growth between them. This then quite leaves conclusions on thoseclimatic conditions during the emergence of the dripping unity too.
growth Tropfsteine can be disturbed by cave visitors. If one affects Tropfstein, then fat of the skin sits downoff and prevents here future lime deposits.
dripping in occurrences
fundamental are in all caves world-wide, which lie in Karst and lime rock regions, Tropfsteine. Some unusual examples, particularly in looking caves:
Tropfstein-Höhlen in Germany
- Attahöhle: possesses a multiplicity of Tropfsteinen, under it unusual sinter flags
- nebula cave: sawed off Stalagmiten , that has after the Second World War for the restoration Ludwig citizens of the lock was used
- Sophienhöhle: the millionaire, a solid Stalagmit possesses, however despite of theOn behalf of no million is years old. Together with Stalaktiten present over it and framing sinter flags he represents a formation king Otto cave impressing
- for German conditions: for centuries the well-known cave part is very strongly damaged, but those newdiscovered Adventhalle possesses a überwäligende accumulation of Tropfsteinen, which is probably unique in German looking caves. Among them are also crystal lawns, water level marks and even sinter beads
Tropfstein-Höhlen in Austria
- Obir Tropfsteinhöhlen: these caves are only a few years agoas looking cave opened and possess many unusually beautiful, white Tropfsteine.
- Nixhöhle: a very old looking cave, possesses hardly normal Tropfsteine, for it however unusually much moon milk, a soft sinter deposit, those in Austria Nix is called
- crystal cave Kobelwald: a small river cave possesses unusual Kalzitkristalle, those in former times even as Marienglas was diminished
Tropfstein-Höhlen in Slovenia
- Skocjanske Jame (caves of pc. Kanzian): in the first part enormous Tellerstapelstalagmiten, those of areaarea become larger. In the second part the probably imposantesten sinter basins to find those in a looking cave are
Tropfstein-Höhlen in Italy
- Grotta Grande del Vento, Frassassi: probably the most beautiful Italian cave, with a 70mnearly already lost Grotte di Castellana work high entrance hall, into the 30m high,
- radiating white Tellerstapelstalagmiten: a vault waits at the end of the long route, Stalaktite and Stalagmiten in the standing water by Kalzitkristalelen was überkrustet
Tropfstein-Höhlenin the USA
- Lechuguilla: the “most beautiful cave of the world”, so the title of the probably most famous book concerning the cave, is not a looking cave. It possesses all conceivable dripping A FORMs and still some further. Who would like to get at least a small impression of itthe Cralsbad Caverns should next door visit
- Carl bath Caverns
depending upon arrangement of the dripping unity speaks one of Stalaktit, Stalagmit or Stalagnat, whereby the last term generally linguistic usage is used less, there the continuous column formoccurs relatively rarely.
In German the difference between the two first mentioned dripping in forms shows t thereby that Stalag with EN have already much “with made ", therefore to “m üde " and therefore at the soil is, during Stalak t itenropfen and at the cover hang. A well-known donkey bridge for adults is:Mi (e) ten rise and (Stalak) tit (t) the EN hang. Because of their slipperiness this donkey bridge is probably those, which can mostly note adults.
On the other hand particularly for children: The Stalak t iten comes from the “T “hits a corner, and the Stalag with EN grew with you also.
Considering the form of the capital letters „“and „T “also Stalag M know M iten and Stalak T iten good donkey bridgesits.
In English the following saying helps: Stala g of mites grow from the g round, stala C of tites grow from the C eiling, in the French La Stalag m ite monte, la stalag t ite tombe (more monter „rise “and more tomber „fall “).
Tropfsteine from other materials
supplementing is still mentioned that of lime do not only have to consist Tropfsteine. In the visitor mines Feengrotten in hall field, Morassina (both in Thuringia) and alum work Mühlwand, Vogtland (Saxonia) one can partiallycolourful copies from Diadochit admire. Diadochit Tropfsteine grow substantially faster than Tropfsteine made of lime, however they are mechanically less stable.
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