|spoken in:||Tschechien, adjacent countries (v.a. Slowakei), the USA, Canada, Western Europe, Australia|
|office language in:||Tschechien, European union|
|ISO 639 -2:||cze/ces||-|
It becomes from approx. 12 million humans as native language spoken (conditions 1999), of those approx. 10 million in Tschechien live, where it is the office language. Since that 1. May 2004 is Czech also an office language of the European Union. The science, which is concerned with the Czech language, is the Bohemistik.
Czech and Slowakisch are mutually well understandable(see in addition under slowakische language). The two languages are most simply distinguishable by the letter ř in writing, which there is only in the Czech one (to the discussion see below). The likewise written sound Obersorbi becomes today after t how tsch or C, otherwise as sch spoken.
The discussion of the Czech one is considered as with difficulty, on the one hand because of the sibilants and ř, on the other hand because r and l can form own syllables (e.g. becomes the place name Brno (zweisilbig spoken), dt. Brünn). Thus sentences are such as Strč prst skrz krk possible, obviously no vowels contained.
the spoken language the Czech
colloquial language in Tschechien, obecná čeština stands out clearly against the writing language. It concerns thereby not around a local dialect, but thosespoken language, as it is generally speaking country common. It is a specific feature in the Czech linguistic area.
For obecná čeština there is no written basis. The following remarks apply therefore primarily to the linguistic level, like themin the media and in the contact with foreigners one uses.
The learning of the Czech language meets otherwise on obecná čeština or one of the many dialects, which there are beside the national colloquial language.
Czech is onestrongly inflecting language with seven grammatical cases (Nominativ, genitive, dative, accusative, Vokativ, Lokativ, instrument valley) in the singular and Plural. In the accusative there are singular and Nominativ Plural of the Maskulina different forms for(animating heating category animated) and dead natures. The Substantiva has at least four basic forms in each of the three Genera.
The verb has the categories of aspect (perfektiv and imperfektiv) and tense (present, Futur, Präteritum), person, number and mode (imperative, Konditional).
The DEK liningand conjugation takes place by means of endings (and/or small changes in the trunk), whose education is very with difficulty easy to learn very variously and not always regularly and thus.
The word sequence is relative free and makes stylistic differentiations possible.
In the Czech one many adjectives and participles becomenot only after Genus, number and Kasus modified, it is differentiated additionally between long and short forms. In the difference e.g. for the Croatian one or the Baltic languages short forms can be used only prädikativ and exhibit a reduced paradigm. Duringstyle elevated by adjectives in to be usually used, the use of the short/long forms of participles is in the periphrastischen passive also meaning-meaning the short forms with respect to the colloquial language, e.g. okno bylo zavřeno (the process passive: the window closed) vs. okno bylo zavřené (state passive: the window was closed).
When sorting and in listings (directory) and dictionaries the indications become: Č, CH, Ř, Š, Ž as independent and independentLetter treated (CH follows the letter H); the Czech alphabet has therefore whole 34 instead of only 26 letters.
- nota bene: Since the diacritical indications in the Web are not always correctly represented, often Czech names (local and family names) become withoutit written, it gives also numerous Czech web pages, which do still consciously completely today without the diacritical indications. Is the choice partly left to the visitor (user) - “dia. criticism off or to switch? ” In the western press against it many indications often becomewrongly (turned around often exactly) uses. For the search in the Web it mostly does not need it, some search machines can with special characters nothing at all begin.
Completely the Czech alphabet reads:
A, (Á), B, C, Č, D, (Ď), E, (É), (Ě), F,G, H, CH, I, (Í), J, K, L, M, N, (Ň), O, (Ó), P, Q, R, Ř, S, Š, T, (Ť), U, (Ú), (Ů), V, W, X, Y, (Ý), Z, Ž.
The letters set in parentheses become when sorting in such a waytreated like them preceding letter. Thus stands then for example pět (= five) forwards petrklíč (= Schlüsselblume). If two words differ only by the two related letters, first the word with the simple letter stands and then the other one,thus about pas (= passport) forwards pás (= belt).
Ě, Ů and Ý never occur at the word beginning, therefore the appropriate letters are very rare and are used only if the whole word is written in capital letters (e.g. MĚSTO).
the Czech sounds
gives short and long vowels. Furthermore the consonants can form r , l and (rarely) m syllables in the Czech one, then there are also words, which consist only of consonants,see. about krk “neck” or blb “Blödmann”.
in the Czech one gives it the Diphthonge ou, to outer and European Union. The Diphthong ou is frequent also in Czech words, outer and European Union comes only in foreign words orInterjektionen pre in Czech words form it for two syllables, e.g. in neučím “I do not teach”, which is dreisilbig spoken [ˈnɛ.u.tʃiːm].
- The Diphthong outer is expressed as in German, e.g. car [ˈaʊ̯tɔ].
- With the discussion of theDiphthongs ou are connected an open o and a unsilbisches open u, see. moudrý “point” as [ˈmɔʊ̯driː], in no case may - as in French leaning words in German - only one vowel be spoken (see. Souterrain [ˈsutɛrɛ̃]).
- With the discussion of the Diphthongs European Union an open e and a unsilbisches u are connected, see. Leukemie [ˈlɛʊ̯kɛːmɪɛ], in no case may be spoken as in German oi [ɔʏ̯].
differentiates between consonants in the Czech orthographyso-called. hard, neutral and soft consonants. Softly expressed (as in other slawischen languages like the Russian one) however only the consonants become ť, ď and ň.
For the orthography and the declination this organization is very important. The children learnto saw therefore in the primary school on the one hand the numbers of the hard and neutral consonants like the alphabet and to saw on the other hand those words with neutral consonants, in which [i] as y one writes (so mentioned vyjmenovaná or vybraná slovaand/or. “selected words”). Adults “did not automate” however mostly the orthography already and to need these rows no more.
so-called ones. hard consonants
the 8 hard consonants are:
in the orthography write one after this consonants [i] like y.
so-called ones. soft consonants
the 9 soft consonants are:
|č||černý, more večer|
note: ď handwritten as dˇ, ť as tˇ one writes.
In the orthography one writes afterthis consonants [i] like i.
so-called ones. neutral consonants or hermaphrodite sound
the 8 neutral consonants are:
|b||tabule, býti, bída|
|l||leží, lysý, cunning|
|m||mám, myš, míchat|
|p||pán, pyšný, píchnout|
|s||sešit, sýr, prosím|
|v||velký, výr, vichřice|
in the orthography one writes after this consonants in “selected words” and unites foreign words [i] like y, otherwise like i.
the reglementierte high Czech (accordinglywriting) with official causes one speaks (z. B. Messages in the broadcast, TV, commemorative speeches), the actually spoken dialects deviate however often strongly from it, both in the discussion and in the grammar.
- in the Czech one becomesin principle the first syllable of the word stresses.
- With čárka ( acute ) the characterized letters in such a way specified (á, é, í, ó, ý, ú, as well as ů) are long expressed. Be enough and stressed syllables do not collapse often not.
- With háček (checkmarks ) the characterized letter in such a way specified are either sibilants (š, č, ž, ř) or they are softly expressed, i.e. with a resemblance to a j behind consonants articulates (this in case of of ť, ď,ň).
- ě as is ever spoken, except after D, t and n, where it releases their softening.
- Forwards ě and i are softly expressed the consonants D, t and n, i.e. with a resemblance to a j behindconsonants articulates. The tongue goes thereby to the front palate.
In the following an overview of the discussion of individual letters and letter sequences in the Czech one:
|A||[A]||Ungerundeter open front tongue vowel, as dt. A in case||tam, lampa|
|á||[aː]||Ungerundeter open front tongue vowel, as dt. aa in hall||, velká outer|
|[||aʊ̯] Diphthong||máte, as dt. outer in car||car|
|C||[ts]||Affrikate, as dt. time in cat||cesta|
|č||[tʃ]||Affrikate, as dt. tsch in Matsch||Čech, časem|
|CH||[x]||be correct-loose velarer Frikativ, as dt. CH in brook||chodba|
|ď||[ɟ]||being correct adhesives of palataler Plosiv||maďarsky|
|e||[ɛ]||Ungerundeter half-open front tongue vowel, as dt. A in would have||ever, dveře|
|é||[ɛː]||Ungerundeter half-open front tongue vowel, as dt. A into advice||mléko, černé|
|ě||[jɛ]||as dt. ever in now||věda|
|h||[h]||be correct-loose glottaler Frikativ, as dt. h in hold||hanba|
| i, y,|
j (before consonant)
|[i]||Ungerundeter closed front tongue vowel, as dt. i in diploma||židle, tady|
|í, ý||[iː]||Ungerundeter closed front tongue vowel, as dt. i in mine||leží, dobrý|
|j||[j]||being correct adhesive of palataler Approximant, as dt. j in hunt||jméno|
|ň||[ɲ]||being correct adhesives of palataler Nasal, as dt. gn in Champagner||buňka|
|o||[ɔ̹]||of rounding half-open Hinterzungenvokal, as dt. o in God||okno|
|ó||[ɔ̹ː]||rounding half-open Hinterzungenvokal||citrón, gól|
|r||[r]||being correct adhesive of alveolar Vibrant, tongue pencil sharpeners (with more impacts than the German tongue r)||rada|
|ř||[rŕ]||laminaler Vibrant, Zungenblatt r, palatalisiertes (soft) r about as polarize. computer centre in rzeka „thatRiver “, dt.rsch in Barsch||řeka|
|s||[s]||be correct-loose alveolar Frikativ, as dt. ss in bass||osm/osum|
|š||[ʃ]||be correct-loose post office-alveolar Frikativ, as dt. sch in rapid||FR|
|[||FR] šest||as dt. FR in raspeln||spát|
|sp||[sp]||as dt. sp in phloem||stát|
|ť||[C]||be correct-loose palataler Plosiv, about as dt. tj in Matjes||šťava|
|u||[u]||rounding closed Hinterzungenvokal, as dt.u in music||guma, vzadu|
|ú, ů||[uː]||rounding closed Hinterzungenvokal, as dt. u in Pute||úterý, stůl|
|v||[v]||being correct adhesive of lab iodine valleys Frikativ, about as dt. w in wild||voda|
|z||[z]||being correct adhesive of alveolar Frikativ, like e.g. in Germany s in rose, EN. z in zero||nazdar|
|ž||[ʒ]||being correct adhesives of post office-alveolar Frikativ, about as dt. g in garage||žena|
- place ď/ť/ň+ e becomesd/t/n+ ě written (and ď/ť/ň+ e expressed), as in Německo [Njemecko], Germany).
- Instead of ď/ť/ň+ i d/t/n+ i written (and ď/ť/ň+ i expressed), dy/ty/ny are only expressed against it as di/ti/ni;
- h is always expressed (no mute “h” as in German! ;e.g.husa [hussa] = goose), CC = C + k (no hard k!), sch = s + CH (no German sch!), FR = s + p (no German s (CH) p!), sp = s + t (no German s (CH) t!), European Union = e+ u (no German European Union! ; e.g.neutralita [ne-utralita] = neutrality)
- ou is a Diphthong, which consists of o and u (Rakousko [RA|kous|ko] = Austria). Both components are in a syllable and therefore are together expressed, as in German outer with car, whereby one hears however more of the u, as of the o (about like Rakusko with only completely weakly suggested o).
Czech writing and its diacritical indications
one in such a way writes her in the Web and inthe Wikipedia: See Czech special characters
during simply counting (cardinal numbers) in the Nominativ applies to the expression which can be counted:
- to 1 Nominativ singular, to
- 2, comes 3, 4 comes Nominativ Plural,
- to 5 and more comesGenitive Plural.
With larger numbers with 1, 2, 3, 4 at the end (z. B. 21, 103, 123, 2004…) first, otherwise the second form grammatically correct, is but in practice the latter predominantly common after 1. With compoundThe last form always applies for numbers (dvaadvacet).
- 0 nula
- 1 - everyone (MASKs.), jedna (fem.), jedno (neutr.)
- 2 - dva (MASKs.), dvě (fem. and. neutr.)
- 3 - tři
- 4 - čtyři
- 5 - pět
- 6 - šest
- 7 -sedm (also sed u m - vernacular)
- 8 - osm (also OS u m - vernacular)
- 9 - devět
- 10 - deset
- 11 - jedenáct
- 12 - náct dva
- 13 - tři náct
- 14 - náct čtr
- 15 - patnáct
- 16 - náct šest
- 17 - sedm náct (also sed u m náct - vernacular)
- 18 - osm náct (also OS u m náct - vernacular)
- 19 - devate náct
- 20 - cet dva
- 21 - dva cet jedna/each A dva cet (also jednadvacet)
- 22 - dva cet dva /dva A dva cet
- 30 - cet tři
- 40 - čtyři cet
- 50 - Pa desát
- 60 - še desát
- 100 - sto
- 200 -dvě stě (grammatical exception)
- 300, 400 - tři, čtyři sta
- 500, 600,… - šest pět,… set
- 1000 - tisíc (everyone tisíc)
- 2000, 3000, 4000 - dva, tři, čtyři tisíce
- 5000, 6000,… - šest pět,… tisíc
colic ever hodin? - As late is it? Ever… (e.g. jedna hodina etc.)
- 1 o'clock - jedna hodina
- 2, 3, 4 o'clock - dvě, tři, čtyři hodiny
- 5, 6,… Clock - pět, šest,… hodin
CO stojí…? - Which costs… ? (CO ton stojí - which costs that?) … stojí jednu korunu. etc.
- 1 crown - jedna koruna
- 2, 3, 4 crowns - dvě, tři, čtyři koruny
- 5, 6,... Crowns - pět, šest,… korun
words of Czech origin
- pistol: derived from the name for Feuerwaffen in the Hussitenkriegen, original meaning whistle, pipe (see. the today's word píšťala)
- robots: artificial humans out Karel Čapeks socialutopian drama R.U.R. (1921)
- rabotten: derived from robotovat - fronen, rabotten
- satellite: drabant land farmhands were called at times of the Hussitenkriege
in Austria and partially. Old Bavaria (selection)
- Tuchent (feather/spring bed): of duchenka
- Buchtel (steam noodle): of buchta
- pomadig (slowly, dialektal): of pomalý
- plazen (cry, dialektal): of poster (on, ona, ono pláče - it, it, it cries)
- Trafik (Tabakladen): of trafika
- Kukuruz (corn): of sladká kukuřice
- Zwetschke (plum): of švestka
- Sliwowitz (fruit liquor): of slivovice
Czech words of German origin
- kšeft, ksicht: Dialektal from the bairischen of business, face.
- taška, flaška: in the vernacular generally of bag, bottle.
- colloquially: švindlovat, vartovat, mašírovat for tell lies, wait, march. Also Interjektionen like outer, pšt and NO jo are very similar to the German.
- hajzl = toilet (Dialektal from the bairischen Häuserl). I go on the Haisl. = Jdu well hajzl.
An overview of many in the Czech one still useGermanisms as free Download on www.tandem-org.de under “foreign languages”.
Web on the left of
|Wikipedia on Czech|
|Wikiquote: Czech proverbs - quotations|
- Czech Nationalkorpus: The Prager Karl university offers different Textkorpora accessible over Internet for research purposes: http://ucnk.ff.cuni.cz (collection of texts)
- dictionary between Czech and dt/EN/it/fr/it/ru
- still another dictionary, additionally with latin
- an introduction to the Czech language with expenditure for clay/tone (Realplayer)
- language animation - spielerische switching of the Czech one on www.tandem-org.de
- Czech by Internet
- all necessary details to thatCzech writing, university University of, HTML, Adobe, ISO, code PAGE…
- Czech tongue crushers
- on-line course with sound: Discussion rules, Konversation, material audio one, English.
- Characteristics of the Czech one, 36 consequences of radio Prague, material audio one, English.