Tupolev Tu-154

Tupolev 154M of the Bulgarian VIA
Tu-154M von Aeroflot auf dem Flughafen Scheremetjewo-2
Tu-154M von Aeroflot on the airport Scheremetjewo-2

Tupolev Tu-154 (NATO code name: Careless) is an airliner of middle range for 150 to 180 passengers, their three jet engines Kuznetsov NK-8-2U with ever 103 kNThrust (version Tu-154A, B) and/or.Solowjew D-30 KP/KU with 108 kN thrust (version Tu-154M) are attached at the tail. One engine each is left arranged at the tail on the right of and. These engines have for the decrease of the landing distance a system of the thrust reversing. The third engine sucksits air above the trunk, centrically at the vertical stabilizer root, on. The exhaust gas stream is led underneath the tail unit, in the tail of the airplane, (about so, like it with the Lockheed L-1011 tri star happens). In form and size those resembles Tupolev 154 at the earliest very successful Boeing 727, when their counterpart it was probably designed. These three-emitters were used before the development by ETOPS - jet engines on distances, which were unprofitable for four-jet machines. Flew it for the first time 1971. Successors are Tu-204 and/or. Tu-214.


The Tu-154 is incantilever low-wing aircraft with 35° swept wings (so-called. „critical “airfoil) in all-metal construction with 3 cross-beams. The two 3-achsigen supports of the main landing gear are appropriate and to the rear into a landing gear nacelle, which is at each bearing area, are drawn in for employments on fastened runways. Contrary to thatstarting and landing flaps hydraulically operated the ledge are electrically propelled.

Table of contents

variants

it gives three series Tupolev to 154, which optically hardly differ. Differences are to be found particularly in the technology.However also two converted Tu-154 with unusual drive systems exist. Like also their western counterpart, Boeing 727, were equipped Tu-154 meanwhile frequently with engine mufflers (Hush so mentioned kit) and reequipped partly also to the freighter.

In addition there was a set of special designs, thusz. B. as flying military hospital, for the cosmonaut training or as pure freight version.

Tu-154/Tu-154A/Tu-154B/Tu-154S

the Tu-154 were used by Aeroflot first 1972. Three, all together by Kuznetsov - engines propelled, variants were built: The original Tu-154, the heavier and with strongerEngines equipped Tu-154A, as well as the Tu-154B with a further increase of the maximum takeoff weight. The Tu-154S is the freighter variant of the Tu-154B.

Tu-154M

the newest version is the Tu-154M, whose first flight took place 1982. It is equipped with more efficient Awiadwigatel D-30KU turbofan. The Tu-154M is substantially more economically, quieterand more reliably than the preceding versions.Aeroflot continual reached a Dispatch Reliability (technical availability before the start) of 99%, which also in the comparison with western airplane samples an excellent value is with it. This is the only Tu-154-Version, which the European regulations to the protection from aircraft noiseso far it corresponds that she may approach today still goals in Western Europe.

Tu-155/Tu-156

to the advancements more radically put on of the Tu-154 count with liquid hydrogen and/or. Natural gas claimant prototypes Tu-155 and Tu-156. The Tu-155 is based on a Serien-Tu-154B; their middle engine did not becomeof kerosene, but of hydrogen or natural gas propelled. The Tu-155 completed their first flight with liquid hydrogen to 15. April 1988, their first flight with natural gas drive to 18. January 1989; thus it is according to Tupolev the first natural gas-driven airplane of the world. The advancement Tu-156it can be operated alternatively with kerosene or natural gas with which she will be operated more flexibly and with normal kerosene can, no natural gas should be available at the airport.

history

Tupolev 154 flew particularly for many airlines of Eastern Europe and for Aeroflot. Only few copies were among other things in the middle east in use. Today it is still the backbone for many fleets of the smaller GUS - airlines. Also in Aeroflot it is still used, particularly on the Russian inland routes.

After the reunification of Germany took overthe ready for flight shank of the German Federal Armed Forces two Tu-154M from the existence of the transportation wing 44 (TG 44) of air forces (LSK) of the GDR. A machine was used to a clearing-up machine converted over over Russia the disarmament contracts to supervise, the other one than transportation machine. However a machine wenta collision with an American transportation machine before the coast of Namibia lost. All 24 crew members found thereby death. The sister machine thereupon from cost reasons shut down and serves now as exercise object for the training of special forces.

Altogether about 900 Tu-154 and Tu-154M were built; the latternew Tu-154 was delivered end of the 90's, production was however never explained officially for terminated.

general data

Characteristic of data
year of construction (e) 1968 - approx. 1999
manufacturers Tupolev PSC
span 37.55 m
length 47.9 m
height of 11.4 m
wing area 201.5 m ²
takeoff weight maximally100,000 kg (Tu-154M)
passengers 160-180
crew 4
range-optimized cruising speed 850 km/h (do 154)
maximum cruising speed 950 km/h (do 154M)
service ceiling of 11,000 m
range 4,000 km
of engines of three jet engines Kuznetsov NK-8-2U (Tu-154A and B) or Solowjew D-30 KP/KU (Tu-154M)


Web on the left of

Commons: Tupolev Tu-154- Pictures, videos and/or audio files

official manufacturer side to the Tu-154< /br> Official manufacturer side to the Tu-155/Tu-156-Projekt


 

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