Tschechien

Česká republika
Czech Republic of
Nationalflagge Tschechiens Nationalwappen Tschechiens
(detail) (detail)
office language Czech
capital Prague
system of government Republic of
president Václav Klaus
Prime Minister Jiří Paroubek
surface 78,884 km ²
number of inhabitants 10.251.079 (31. December 2005)
Population density of 130 inhabitants per km ²
establishment 1. January 1993
Currency Czech crown (CZK)
religions 26.8% catholic; 59% denomination lots;
2.3% Protestanten; 3.2% other
time belt UTC +1
national anthem Kde domov můj?
Kfz characteristic CZ
Internet TLD .cz
preselection +420
Lage Tschechiens in Europa

Tschechien (Czech Česko) or those Czech republic (Czech Česká republika Tondokument ? / License; Details to the name see down) lies in Central Europe and borders on Germany (810 km) in the west and northwest, on Poland (762 km) in the north, the Slowakei (252 km) in the eastand Austria (466 km) in the south.

Tschechien covers traditionally the three historical countries Böhmen, Mähren and Mährisch Schlesien. After the Second World War these were divided in eight regions (6 for Böhmen, 2 for the other two regions), since thatYear 2000 applies a new administrative arrangement in 14 regions (see also administrative arrangement Tschechiens). The state became 1999, 8 years after dissolution Warsaw Treaty member of NATO and stepped at the 1. May 2004 of the European union .

Table of contents

geography

Topografie
Topografie

Tschechien has by itsBorder mountains a topografisch clear arrangement: it consists of several basin landscapes, which are partitioned surrounded by mountains and. Therefore one says for example in upper Austria „I drives to Böhmen inside “- and not over there.

At the southwest border Tschechiensthe Böhmerwald ( Šumava, 1,000 to 1,400 m) lies, in the northwest the ore mountains (Krušné Hory, wedge mountain 1,244 m) and in the north the Sudeten (Sudety), which in the giant mountains (Krkonoše) with the Schneekoppe 1,602 m (tschech. Sněžka) reach. Southeast the ore mountains spreadsto both sides of the Elbe (tschech. Refresh) the Böhmi low mountain range out.

Böhmen and Mähren are separated by the low Böhmisch Mähri height (600 to 800 m). Mähren has portion of the Karpatenvorland in the east and in the south at the Viennese basin. The Beskiden and white Karpaten form its east border to the Slowakei, and only the south border to Lower Austria forms majority a river - the strongly mäandrierende Thaya (Dyje).

On the summits of the Böhmerwald, Böhmi low mountain ranges, the Beskiden and firstAusläufer of the Karpaten runs the European Wasserscheide.

Klimadiagramm Prag
Climatic diagram Prague

the basin landscapes are very fruitful. Thus in Böhmen, particularly in the Saazer basin, hop cultivated (Böhmen is one the traditional Bierbrauerländer), in Mähren is cultivated to wine.

Tschechien liesin the moderate temperature zone of the earth. Those Annual average temperature amounts to 7.9 °C at mild winters (February: 0,5 °C) and cools for summers (June: 18,6 °C). The yearly precipitation sum amounts to 508 mm in Prague; a relatively small value due to the Lee - situation east and/orsoutheast the Böhmerwalds, the Oberpfälzer of forest and the ore mountains. Every twelve months are humid.

population

number of populations: 10,25 million inhabitant (December 2005)

ethnical groups:Czech 94%; Slowaken 3%; Minorities of Poland, German, Hungary andRoma altogether 3%

refugees: 1297

population distribution: in cities 75%; on the country 25%

life expectancy: Men 72 years; Women 79 years

age structure: 0-14 years 15.4%; 15-64 years 70.6%; over 65 years 14.0%

population growth:-0,08 %(2005)

Fertility rate: 1.2 Geb. /Frau

largest cities

city Kraj inhabitant
1. March of 2001
inhabitants
31. Dec. 2004
Prague Hlavní město Praha 1.169.106 1.170.571
Brno Jihomoravský 376,172 367,729
Ostrava Moravskoslezský 316,744 311,402
Plzeň Plzeňský 165,259 162,627
Olomouc Olomoucký 102.607 100,752
Liberec Liberecký 99,102 97,400
České Budějovice Jihočeský 97,339 94,622
Hradec Králové Královéhradecký 97,155 94,694
Ústí nad Labem Ústecký 95,436 93,859
Pardubice Pardubický 90,668 88,181
Havířov Moravskoslezský 85,855 84,784
Zlín Zlínský 80,854 78,599
Kladno Středočeský 71,132 69,355
Most Ústecký 68.263 67,815
Karviná Moravskoslezský 65,141 63,467
Frýdek Místek Moravskoslezský 61,400 59,897
Opava Moravskoslezský 61,382 59,843
Karlovy Vary Karlovarský 53,358 51,537
Děčín Ústecký 52,506 51,820
Teplice Ústecký 51,060 51,193
Chomutov Ústecký 51,007 50,176
Jihlava Vysočina 50,702 49,865
Přerov Olomoucký 48,335 46,938
Prostějov Olomoucký 48.159 47,165
Jablonec nad Nisou Liberecký 45,266 44,571
Mladá Boleslav Středočeský 44,255 42,972


see also: List of the cities in Tschechien, list of German designations of Czech places, national park in Tschechien, list of the protected areas in Tschechien

State and national name

Tschechien/Czech Republic of

sound of the state list on the Web PAGE of the German Foreign Office the short form is permissible „Tschechien “only in the unofficial use. According to Duden, according to the desire of the Czech authorities, according to the everyday use at leastin Tschechien themselves as well as in accordance with Czech standards over the use of foreign language equivalents of the state name is however „Tschechien “a usual short form as well as the geographical equivalent of the long form („Czech republic “) of the state name and is thus with names such as France, Germany, Poland etc.completely equivalently.

The fact that the short form abroad as officially, is to be attributed probably to the fact that the English (not however the Czech) is not considered short form in the appropriate table of the UN (given change from the cartographic service) in the 90'swas missing. Each state must indicate even a short form here, the cartographic service has in addition no power. Straight this missed the Czech republic however, so that the long form was likewise registered upon completion here. But already 1993 recommendedthe State Department in a memorandum to the Czech messages the use of the short form as legitimate and equivalent.

Tschechien/Tschechei and historical

ways of the dissolution (division) of Czechoslovakia at the 1. January 1993 had the German and Czech official designationfor the new state to be decided. A Czech national commission did not suggest using at that time the German designation Tschechien, particularly since official Czech circles also asked for it, the form „Tschechei “no more (see in addition below). The German Foreign Office pulls howeverin its list of names the longer form Czech republic forwards and marks Tschechien (tschech. Česko) expressly as unofficial.

Both new names were habituation needy of the German population both for German-language ones and for the Czechs and are it for parts still.Since it concerns however a definition, Czech republic should be used in the official use excluding Tschechien or.

Both the designation Tschechien and Tschechei were historically used. Tschechien is the older form and already 1876 occupied (Austria Hungary: Support at Kroat ien and Slawon ien). Tschechei arose however (except in parts of Prussia) only 1918 after formation of Czechoslovakia - as contamination of Czech + Slowakei or as contraction of Tschech [oslowak] egg. Tschechei designated howeversometimes also the total state Czechoslovakia, not only the western part. A broader use of the word Tschechei is to be determined only for the 1930er years. At the same time the older term Tschechien came except use, so that it today of many as „Neukonstrukt “one feels.

In addition it comes that the designation Resttschechei is negatively occupied, because it comes of to the propaganda of the LV dictatorship during smashing Czechoslovakia (1938/39). The negative sound was passed with most Czechs also to the term Tschechei, althoughthe term was used briefly pre and afterwards also in other connection. It was however always a term of not official nature. In consideration of the above arguments German and Austrian language researchers as well as the Czech government decided, the term Tschechiento force for the 1992 Czech republic developed again. Corresponding is to be found also since 1992 in German reference books excluding Tschechien as short form for „Czech republic “.

The Czechs place themselves the similar question somewhat differently. The word Čechy is thatCzech word for Böhmen (i.e. falsely sometimes without Mähren and Schlesien), it is used however also for Mähren and Schlesien. „Česko “[tschessko] is the Czech word for Tschechien. The term was used however rarely 1992 ago - except among experts,rather archaisch, and with exception of the years 1918 and 1968 as logical parallel term to Slovensko (German Slowakei). It was actually completely unknown to the public, although it was contained of the Czech language in the terminology lists in the official dictionary as well as. „Česko “as Tschechien and Tschechei no new formation is similar, since the term is occupied already 1777. The characteristic words for „Czech “and „böhmisch “are identical in the Czech language (český).

There itself above all the English-language world and partiallythe older generation Tschechiens still refuses using the form developed again „Česko “(Czechia) with which absence of a short name however various economical and other difficulties are connected, had the Czech senate 11. May 2004 in a special meeting thoseRepublika “officially recommend use of „Česko “in place of „Česká (coding and official recommendations gave it however already before). To the 1990er years there was partially a kind medium controversy: the short form „Česko “applied with a large part of the older populationas inferior - although in the Czech one a similar word form always for a great many states (of Ireland (Irsko) to Japan (Japonsko)) generally one used.

history

major item: History Böhmens, history Tschechiens

2. Jh. v. Chr.:Parts of the area of the today's Tschechiens are from thatceltic trunk of the Boier settled, its Latin name, Boiohaemum, the naming for Böhmen is.
Beginning of the 1. Jh. after Chr.: The Celts are displaced or assimilated by the immigrating Markomannen.
4.-5. Jh.: People migration time
approx. 6. Jh.: Arrival of the Slawen, their origin is assumed east the Dnjepr.
623-658: Samos realm.
768-814: Böhmen is perhaps Frankish rule sphere under Karl the large one.
8. Jh-833: Mähri principality in Mähren
833: Grossmähren under prince Mojmír I. (followed of the princes Rastislav -894 and Svatopluk - 871)
864: Arrival of the Byzantine monks Kyrill and Method in Grossmähren, slawische Liturgie.
869: Kyrill dies, end of the Byzantine mission.
888/890 895: Böhmen is part of the Grossmähri realm
894: Rastislavs successor Svatopluk dies, beginning of the decaythe Grossmähri realm, return to western latin the church and culture.
895: Prince Spytihněv accepts eastFrankish upper rule over Böhmen 907 in
Regensburg: Decay Grossmährens
929: The Přemyslide Wenzel (Hl. Wenzel), (later falsely king Wenzel in a Christmas carol called) becomes from itsBrother Boleslav murdered and becomes the Schutzheilige of the country.
973: The holy Wolfgang, bishop of Regensburg, gives his permission for the establishment of a diocese in Prague, second bishop becomes the holy Adalbert (Vojtěch).
1003: Boleslaw I. from Poland Böhmen conquers(until 1004)
1031: Mähren is attached Böhmen (and 1182 raised to the Mark county)
1038: Břetislav I. from Böhmen the Gebeine Adelberts from Gnesen breaks in 1085 in Poland and
kidnaps: The Přemyslide Vratislav II.to the first böhmischen king one crowns(the title is it of Heinrich IV., the emperor of the holy Roman realm, lent).
1212: Golden bull of Sicilies, emperor Friedrich II. confirms Ottokar I. Přemysl (heritability of the king title).
1300: Böhmisch Polish personnel union under Wenzel II. and Wenzel III. (Titularkönig in Poland)
1306: Wenzel III. in Olmütz , end of the Přemyslidendynastie is murdered.
1311-1346: Johann of Luxembourg, son of the Roman emperor Heinrich VII. Elizabeth von Böhmen marries, the daughter of Wenzel II.andbecomes böhmischer king.
1347: Karl IV., its son, becomes (as a Karl Ith) king of Böhmen.
1348: Establishment of the Prager university.
1355: Karl IV. in Rome to the emperor of the holy Roman realm one crowns. He selects Prague to itsResidenzstadt.
1378: In his will Karl divides IV. its hereditary country among its sons on in Brandenburg, Görlitz and the central area Böhmen, its ruler its son Wenzel IV. becomes. Its successors (starting from 1419) are Sigismund, Albrecht II. and Ladislaus Postumus
1415: January Hus is burned during the Konstanzer of council on the heap of failure - beginning of the Hussiten - movement
1415-1434: Unrests in Böhmen. January Žižka and Prokop Holý lead the Hussiten. The radical wing of the movement in the battle struck by Lipany.
1458: Jiří z Poděbrad is selected from the böhmischen conditions to the king of Böhmen and thus to the first Protestant king in Europe.
1471-1526: After its death the böhmische crown falls to the Polish dynasty of the Jagiellonen. Last the theseDynasty releases the crown by its death in the battle with Mohács against the Turks again.
1526-1918: Tschechien is habsburgisches area, after the böhmischen conditions 1526 the having citizen Ferdinand I. to the king of Böhmen selected.
1547:Rebellion thatböhmischen conditions against Ferdinand I.
1583: Emperor Rudolf II., Ferdinands successor, pulls with the yard from Vienna to Prague, which becomes a center of art and science. it issues the majesty letter of the freedom of religion to 1609.
1611: Rudolfs brother Matthias Corvinus takes over power; the denomination problem inflames on the new.
1618: Envoys of the böhmischen conditions (by the majority Protestant) penetrate into the Kanzlei of the Hradschin and do not throw two imperial governors from the window (them thereby are not killed). This so-called second Prager Fenstersturz introduces the dreissigjährigen war (1618-1648).
1619: Matthias dies. In August the böhmischen conditions select the German Protestanten Friedrich of the Pfalz to the king. By being crowned in the autumn in Prague and its residence takes up there, becomesthe innerhabsburgische conflict to an affair of realm.
1620: Battle at the white mountain. Friedrich of the Pfalz flees from the country („winter king “, there it only one winter governed). Executions and the exile of the böhmischen aristocracy. The epoch beginning now becomes inCzech history temno, the time of the darkness mentioned. Emperor Ferdinand II. (1619-1637) suppression politics lead against non--catholics. Protestanten flee (Comenius) or are executed. Large part of the böhmischen aristocracy flees. In Böhmen German is raised to the office language.Czech only in the country one speaks.
1740-1780: Rule by Maria Theresia.
1780-1790: Rule of its son Joseph II. „The enlightened “ absolutism flows into the clearing-up.
1781: Abolition of the body characteristic.
End 18. Jhd. - 1885: Czech national Wiedergeburt.As reaction to the Austrian centralism which is connected with the clearing-up 18 is formed since the end. Jhd. Intellectual one in the Czech national movement (Wiedergeburt). They promote the care, acknowledgment and use of the Czech language (supports also from the German romantics).Later the demand for political autonomy follows that.
1848: Slawenkongress in Prague. A rebellion is struck down. The industrialization begins - and Böhmen becomes “industrielle the backbone” by having castle.
1914-1918: The First World War. Against the monarchy one forms in the exileCzech and slowakische, aforementioned by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, opposition.
28.10.1918: Establishment of the Czechoslovakian Republic of, T. G. Masaryk becomes a first president. Those up to then Hungary administratively subordinated Slowakei closes the new state on (Milan Rastislav Štefánik).
1919: Entry/connection of the Karpatoukraine (after 1945 it falls to the Soviet Union).
1920: Connection Teschens
1918-1938: First Czechoslovakian republic
1933: Establishment of the Sudeten Germans a party (SdP) by Konrad Henlein.
24. April 1938: Carlsbad programs: the SdP demands the complete autonomy of theSouth duck country. The counter proposals of the government in Prague are rejected.
29. September 1938: Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain and Daladier sign Munich agreements (which or “Munich betrayal” calls the Czechs “Munich dictations”). The border areas are occupied by the German army.
5. October 1938: President EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Beneš withdraws, goes thereupon in the exile to England. Its successor becomes Emil Hácha.
15. March 1939: Invasion and occupation by German troops. Education of the protectorate Böhmen and Mähren. The Slowakei becomes asProtectorate of the German Reich independently (1939-1945).
10. June 1942: After governors Neurath realm tread Heydrich follows, that in June after an assassination attempt (27. May) dies. Brutal retaliatory measures, and. A. liquidating the villages Lidice and Ležáky.
1945:actual re-establishment of Czechoslovakia; “Kaschauer program “of the new government under prime minister Zdeněk Fierlinger; American, Soviet, Czechoslovakian troops release Tschechien: the demarcation line between US and, agreed upon in Jalta, the USSR area runs along Budweis, Pilsen and Karl bath.
5. May 1945: Prager rebellion against German crew power.
9. May 1945: Invasion of Soviet troops in Prague. President Beneš takes over the Regierungsgeschäfte. The Beneš decrees designated after it see a punishment of the Nazis and the deportation of the German population underUse of force forwards. Driving the Sudeten Germans out begins.
19. June 1946: The communist party of Czechoslovakia wins the elections, will a component of the government and can an enormous political influence exert. Klement God forest (KPTsch) becomes an Prime Minister.
24. October 1946:Conclusion of driving outof altogether 2.7 millions German.
25. Feber 1948: Complete seizure of power by the communists (KPTsch) - with appointment to the preceding free elections. Constitutional amendment, transformation of the country after Soviet sample. First “worker president” becomes Klement God forest.
1951-1957:Pursuit of the Klerus and politicalProcesses (Rudolf Slánský).
1957: Antonín Novotný becomes a president.
1964: Kafka conference in Libnice (Franz Kafka rehabilitates). Calls after reforms become loud and kulminieren on the congress of writer in June 1967 in direct criticism of the political guidance.
3. - 5.January 1968: Novotný is set off from the ZK. Alexander Dubček becomes a chairman of the kp. President becomes a general Ludvík Svoboda. At the beginning of March the abolition of the censorship follows. “Prager spring “begins, the advancement runs predominantly spontaneously.
5. April 1968:Scheme of the KPTsch under Alexander Dubček. A “socialism with human face” is aimed at (guaranteed freedom of reunion, small employers, release of the political prisoners).
21. August 1968: Military intervention - invasion of the Soviet troops and troops Warsaw Pact (without Romania and the GDR); Brezhnev doctrine “limited sovereignty of the socialist states”. The following political stage is called “normalization”.
1. January 1969: With the entry into force of the constitutional law over the Czechoslovakian federation the Czech socialist republic develops for that as one of the partial republicsCzechoslovakia.
17. April 1969: Separation Dubčeks and choice Gustáv Husáks to the Secretary-General of the KPTsch. Selbstverbrennung of the students January Palach (16. January) and January Zajíc (25. February). Beginning „of the normalization “. The ČSSR becomes in the consequence one thatmost conservative member states of the Eastern Bloc.
1. January 1977: Citizen movement „Charter 77 “.
17. November 1989: The police suppresses brutally a student demonstration, which draws large demonstrations of up to 750.000 humans. See: Samtene revolution
19. November 1989:The citizens' forumbecomes the basic Kraft „of the Samtenen revolution “in Tschechien.
10. December 1989: President Gustáv Husák explains his resignation.
28. December 1989: Alexander Dubček is selected to the president of the Föderalversammlung.
29. December 1989: Václav Havel becomes of the Föderalversammlung the presidentthe ČSSR selected.
At the beginning of of 1990: Renaming the Czech socialist republic (see 1969) into Czech republic.
23. April 1990: Renaming Czechoslovakia in Czech ones and Slowaki federal Republic of (ČSFR).
8. June 1990: First free parliamentary elections in the ČSFR.
5.July 1990: Václav Havel is selected to the president of the ČSFR.
21. Feber 1991: The ČSFR joins to the Council of Europe.
16. December 1991: Signing of the EEC association agreement.
5. June 1992: Parliamentary elections in the ČSFR. The economist Václav Klaus (a democratic citizen party (ODS))becomes Prime Minister. It represents one of the Thatcherismus inspired economic policy („free-market economy without adjective “). A coupon privatisation is continued, whereby 8 millions Czechs shareholders of denationalized companies become however questionable, consequences are. The politician Vladimír Mečiar becomes an Prime Minister in the Slowakei. Inthe consequence agree upon both politicians a division of Czechoslovakia in two states.
20. July 1992: President Václav Havel withdraws from his office.
25. November 1992: Law over the dissolution of the ČSFR in the föderalen parliament discharges.
16. December 1992:Thosenew condition of the Czech republic as “democratic constitutional state” is adopted. The Charter of the fundamental rights and - liberties, which had been decided after paging in January 1991 by the Czechoslovakian Presidential Election Council, one takes over invariably by Tschechien.
1. January 1993:Czech andSlowaken form 2 independent states.
2. Feber 1993: Swearing-in of the newly selected president Václav in Havel.
30. June 1993: Entry to the Council of Europe.
29. October 1993: Choice to the non-constant member of the security council of the United Nations.
1. Feber 1995: The entry into force European Union - of the association agreement.
1994-1996: After 3 years of negative economic growth the economy grows again; 1997 follow however again recession
28. November 1995: Design of the OECD - instrument of accession in Paris.
31. May 1996:Choice to the Lower House. The governing right center coalition is confirmed with losses, has however noneMajority more.
23. July 1996: Second cabinet Klaus. Its government must be tolerated by the Social Democrats ( chairmen Miloš Zeman). 1997 end of the economic growth phase, introduced by a bank crash (12 banks insolvent). Reason: And. A. Entwinement of industriellen large complexes,by putrid credits to be kept artificially upright. The Czech economy falls into a recession.
June 1997: With a tide disaster 40,000 humans must be evacuated. Total total: 2.5 billion Euro.
21. January 1997: Signing of the German-Czech explanation.
24. April 1997:Speechby president Havel before the German Bundestag.
30. November 1997: Václav Klaus withdraws after donation affair. Successor becomes late Josef Tošovský.
20. January 1998: Re-election of the president Václav Havel.
28. June 1998:With the choice to the Lower House those winSocial Democrats with Miloš Zeman (32%) and can educate, become the government from the oppositional ODS tolerated (the so-called opposition contract).
12. March 1999: Entry to NATO (together with Poland and Hungary), preparations for the European Union entry run.
25. September 2000:InPrague becomes the meeting of the IMF (international currency rear) and the World Bank organized, accompanies from road unrests and demonstrations.
2000: The arguments around the occupation of the director of the Czech television Česká televize leaves and. A. also the enmity between Václav Havel and Václav Klaus again out-break. Klaus and Občanská demokratická strana accuses of several of their trailers into the Top positions of the transmitter to have maneuvered, among them also Jiří Hodač as a director. This solves the largest demonstrations in Tschechien since 1989out. Consequence: Hodač withdraws. Tschechien gets a new medium law, doubt about the independence from Česká televize is by far not eliminated however.
1. May 2004: European Union - Entry

politics

the Czech republic is a parliamentary democracy. The head of state is a president. However the prime minister has larger influence. The Czech parliament has two chambers: the Lower House and the senate.

The president is selected by the parliament. With the choice the candidate must into thatfirst two ballots in both chambers the absolute majority reach, in the third ballot is sufficient a majority of all present delegates. Candidates must be suggested by at least 10 delegates or 10 senators and be at least 40 years old. The term of office amounts to 5Years, at the most twice one behind the other. Except the rights, which the president exercises in agreement with other constitutional bodies, it has the right in exclusive responsibility

In addition it appoints the judges (condition-legally so far however sufficient not clarified) and the members of the central bank advice in sole responsibility. Traditionally the president often becomes from citizens for penetration of its rights against state institutions around assistanceasked. The condition judges appointed by him, must be approved of by the senate.

The Lower House is selected from list candidates after elections on the basis of proportional representation right. There is a check clause of 5% for parties. The Lower House consists those of 200 delegates, at least 21 years oldto be must. The legislative period amounts to 4 years.

The senate is selected from constituency-referred candidates by a person choice after Mehrheitswahlrecht. According to the number of constituencies the senate consists of 81 persons, who must be at least 40 years old. The candidates can suggested by political parties (and supported) or will stand as a candidate independently. The legislative period of a senator amounts to 6 years. The elections take place in the distance of two years, whereby a third of the constituencies denies the choice in each case. As choice candidates step often admitted orhonorige persons of the public life up.

If the senate a law does not agree, it must be approved of by the chamber of deputies with the majority of all delegates again. The agreement of the senate is only needed on changes of the constitutional law and the electoral laws.In addition the senate takes part in the Präsidentenwahl. Within exclusive responsibility the senate confirms the condition judges appointed by the president.

The Judikative consists of the constitutional court and a four-level court system, in that the two highest courts (for administrative matters and remaining)three further instances are subordinated.

In the executive to the government and their central authorities are subordinate 14 regions, (Czech: kraje) under it the districts (okresy) and among them the municipalities. (obce).

Tschechien became at the 1. May2004 taken up to the European union. From about 55.21% of the Czech voters, which participated in the referendum, have that an entry approx. 77.33% affirmatively, thus about 42.7% of all Czech voters.

See also: Administrative arrangement Tschechiens

Administrative arrangement

see: Administrative arrangement Tschechiens

infrastructure

freeways

motorways in Tschechien

the Czech motorway net is continued to develop always since the case of the iron curtain. So for instance the motorway D5 Prague - Pilsen (- Nuremberg (Germany)) or D8 (Dresden (Germany) -) Prague. In the year 2005 the chargeable motorway net amounts to 800 km. Further one approx. 200 km are in the building, which is substantially retarded however by numerous objections. Despite lower density of traffic the mortality is in the traffic(related to number of populations) with 1.215 dead ones in the year 2004 approximately 1,6-mal more highly than in Germany.

For the use of the motorway a duty is due. The driver is obligated to buy a Autobahnvignette which is stuck from the inside on the windshieldmust. These Vignetten are available at the Czech post office, at the border crossings or at selected gas stations.

air traffic

airports are in Prague (9.7 millions of dispatched persons in the year 2004, yearly increase 20%), Brünn, Ostrau and Karl bath. Most capitals of the regions can be approached over sport airfields.

The airline CSA, - the Czech aero lines on the distance Prague, operates the domestic air traffic Ostrau, Brünn and Karlsbad. One can likewise use the charter flight companies,the prospect flights or traffic with small airplanes to many places to Tschechiens offer.

rail traffic

the railways of the Czech republic form a very much expanded and close transportation network. The rail traffic in the area Tschechiens has a 160-jährige tradition. Thosemost distances are operated at present by that still 100% national corporation České dráhy (Czech courses). Under the situation in Central Europe, the Czech republic became an important transit country. On the national territory different inter/euro-town center passage lead. For the year 2006the Czech government announced to recondition all stations of the country. Usually already over 100 years the old buildings heruntergekommen with the time. One expects by the renovations a better traffic within and also outside of the Czech state area,like z. B. the development of the distances to Germany.

private public transport companies

operate bus traffic the bus traffic in completely Tschechien. The net density is comparatively rather high. Contrary to the train services the regional bus connections are reduced on weekend.

Work on []

Water traffic

in Tschechien is the water traffic on the rivers Elbe and Moldau and on closed water surfaces (artificial lakes and. Lakes), which are suitable for the navigation, only partially opened. The sections of the Elbe and Moldau with international status are connected with the European water route system, D. h. with rivers to the seas port (Elbe Hamburg) and with the system of the European channels to other rivers and its within and seas port (Magdeburg, Duisburg, Rotterdam).

one

knows taxes the taxi immediatelyorder or also 24 hours ahead reserve. The fees for taxes consist of a firm sum for the supply of the car and of a fee for each put back kilometer. The taxes of the competition services or in the different cities can differentlyits, but the kilometer price must be always indicated on the body and in the Interieur of the car. Each Taxifahrer is to be issued obligated on demand a calculation (receipt).

city traffic

in larger cities are streetcar and bus the usual publicMeans of transport. In smaller cities drive only penalty. In the capital Prague operates the Prager Metro three underground lines, which the center connects with the outskirts of a town. The prices of the tickets are different in the individual cities. Tickets become at switches, automats andpartly in the vehicles themselves offered. In Prague and other larger cities tourist maps for several travels are, z. B. Week tickets, in the sales. When entering the means of transport the tickets must be cancelled usually immediately.

wheel driving

intothe main centers of the tourism and in the cities an expanded cycle track net is removed, there can borrow one also road or mountain bicycles. A number of European cycle tracks crosses Tschechien. Many cycle tracks lead by hilly terrain, like z. B. the many routes inBöhmerwald, which continue to lead into the Bavarian forest.


basic regulations

of vehicles must in the winter time (27. October - 31. March) all day with headlight low beam drive. Children until 12 years or smaller than 150 cm must while driving inChild seat to be fastened. The driver may drink forwards and while driving no alcohol. Telephone is while driving forbidden. The seat belts must be put down during the whole travel. Motorradfahrer and their passengers are obligate motorcycle helmets to wear.

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Economics

general

during the socialist time had Czechoslovakia as restaurant economics the central administration economy and was integrated like many Eastern Bloc countries in the RGW, an analogy to the EEC. Into the 1990er years the economy was denationalized.

The unemployment ratio amounted to in the yearly cut 2003 7.8% (indication of the statistic office of the Czech republic). For February 2005 it amounts to 9.65%. There are large differences between the regions. So the capital Prague had 2003 an unemployment ratio of 4,2%, the region Moravskoslezský kraj (region Mährisch Schlesien) against it 14.7%.

The gross domestic product /Kopf is (2004) with 8.351 euro (2004) (under the European Union - countries between Portugal and Hungary), growth with 3,7%, the inflation rate with 3,2%.

Currency: 1 Czech crown (Kc) = 100 Heller's

course (at the end of of 2005): 1 Kc = 0.034 euro

BNE: 46.7 billion Euro (BNE/Kopf: 4,567 euro)

growth rate GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT: 2%

portions of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT: Services 57%; Industry 39%; Agriculture 4%

Unemployment ratio: 8.6%

restaurant economics

the Czech economics belonged in the context of the former communist Eastern Bloc to at most developed. Today the majority of the gross domestic product the service sector forms. Likewise foreign investments, those are important the composition thatCzech industry change. The production of the modern industrial plants and the industrial complexes, which are intended predominantly for Western Europe and highly developed states of the world, forms the largest part of the industry. To the largest enterprises in Tschechien Škoda car, that belongs to the substantialPart the Czech export forms. Within the industrial range outweigh the machine, the food and wood industry, far chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industry, glass and ceramic(s) production and Glaserei.

agriculture

the agriculture is predominantly occupied with the cultivationof wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, potatoes, carrot, fodder plants, common grape vines, vegetables and fruit. Hop production is world-important as basis of the Czech brewing culture. One breeds above all cattle cattle and pigs. Is traditionalthe cattle breeding and the game hunt. In addition Tschechien has in the pisciculture world rank. The fact is remarkable that itself since the European Union entry Tschechiens in May 2004, which increased average incomes of a Czech Bauerns by 108%.

Bodenschätze

The forests threatened by the industry, which produce also wood for the export, cover a third of the area. One promotes coal, kaolin, clay/tone, wood, graphite and limestone. The majority of the oil and natural gas must out Russia to be introduced. An important characteristic of the Czech republic is the böhmische glass. When expressing the word crystal most humans remember the böhmische country, which hides a so large number of glassworks in its area, their qualityis very high. It is mainly the continuous tradition, which made an artistic skill from this handicraft. Many of these glassworks can be visited.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

see also: Tourism in Tschechien, category: Unternehmen_ (Tschechien)

for German-language information: Combination of Czech enterprises in Germany registered association.

education

see: Universities in Tschechien

environment

the carbon dioxide outputper head of the country belongs to the world-wide highest.

culture

in the Czech republic exists a large wealth at culture-historical monuments. Beside numerous world-famous buildings from the most diverse epochs are above all also the representatives of the music of the19. Century such as Bedřich Smetana and Antonín Dvořák admits. In the literature above all Franz Kafka and Milan Kundera world-wide reputation reached. Also the film sector is fully developed in the Czech republic. Annually that takes place international Filmfestival of Karl bath. Directorslike Miloš Forman (one flew over the Kuckucksnest), January Svěrák (Kolya) and Jiří Menzel received for their productions Oscars.

sport

the sport with the highest value in Tschechien is ice hockey, wherethe Czechs several times world champions (last to 15. May 2005 in Vienna with 3:0 against Canada) and 1998 in Nagano also olympia winner became.

Many personalities of the Czech sport are also world-wide very well well-known. One estimates that in the civil combinationsthe body education and the sport since the year 1995 approx. 15% of the Czech population are organized.

Also winter sports is in Tschechien likes. Well-known regions for winter sports are the giant mountains in the north and also the Böhmerwald in the west of theCountry.

Football: The first league covers 16 crews. Two of it rise at the end of the season, thus after 30 play days into the country-wide 2. League off. From there accordingly two teams rise into the 1. League up. The third-highest play class is split. The western part (Böhmen), the CFL (Česká Fotbalová league - Czech football league, 18 teams) covers off, the eastern part of the country (Mähren and Schlesien) the MSFL (Moravsko Slezská Fotbalová league - Mährisch Schlesi football league, 16 teams). The respective masterthe two third leagues ascends into the second league. The descent from the second league contributes also the descent from the leagues under it, because can do for example two crews from the 2. League descend the two inthe range of the CFL or evenly the MSFL it fall with which a crew would be too much there. It must descend thus still another additional crew. The underbody of the third level is five-divided. Below the CFL there are three groups (A, B, C)the Divize, below the MSFL two (D and E). From these leagues in each case the master rises into the CFL and/or. MSFL up, the last in each case two in one „the Krajský Prebor “off, depending upon regional affiliation. Altogether it gives waya reform 2002/2003 now 13 groups of such fifth leagues (before only 10), 9 as underbody of the CFL and/or. the Divize A, B, C and 5 as underbody of the MSFL and/or. the Divize D and E. „The Krajský přebor “is alsothe first really regional leagues, on which then also only in the restaurant haven part of the newspapers one reports.

See also: Football in Tschechien

Models

in Tschechien are some the most well-known female photo models of the world resident, for example EH Herzigová, Iva Kubelková or Karolína Kurková.

see also

Wiki portal Tschechien

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Tschechien - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Czech proverbs - quotations



coordinates: 49° 45 ' 0 " N, 15° 44 ' 59 " O

 

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