Tupolev Tu-144

Erster TU-144-Prototyp im Juni 1971 beim Start in Berlin-Schönefeld
of first TU-144-Prototyp in June 1971 when starting in Berlin-Schönefeld
accessible Tu-144 in the technique museum Sinsheim

Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO code name: Charger, dt.: “Schlachtross”) was first supersound - the airliner. It was developed by the Soviet airplane - technical designer Alexey Andrejewitsch Tupolev.

Table of contents

history

already in the January booklet 1962 to the magazine “technology of the air fleet” had Seljakow, Oscherow, Istomin and Dobrowski the contribution “study of the parameters oneSupersonic airliner " publishes. The foundation-stone for the development of the TU144 became later by instruction of the Minister for aircraft industry Nr.276ss to 26. July 1963 put. Had preceded a definition of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 768-271 to 16. July 1963, according to which the design engineering departmentTupolev was obligated to build 5 flying copies in only four and one-half year. The first machine should be finished even already 1966. Commencement of construction was 1965. Three prototypes (two only for statics tests) were built, by those first, with the registrationCCCP-68001, its maiden flight to 31. December 1968 in close proximity to Moscow completed - some months before the Concorde its first test flight had. Thereafter starting from 1969 up to the attitude of the program 1984 still another one pilot lot copy and 15 Serienmaschinen were built,by those the latter was however never completed. To 26. May 1970 reached the Tu-144 as the first civilian airliner the double speed of sound. The last complete copy was finished 1981, had its first flight however only to 4. October 1984 and servedlater than test flight things for the Buran - space shuttle.

The Tu-144 resembled in interpretation and achievement of the Concorde and knows a similar wing unit with engines grouped in the back (however no turbojets) as well as a lowerable nose up, which the view of the pilots inApproach flight improved. Although these similarities were mainly probably aerodynamic and technically conditioned, they led to rumors that the developers of the TU-144 “cribbed from” with the Concorde. Western media gave her therefore the pointed name Konkordski.

At the 3. July 1973experienced the program an harsh setback, as which third (the first Serienmaschine) Tu-144 ever built with flight-look in Paris Le Bourget fell. Six humans were killed on board (crew including a journalist), as well as 8 persons at the soil.When the crew tried to intercept a strong dive the structure of the machine was overloaded and it broke apart in small height. Why the Tu-144 changed, is at all into the dive, for which she was not appropriate, still inexplicably.There are different theses and/or. Rumors for this:

  • Thesis 1: a French fighter of the type Dassault Mirage is to have emerged suddenly and have tempted the crew to a dive as evasive maneuvers.
  • Thesis 2:Parts of the systems are inadvertently for the test operationconfigures been its and to the airplane unusually strong descent rates gave.
  • Thesis 3:enough fuel is not to have been in the tanks, so that the engines suspended briefly for lack of fuel pressure in the inlet, whereupon the Tu-144 unpoweredinto the dive tilted, from which it no more could not be intercepted.
  • Thesis 4: From data of the black box of the machine it followed that the crew had made manipulations at the flight control. Thereby a particularly spectacular Flugshow should be made possible,in order to overtrump the likewise present Concorde.
  • Thesis 5: briefly before the crash on the radar a small object was sighted, which could have been perhaps a fired air-to-air rocket.

In December 1975 the Tu-144 took first the freight enterprisebetween Moscow and Alma Ata up.

In November 1977 the Tu-144 took up the passenger enterprise between Moscow and Alma Ata . Regular passenger flights followed in December 1977. After a further accident in May 1978, with a leakage in a fuel lineto a fire on board with following forced landing on a field, with which 2 crew members died, became the Tu-144-Linienbetrieb led after only 102 flights (of it 55 with passengers) with altogether 3284 carried passengers (source: Tupolev) againadjusted and up to the attitude of the Tu-144-Programms 1984 not again taken up. Altogether 16 copies were finished, by those still to 5 in museums, as well as further 3 at two different Tupolev works to exist. The only Tu-144 (registration CCCP-77112, serial number 07-1) outside of the former2001 were brought to Soviet republics on the water and Landweg to Germany into the technique museum Sinsheim and are since then to be visited there.

1995 - 1996 became a Tu-144D von Tupolew and NASA for approximately 350 million dollar again in oneairworthy condition brought, in order to win measuring data for a possible future supersonic passenger airline. The change to the flying laboratory brought beside new engines also the new type designation to Tu-144LL with itself. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the machine led again 27Flights through. In the future there were messages, the machine by Internet auction to a Privatmann one had sold. Since there was however no export licence for the engines valid as military goods, the machine still stands at the Tupolev work Moscow Zhukovsky.

With Tupolev a time long plans for a successor, Tupolev Tu-244 existed.

technical data

3-Seiten tear
  • turbofan and afterburner:
    • Tu-144 (prototype, 1968, 1 copy):
      • 4 Kusnetsow NK-144, ever 20,000 kp thrust
    • Tu-144S (1971until 1977, 10 copies, of it 1 later to Tu-144D reequipped):
      • 4 Kusnetsow NK-144, ever 20,000 kp thrust
    • Tu-144D (1978 to 1984, 6 copies, finished of it 1 never & 1 later reequipped to Tu-144LL):
      • 4 Kolesow RD-36 -51A
    • Tu-144LL (1 copy,reequipped Tu-144D):
      • 4 Kusnetsow NK-321
  • maximum airspeed: 2,500 km/h (Mach 2.35)
  • cruising speed: 2,120 km/h
  • flight altitude: up to 18.000 m
  • range with maximum loading: 6,500 km
  • unloaded weight: 85,000 kg
  • maximum takeoff weight: 207,000 kg
  • of span: 28.80 m
  • surface thatBearing areas: 506.35 m ²
  • length: 65.70 m
  • height: 12.5 m

Web on the left of

see also


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)