Tunesien

الجمهوريةالتونسية
aluminium-Dschumhūriyya RK-tūnisiyya< /font>
Republic of Tunisia
Flagge Tunesiens Wappen Tunesiens
(Detail) (detail)
office language (n) Arab 1
capital Tunis
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali
prime minister Mohamed Ghannouchi
surface 163,610 km ²
number of inhabitants 9.974.722 (July 2004)
population density of 60 inhabitantsper km ²
independence to 20. March 1956 (of France)
currency Tunisian dinar
time belt MEZ (UTC +1)
national anthem Humata l-hima
national holiday 7. November
Kfz characteristic TN
Internet TLD .tn
preselection +216
(1) education language is French
Karte Afrikas, Tunesien hervorgehoben
Karte Tunesiens

Tunesien is a state in North Africa, which borders on the Mediterranean , Algeria and Libya. Its name is derived from the name of its capital Tunis.

Table of contents

geography

Mittelmeerküste bei Kelibia
Mediterranean coast with Kelibia

major item: Geography Tunesiens

Tunesien is the northernmost country Africa, between the Mediterranean and the seeing era, between 37° 20 ' and 30° 10' northern latitude removes and extends only 140 kilometers of Sicilies as well as between 7° 30' and 12° of eastern length. It is a component of the Maghreb andwith a size of 163.610 km ² less than half as largely as Germany. The largest north south expansion between Cap blank and the border station Bordj el Khadra amounts to approximately 897 km, the largest east west expansion between the island Djerba and Nefta about 330km.

Tunesien has one approximately 1,300 km long coastal line at the Mediterranean.

High country with Metlaoui in Zentraltunesien

the northwest Tunesiens is determined by the Tell Atlas. Parallel to the north coast the mountain courses that run from the Algerian border to the bay of Bizerte Kroumirie. Northeast the Mogod follows - mountain country, which in the Cap blank breaks off in the sea. They are comparable with their height of 700-800 m (Kroumirie) and 300-400 m (Mogod) with wooded low mountain ranges. On that the wind turned away sidethe mountains follows the valley basin of the Medjerda , whose underflow belongs to the most important agrarian zone of the country.

The ridges of the Dorsale run from northeast (Cap Bon) after southwest (Djebel Chambi, 1,544 m) in a length of220 km and form the climatic sheath between the mediterranen north and the dry steppe climate Mitteltunesiens.

East the Dorsale along the Mediterranean coast between Hammamet and Skhira, enclosing Sousse and Sfax, lies the Sahel (arab. for bank) coastal strips mentioned,by east winds rainbringing very fruitfully is and among other things large olive tree cultures made possible. This culture landscape is used intensively since the antique one.

South the Dorsale closes bulkhead-lowers (Chott el Djerid, salt lake) on, still further southinto the desert seeing era with large eastern suppl. changes.

Along the Mediterranean, approximately of Gafsa in the west up to the Libyan border the Djeffara - level, which by the Dahar - extends mountain country high up to 600 m separately from suppl.is.

climate, Flora and fauna

in Tunesien collide mediterranes and arid climate . The precipitation increases from north to south starting from and from west to east easily. Can be differentiated:

  • the winter-damp-summer-dry north
  • ofchangeful climate certain centralTunisian steppe region with hot summers, cold winters and removing precipitation
  • the Mediterranean coast with more balanced climate the desert climate, affected
  • by the sea, south the bulkheads

of precipitation fall nearly only during the winter months and continue to become mostly from low from runnerslain north Westwinddrifts advanced. In the summer lies the entire country within the range of the subtropical high pressure zone, which leads the Tiefdruckgebiete of the Westwinddrift around the Mediterranean.

However it can come in exceptional cases also in the summer to violent rainfalls, the before drained Oueds (Wadi) into rapid rivers transform.

With increasing distance of the Mediterranean its compensatory influence a continental climate yields. The most extreme differences are reached in the seeing era with summer temperatures by 50° C and soil frosts in the winter.

Intolerable heatcan bring the seeing era wind specified in Tunesien Chehili Scirocco.

While in the north the annual amount of precipitation lies still over 400 mm and so that for a successful building of rain fields is sufficient, the evaporation is stronger than the amount of precipitation in the south.

population

Traditionally dressed Mrs

the Islam is in Tunesien state religion, about 98% of the population is Sunni Muslims. The Berber represents the largest ethnical minority, whose portion is indicated however only as 1,97%, there the Berber as far as possibleas arabisiert and adapted are considered.

Small minorities of Europeans in the north of the country exist, particularly in the environment of Tunis. In the last years further immigrants came from Africa, who settled predominantly in the south of the countryand there in the agriculture work to a large extent.

The few Christians are usually European descent. On Djerba still some Muslim Kharidjiten as well as scarcely 1,000 Jews live.

On the peninsula Djerba stands since probable over 1,000 years the synagog “La Ghriba”.“La Ghriba” is called translated as much as “the Bizarre”. After the legend it is one of the oldest synagogs of the Judentums. Each year, to 33. Day after the Pessach - celebration (contemporaneous with the westchurch Ostertermin), finds here the largest Jewish WallfahrtNorth Africa instead of. To this Wallfahrt Gläubige from the whole world are expected.

As handling language in Tunesien predominantly Tunisian-Arab one speaks. Except in the south of the country, where still in some villages as well as on the island Djerba Berberi dialects are used.

history

Puni Stele in Karthago
the Sidi Oqba mosque of Cairo SCN, the oldest mosque Tunesiens

major items: History Tunesiens

Tunesien became in the 1. Millenium v. Chr. from Berbern inhabits, before the Phönizier commercial colonies at the coast based. To the most important colonyascended soon Karthago , in 5. Century v. Chr. the western Mediterranean controlled. In the Puni wars it was defeated and destroyed however of Rome. With the fall of the Roman realm Tunesien became part of the Vandalenreichs, howeverin 6. Century was conquered by Byzanz.

After subjecting the country by the Muslims in 7. Century became Ifriqiya, the today's Tunesien, realm center of the Aghlabiden, Fatimiden and Hafsiden.

During 16. Century tried Spain the ruleover Tunesien to achieve, however by the Osmanen and the Korsaren allied with them one drove out. Under the osmanischen upper rule 1705 the Husainiden came to power. Even if this again political stability and economic development made possible, Tunesien became 1881 nevertheless a protectorate of France. After the country had become during the Second World War scene of violent fights, it attained 1956 its independence and became to 25. July 1957 to the republic explains. (see also the list of the French Minister residents, general residents andA High Commissioner)

Tunesien is today beside Lebanon one of the Arab countries coined/shaped most strongly west.

State State of Habib Bourguiba became of the Frenchmen after detention for many years to dismiss and led the country 1956 into official independence. After the incident of Bizerte pulled 15 on October. 1963 also the last French troops off and Tunesien became into the autonomy to dismiss. Habib Bourguiba emerged as western coined/shaped vision acres and led with the establishment of state immediately the woman Mrs. in as the first ArabCountry at all. It demanded a strict separation between state and religion, separated the legislation as far as possible from the Scharia and took over consciously large parts of the French state and administrative structures. So only the Arab host language is for few yearsall administrative matters - apart from the French language. Both under Bourguiba and under Ben Ali several programs were obtained, in order to increase the occupation ratio with women on European level (at present: 33%), in order to advance the social equalization more strongly.

The countrylocked besides with the European union an association agreement, which will step 2008 into force and a safety device of fundamental rights for the entire population presupposes.

politics

Tunesien are a Republic of, those from a only one political partyone controls. The only party taken part in the government was 25 years long also the only certified one. They control this very day the political life. The president is selected on five years. Regional governors and local manager become likewise by those Centre government appointed; advisory mayors and urban advice are selected.

The judiciary power is independently, reacted however to recommendations of the executive, particularly in political cases.

Tunesien has only a weak military affairs, that predominantly with the monitoring of the borders of theCountry is entrusted. As security of the country an agreement with France is considered to defend Tunesien in a case of attack. This procedure developed from the estimate that Tunesiens main threat lay in the inland. Tunesien has a very well removed net outregional police authorities, federal police authorities and police special units, which are subordinated directly to the ministry of the Interior, what last because of the fact is not that Tunesien is a totalitarian police state. Tunesiens open, European oriented policy and the economy fixed on tourism are many Islamics a thornbeen in the eye and already a goal at least an Islamic notice.

There are different advisory bodies: Council of State, social and economic council, constitution advice and the higher Islamic advice.

human rights

the liberty of opinion in Tunesien is considered as reduced. At the case of Zouhair Yahyaoui becomes clear that already criticism at the president in the Internet can lead to long detentions. Tunesien developed a matured system for Internet censorship. Representatives of international NGOs reported of numerous encroachments of the secret police during the World Summit on information Society2005 in Tunis. Thus for example meetings were disturbed, the premises blocked and participants by NGO meetings were locked out.

Gouvernorate

Tunesien is arranged into 24 Gouvernorate, whose geographical size of their number of inhabitants is adapted:

Tunis تونس (Tunes), Ariana أريانة (Ariana), Ben Arous بنعروس (Ben 'Arus), Manouba منوبة (Mannuba), Beja باجة (Bescha)
Jendouba جندوبة (Schenduba)/ Tabarka, Le Kef الكاف (El-Kef), Siliana سليانة (Siliena), Bizerte بنزرت (Bensart), Nabeul, نابل (Nebl)
Zaghouan زغوان (Saghuan), Gafsa قفصة (Gafsa), Cairo SCN القيروان (Qruen), Kasserine القصرين (Gassrin)
Mahdia المهدية (Mehdia), Monastir المنستير (bad animal), Sfax صفاقس (Sfax), Sidi Bou Zid سيديبوزيد (Sidi le Zid)
Sousse سوسة (Sussa), Gabès قابس (Gebess), Kebili قبلي (Qibili), Medenine مدنين (Mednin), Tataouine تطاوين (Tatauin)
Tozeur توزر (Tuzer)

membershipTunesiens in international organizations

economics

general

Tunesien is a developing country with a top position in Africa and in the Maghreb. By the association agreement with the European Union Tunesien wants to ascend into the circle of the industrial nations.

Work on []

Tourism

Tunesien is not far a popular goal for European tourists, who look for El-Kantaoui recovery in the coastal places such as Hammamet , Sousse and haven, the desert seeing era in the south to explore wants or archaeological places of discovery such as Karthago, from thatin the north of the country, to visit want convenient capital Tunis.

characteristic data

most important industries (2002, portion of the gross domestic product in %) is:
Service sector
- tourism 7.1%
- transport and telecommunications 10.0%
- other services 37.0%
Agriculture fishery 13.0%
(1/3 of all persons employed)
industry
- processing industry 21.0%
- not processing industry 12.0%


Tunesiens head more devisenbringer are the processing industry and the tourism (annually approximately 4 millions Foreign guests). The latter concentrates above all upthe coastal regions. Important tourist places are the regions around the gulf of Hammamet (Hammamet, Nabeul, Sousse, haven El Kantaoui and Monastir) as well as the island Djerba.

agriculture

about 50% of the national surface becomefor intensive agriculture used.

In the fruitful north above all fruit, is cultivated vegetables and grain in Zentraltunesien Datteln and olives. Importantly is also the viticulture. In addition Tunesien is richly at Bodenschätzen such as oil and phosphates, those likewiseare exported.

The south of the country flows into the desert seeing era and is therefore inhabited and economically usable to the south less and less.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

Tunesien is admits for the large number to received Roman mosaics. The most important archaeological pieces of find are kept in the museum Le Bardo. In Tunesien is El Djem, the besterhaltene Roman Amphitheater. It has a capacity of 45.000 spectators and this very day for concerts is used.

There Tunesien over the centuries several immigration waves from Arabia, Spain, France, Turkey, west Africa, the Berber realms and even out Scandinavia experienced, differs the Tunesier in its appearance and culture life somewhat from other Arab culture nations, like z. B. Saudi Arabia, Yemen or Libya. This expresses itself in the townscape (z. B. Place de Barcelone in Tunis or particularly the Andalusian quarter Sidi Bou Said, strassenbeschilderungen and business-describe mostly are on French), in the pottery and ceramic(s) art (e.g. in Nabeul), numerous buildings of most diverse epochs (z. B. the away in the gulf of Hammamet), the Tunisian kitchen (z. B. Baguette, Frommage, Croissant as well as unite Berbergerichten and the popular “Makkarona “from Italy).

music

Tunesien is above all admits for the music direction the Malouf, which Andalusian refugees after Spanish conquest in 15. Century along-brought.

Malouf is played by small orchestras, consisting of violin, drum, Sitar and sounds (Oud). Modern Malouf has some elements of the Berber - music in the rhythm.

Baron Erlanger is an important figure of the modern Tunisian music. Itthe rules and history of the Malouf, which filled 6 volumes, collected and created a Rachida, an important conservatoire, which is still used today.

To the artists 20. Century count Anouar Brahem, a Oud - players; El Azifet, a rare pure woman orchestra;Khemais Tarnane; Raoul Journou; Saliha; Saleh Mehdi; Ali Riahi; Hedi Jouini as well as Fethia Khairi.

Well-known music instruments are among other things the Darbouka (drum), which one in Tunesien actually in everyoneHousehold finds.

arts and crafts

of carpets, weaving mills, Trachten, finishing of leather, wood working, metalworking (Schmieden, copper), decoration, Korallen, silver, ceramic(s), pottery, glass, mosaics, basket goods from Halfagras etc.

sport

Tunesien is particularly admits for:

  • Football (winner in the Africa Cup 2004, WM-participant 1978, 1998, 2002 and 2006, Zoubaier Baya)
  • hand ball (venue of the WM 2005)
  • the Tunesien Rallye “22. El Chott " of 28.October - 11. November of 2006 organizers
  • in the summer also always takes place in close proximity to Hammamet a speedboat running.

holidays

of holidays
date German name local name remark
1. January New Year
20. March independence day عيدالإستقلال anniversary onthe 20. March 1956
21. March day of the youth
9. April day of the martyrs Anniversary of the poured blood of the martyrs 9. April 1938
1. May day of the work International day of the work
25. July day of the republic عيدالجمهوريةAnniversary of the explanation of the republic to 25. July 1957
13. August national day of the woman Célébration de la promulgation you code you statute personnel by Habib Bourguiba
7. November day of the renewal Memory of the change 7. November 1987

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Tunesien - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Tunesien - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 30°-37° N, 8°-12° O

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)