|of these articles is concerned with the Italian large city Turin. For further terms, see Turin (term clarifying).|
|geographical location||of 45° 04 ' N 7° 42 ' O|
|height||of 240 m and. NN|
|surface||130 km ²|
|population density||6940 Einwohner/km ²|
|postal zip code||10100|
|ISTAT - code||001272|
|name of the inhabitants||Torinesi|
|protection patron||San Giovanni|
Turin (Italian Torino) is a large city in the northwest of Italy with 902.255 inhabitants in the city (2005) andapprox. 1,7 millions Inhabitants in the dye (2006). The city is on a height of 240 m and with a surface of 130 km ². It is capital of the region Piemont and the province Turin. Of France in the westand it is in each case 100 kilometers distant for Switzerland in the north as well as of Milan in the east well.
The level, in the Turin lies, becomes in the west and the north by the alps and in the south by the hills of the Monferrato limited. The Dora Riparia, the Stura di Lanza and the Sangone flows with Turin into the river Po.
Table of contents
connected with Turin, descends from rope , a celtic word, which means “mountains”. The Italian name Torino can be translated as a “small bull”, for this reason appears thatBull on the coat of arms of the city. The area was settled in before-Roman time by the celticligurischen trunk of the Taurini.
In the first pre-Christian century (probable in the year 28 v. Chr.) the Romans established a military camp (Castra Taurinorum) here, thatlater was dedicated to the emperor Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum). The typical Roman urban structure with running roads kept right-angled to each other into the today's time. Accomodation the Romano is the oldest quarter. In Roman time Turin counted about5,000 inhabitants, who lived all within the high Stadtmauern.
After the case of the Roman realm the city was conquered first by the Langobarden, then by Franconias and governed by bishops. End 13. Century took the dukesof Savoyen the city. The gardens and palaces originated in in 15. Century, when one the city of reason on again established. 1404 were created the university. Emanuel Philibert made Turin in the year 1563 the capital of the duchy Savoyen.
1706 besieged the Frenchmen during the Spanish of succession war the city during 117 days, without it however to take being able (battle of Turin). In accordance with the peace of Utrecht Savoyen received the Kingdom of Sardinien. Architect Filippo Juvarra began alsothe renewed transformation of the city, which counted at that time approximately 90,000 inhabitants.
By the combination of Italy in the year 1861 Turin became capital. King Viktor Emanuel II.governed from here, 14 different locks witness from the herrschaftlichen past. The capital function was however a status, which the city had to pass on already four years later at Florenz. The opening of the Mont Cenis tunnel in the year 1871 made Turin an important traffic junction.
Turin with a rapid industrialization made up for the loss of the capital function , whereby those Automobile industry a paramount meaning attained. 1899 take place the establishment of Fiats, 1906 those from Lancia. The world exhibition of the yearly 1902 is considered as high point of art nouveau. 1911 took place again a world exhibition in Turin, at that time counted the cityalready 430,000 inhabitants.
After the Second World War the industry experienced a undreamt-of upswing. Ten thousands of workers, particularly from South Italies, pulled annually to Turin. 1960 became Turin a town with millions of inhabitants and reached 1975 with 1.5 million the population maximum. The industrielle crisisthe 1980er years met Turin hard and the population decreased/went back under one million.
Turin is an important industrial center. The city is in particular well-known as seat of the automaker Fiat (Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino), which was created here 1899. A further famous vehicle manufacturer is 1969 by Fiats taken over Lancia, 1906 based, and afterwards inthe company integrated. The Lingotto - building was once the largest autofactory of the world and to a measurement, a culture and a shopping centre was converted. Other enterprises created in Turin are Invicta, Lavazza, Martini, Kappa and Caffarel. Likewise meaningair and space undertaking are Alenia.
Turin is well to the Italian motorway as well as tied up to the Eisenbahnnetz. By a high-speed distance from Milan to November era, which was opened 2005, the running times could to Milanand to the large airport Milan Malpensa to be reduced clearly. Until 2009 are to be driven on then the complete distance and be halved the running time to Milan from at present 1h 30 min on 50 min. Also a connection in the French Lyon is planned. Thosemost important stations in Turin are Torino Porta Nuova, Torino Porta Susa and Torino Lingotto. The present main station Porta Nuova will probably lose this function in the next years to the through station Porta Susa, for some years ofReason on is renewed.
The three stations are also important critical points of the first line of the underground Turin, which at present is in building. The first section became to 4. February 2006 opens. At present the public suburban traffic becomes by welldeveloped network of streetcars and penalties masters. North the international airport Torino Caselle is appropriate for the city.
objects of interest
one of the landmarks of Turin is the mole Antonelliana, establishes 1863-1880 after plans of Alessandro Antonelli (1798-1888). Today findsitself therein the national film museum. A spectacular elevator construction pulls the gläsernen elevator freely floating on Führungskabeln by the main area under the dome through to the prospect platform.
The cathedral Duomo di San Giovanni, built in the years 1491-1498, accommodates that Turiner grave cloth, a linen cloth, which shows the image of a man. Of pilgrims it dear as the cloth, into which Jesus was wound in the grave.
The famous Lingotto - building, once the largest autofactory of the world, became after plans of theTransformed into a congress center, shopping centre, art gallery and hotel concert-resound to architect Renzo Piano.
The Museo Egizio possesses one of the internationally most important collections antique Egyptian art. The locks and residences of the dukes of Savoyen rank among the world cultural heritage. In the center of Turinthe Palazzo material one is convenient, the king palace of the kings of Piemont Sardinien and late seat of the Kingdom of Italy.
In direct neighbourhood in addition is the Palazzo Madama, which consists of an old part and a baroque cultivation. The old partin the Roman time as town-gate developed and in the Middle Ages to a fortress one developed. The new part is a work of the baroque master Filippo Juvarra. This was also building master of several residence locks of the dukes of Savoyen, late kings of Piemont Sardinienand finally of Italy.
- University of Turin (Università degli study di Torino)
- poly-technical University of Turin (Politecnico di Torino)
- European institute for Design (Istituto Europeo di Design)
a gallo Roman dialect, Pedemontano speak language the Turiner mentioned. This dialect, sometimes also Torinese mentioned, is generally speaking Piemont common, however in Italy with the city Turin is generally identified.
sons and daughters of the city
- Joseph Louis lying rank (1736-1813), professor of mathematics, 1766 director thatAcademy in Berlin
- Marie Thérèse Louise of Savoyen Carignan (1749-1792), princess von Lamballe
- Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856), physicist and chemist
- Alberto La Marmora Ferrero (1789-1863), general and opponent Napoleon in Italy, general commander on Sardinien
- Alessandro Martini (1812-1905), businessman, founder of Martini
- Johannes Bosco(1815-1888), priests and joint founders of the society of the holy Franz of Sales, the Salesianer. 1923 were holy spoken of the Pope.
- Viktor Emanuel II. (1820-1878), king of Piemont and first king of geeinten Italy
- Umberto I.(1844-1900), eigentl. Rainer Karl EmanuelJohann Maria Ferdinand Eugen, 1878-1900 king of Italien* Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932), mathematician
- Luigi Lavazza (1859-1949), businessman
- Giovanni Agnelli (1866-1945), founders of FIAT
- Vincenzo Lancia (1881-1937), running driver and automobile technical designer, founder of Lancia
- Alfredo Casella (1883-1947), composer
- Giuseppe Saragat (1898-1988), Italian presidentand founders of the socialist labour party of Italy (PSLI)
- Piero Sraffa (1898-1983), economist
- Piero Gobetti (1901-1926), journalist and politician
- Adriano Olivetti (1901-1960), businessman, founder of Olivetti
- Carlo Levi (1902-1975), writer, painter and politician
- Norberto Bobbio (1909-2004), right philosopher and journalist
- Rita Levi Montalcini (*1909), Physikerin and Medizinerin, Nobelpreisträgerin
- Salvador Edward Luria (1912-1991), micro biologist, 1940 emigrated into the USA, 1969 Nobelpreisträger for medicine.
- Robert Fano (* 1917), engineer
- Primo Levi (1919-1987), writer and chemist
- Gianni Agnelli (1921-2003), Industrieller, managing director of FIATS
- Giovanni Pinna (* 1939), professor for paleontology and Museologie, 1997-2000 president of the ICOM internationally Council OF of museum.
- Sonia Gandhi (* 1946), Indian politician
- Umberto Tozzi (* 1952), singers
- Alessandro Baricco (* 1958), writer
- Gigi D'Agostino (* 1967), musician and DJ
with Turin connected persons
- Edmondo de Amicis
- Don Bosco
- Francesco Frà di Bruno
- Italo Calvino
- Gaspare Campari
- Renato Dulbecco
- Umberto Eco
- Luigi a AUDI
- Erasmus of Rotterdam
- Guido Fubini
- Natalia Ginzburg
- Antonio Gramsci
- Cesare Lombroso
- Joseph de Maistre
- Giulio Natta
- Friedrich Nietz
- Vilfredo Pareto
- Cesare Pavese
- Emilio Salgari
- Ascanio Sobrero
- Elio Vittorini
- Alessandro Del Piero
Web on the left of
|Commons: Turin - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
coordinates: 45° 3 ' N,7° 40 ' O