Tropical rain forest

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tropical rain forest one calls one of the forms of vegetation, which is to be found only in the tropical climate zones.

Are characteristic a high close sheet roof and a rich fauna and Flora. There is no vegetation break. Beside the korallen reefs tropical rain forests possess the highest kind density.

Tropischer Nebelwald (Costa Rica)
Tropical wet forest (Costa Rica)

ecological systems, which are adapted to the perpetually damp, hot climate of the earth, form the tropical rain forests (evergreen jungles). This climate becomescharacterized by a middle yearly temperature of 25 °C with 0,5 - 0.6 °C yearly amplitude (yearly fluctuation) and 6 - 10 °C daily amplitude as well as by annual amounts of precipitation of more than 2,500 mm. Besides it gives more than sieves humid months in the year,in those thus the precipitation is larger than the evaporation.

These rain forests extend in parts of the three tropical zones in south and Central America, Africa and south Asia as well as Australia on both sides the equator. Exceptions form and region of South America andthe trade wind monsoon zone in East Africa. 1950 became the expansion of the tropical rain forests on 16 - 17 millions km ² estimated, thus about 11% of the land surface of the earth. Until 1980 of it 50% were destroyed by human effect.

Table of contents

the vegetation of the rain forest

in the rain forest growing the trees in the building of floors. One can divide the tropical rain forest in six layers, which are however not absolute, but into one another to turn into: Soil, Krautschicht, bush layer,low trees, crown layer and over stands. The development of the different floors depends on the location of the forest. Trees in the low land rain forest have for example frequently flat, far running out roots, the so-called board and Stelzwurzeln. There the soil in the rain forest only a thin Humus layer possesses and thus little storage capacity for nutrients exhibits, plays the Mykorrhiza here a particularly important role during the nutrient supply. Depending upon the location of a tropical rain forest one can differentiate different types. Examples for this are the low land rain forest, prämontaner rain forest (i.e.the rain forest of the Vorberge), mountain rain forest, Terra Firme forest.

Tropical rain forests are mainly around the equator, between 10° more south and 10° northern latitude. By many of them important rivers flow, like e.g. in Brazil the Amazon.

The material conversion processes inRain forest run off because of the constantly warm and damp climate very fast, i.e. snaps materials entry by strong Durchwurzelung in the upper edge of soil and a high photosynthesis rate. But are only five per cent of the nutrients in the soil. The few, but sufficientNutrients arrive either by sloping leaves or by the rain water at the soil. By the absence of seasons there is the whole year over sloping sheets, which are again decomposed immediately. Since the soil possesses hardly storage capacity, the nutrients arriveequivalent again into the material cycle. Rain water the poor in ions extracts with depresses through the sheet roof over the sheets nutrients from the trees. These nutrients are caught partially by Epiphyten and arrive otherwise into the soil.

Ants and termitestake a privileged position in the complex structure of the rain forests. By symbioses they convert vegetable biomass into animal protein. Thus they take a role of mediator between producers and consumers. By the high production of biomass the whole yearthrough the material cycle of the tropical rain forest is not dependent on a nutrient-rich soil. The material cycle is thus present into the crowns of tree. There a completely independent diversity of species, those is only since short with the help of the crown of tree research in such a way specified one explores.

One differentiates the climbers of the rain forest with respect to Lianen, Epiphyten and Hemi Epiphyten. The Epiphyten (Aufsitzer) is for example ferns and Bromelien. They grow no physiological connection on forked sticks and branches of the trees, go along thereby howeverthe carrier tree. They use the there more intensive light in the upper regions of the trees and solve their supplying problem over their sheets: So-called niche sheets can form for example a cavity, in the humus develop and for water are collected. Many Bromelienform again with their sheets cisterns, in which water collects itself. This water is taken up over the sheet surface with the help of special absorption organs. The arrow poison frogs for example put their eggs to spend into this pool and their entire life into thatCrowns of tree.

Epiphyti Orchideen again possesses air roots, which are covered with an absorbent tissue. Lianen against it roots in the soil and unfold their sheets only in the Kronendach. They are also able to train air roots in order to ensure an additional water supply. Hemi Epiphyten found a middle course for the nutrient supply: They begin their life as Epiphyt (supply over sheets) and train with bottlenecks connections to the soil, in order to procure itself water and nutrients.

Lianen and Epiphyten coin/shape the appearance of the jungle vegetation.Up to 80 different Aufsitzerarten on a tree were counted. To the ground cover on the trees many different animals adapted, them their ecological niche here found.

Endangerment of the rain forest

annual many square meters of tropical rain forest are cleared, toone over on the gerodeten surfaces plan day economy to operate Viehwirtschaft or agriculture to a part the geschlägerte wood is used for production by furniture. The largest part is used however as cheap building timber or for the production of cheap copying paperused. For this purpose straight paper factories enormous in Southeast Asia ( Malaysia, Indonesia ) were established.

Also by Brandrodung large surfaces are made agriculturally usable. In addition, thereby on the one hand the vegetation is removed, by the Brandrodung develops ash, thoseNutrients contains. Nevertheless the gerodeten surfaces can be agriculturally effectively used however only few years, since the humus layer of the soil is relatively thin and by agriculture too many nutrients are extracted from the soil, it could regenerate. Annuallyare lost 125,000 square kilometers tropical forest, a daily loss of approx. 34,000 hectares, thus a surface as largely as Bremen.

Routine of the day in a tropical rain forest

 - to 6,00 o'clock the sun up the rain forest goes is very fast in the fog (20°C)- until 10,00 o'clock develops for much water evaporated (20°C-25°C) - until 13,30 o'clock large clouds (28°C) - between 14-17.00 o'clock violent thunderstorms/rainfalls during the rain time (between 30°C and 31°C) - starting from 17.00 o'clock the sun seems again (28°C) - 18.00Clock the sun goes fast under (26°C) - to 18.00 o'clock it is (at the night between 20°C and 23°C) sees

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