Tunis (arab.: تونس ) the capital is Tunesiens and has 728,463 inhabitants (2004), in the region Tunis lives approx. 1,6 millions Humans (conditions 1993).The name of Tunis, which was called at the Roman time Thuni or also Tynes, leads itself from Thunfisch (lat. Thynnus) ago and is an indication for the economic meaning of the Thunfischhandels in the antique Tunesien. Also today is Thunfisch a main part of many courts of the Tunisian kitchen.
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Tunis lies in the north of the country not far of Mediterranean. Between the city and the gulf of Tunis the lake of Tunis, a flat lagoon lies. The city center of Tunis with the historical old part of town (Medina) and the new city put on during the colonial age lies between thatLake of Tunis and the lake Sebkhet Sedjoumi. Around the city center the internal suburbs lie: in the west mansions and areas of government administration the Bardo with the museum of the same name, in the north the quarter around the Belvédère hills and the newer settlements El Menzah and Ariana, in the south the industrial quarters Megrine and Ben Arous. During the colonial age the Frenchmen a long Schellstrassen and metropolitan railway dam built 10 km across the lake of Tunis, that as continuation of the Avenue Habib Bourguibathe city center of Tunis with the port La Goulette connects. North of La Goulette line up the wealthy suburbs Carthage (Karthago), Sidi Bou Said, La Marsa and Gammarth to the coast, southeast lies the bathing resort Hammam ran.
- Coordinates : 36,48° N., 10,12° O.
- Time : GMT +1h
Tunisis one of the oldest cities at the Mediterranean. The numidische city Tunes already existed before the arrival of the first phönizischen Kolonisten in 9. Century v. Chr. However Tunis always stood in the antique one in the shade of the powerful Karthago.
Only afterArab conquest and the destruction Karthagos end 7. Century arrived Tunis at supraregional meaning. Under the rule of the Aghlabiden Tunis served in 9. Century at short notice as residence. At this time the Medina with the Ez-Zitouna - mosque developed.
Tunis became 1159 under the dynasty of the Hafsiden the capital Ifriqiyas and was a prominent commercial centre with Europe. 1270 failed a conquest attempt of the French king Ludwig IX. during the sieved crusade. For the first time Tunis arrived 1534 under Turkish rule.Only one year later became it however by Karl V. conquered and was subordinate thereafter to Spanish protectorate until Tunis fell 1574 finally into the hand of the Turks. After 1591 the Turkish governors (Beys) were relatively independent, and thoseCity grew as a center of Piraten and trade. Starting from 1609 numerous refugees from Andalusien , under it also, settled many Jews and contributed to the economic and cultural upswing of Tunis.
In April 1655 was that English admiral Robert Blake assigned, of the states of the Mediterranean, which had attacked English ships to call a remuneration in. Only the Bey of Tunis again-set itself, with the result that Blakes of ships the arsenal of the Beys with postage Farina (Gharel Melh) attacked, whereby they destroyed nine Algerian ships and two coastal batteries. It was the first time in the naval warfare guidance that coastal batteries were put out of action, without using landing forces.
1881 made the Frenchmen Tunis the seat of their protectorate administration and tooknumerous changes concerning town construction forwards. Between the old part of town and the sea a new city in the European style and the city port resulted by a navigation channel from the lake by Tunis with the port again put on by La Goulette were connected. During of the The Second World War Tunis was held by the Axis powers of November 1942 until May 1943 and was their last basis in Africa (Africa corps/Erwin Rommel).
After independence Tunesiens in the year 1956 moved most the European, thosebefore still nearly had constituted a quarter the inhabitant shank, out. The migration from the land led at the same time to a large increase in the population and the building of numerous development areas. Between 1979 to 1990 the Arab league had its headquarters in Tunis, just as the PLO from 1982 to 1993. 1985 became the headquarters of the PLO in the southern bathing beach Hammam of troubles (also: Hammam treasure) by the Israeli Air Force bombards, whereby over 60 humans around live came.
see also: List of the Beys of Tunis
the townscape of Tunis is coined/shaped by the strong contrast between the eastern old part of town and the European seeming new city. The old part of town (Medina) of Tunis became in 9. Century put on by the Aghlabidenand in 13. Century of the Hafsiden transforms. It belongs to the world cultural heritage of the UNESCO. The Medina inhabited today by approximately 20,000 humans has an expansion of 1500 * 800 m and shows the usual structure of Arab old parts of town with oneirregular net from bent lanes. In the center of the Medina the Ez-Zitouna-mosque is located, to the large mosque of Cairo SCN the most important mosque Tunesiens. The Ez-Zitouna-mosque goes in the core on 9. Century back, was converted however several times and extended. Ringaround the mosque the market quarter extends. Traditionally everyone is the Souks (market lanes) assigned to a certain industry, z. B. the perfume dealers (Souk el Attarine), shoe dealers (Souk el Blaghija) or material dealers (Souk of the Étoffes). The central range of the Souks is todaystrongly adjusted to the tourism, which become market lanes in the boundary regions of the Medina however primarily frequented by the native inhabitants.
The Place de la Victoire with the former town-gate of havens de France (Bab el Bhar) is because of the border betweenOld part of town (Medina) and new city (Ville Nouvelle). The new city is appropriate for the lake of Tunis between the Medina and and became in 19. Century put on by the Frenchmen. The roads form a regular chessboard sample and also the architecture of the buildings Europeanon. Centerline of the new city is the splendour road Avenue Habib Bourguiba, which is gesäumt by business, long over 1,5 km, Cafés and hotels.
About four kilometers west the former Villenvorort Le Bardo is appropriate for the city center. Here is thatof the Hafsiden in 15. Century put on and by the Turkish Beys in extended palace district. The center 19. Century delighted residence of the Beys accommodates today the Tunisian parliament. In the areas of the former Harems is the national museum ofBardo accommodated.
sons and daughters of the city
- Serge Adda, president of the French television station TV5
- Loris Azzaro, mode and perfume creator
- Claudia Cardinale, Italian actress
- Bertrand Delanoë, mayor of Paris
- Ibn Khaldoun, Arab sociologistand scholar
- Roberto Blanco, German hit singer and actor
- Alain Boublil, French musical author
- Anouar Brahem, Virtuose at the Oud and composer
- Albert Memmi, French writer and sociologist
- Chokri El Ouaer, goal keeper
- refuge Günter Wagner: The old part of town of Tunis: Change of function of handicraft and trade 1968-1995. in: Peter man geographical reports, volume 140, 1996, number 5+6, S. 343-365.
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coordinates: 36° 48′3 " n. Break, 10° 10 ′ 48 " o. L.