|of these articles treats the landscape Turkestan (Türkistan), for the city of the same name sees Türkistan.|
Turkestan, also Turkistan, Türkistan, Persian: ترکستان country of the Turks, is a dry mountain region in central Asia. It extends from the Kaspi sea in the west up to the desert Gobi in the east. The area covers 2.500.000 km ² and accommodates approximately 70 million inhabitant.
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Turkestan was well-known in the antiquity with the Iranian peoples as Turan. In 13. to 16. Century became the region as „large Tatarei or Tatarstan “admits and reached into the south also in Persian area over. This very day its low country makes Turani low country “the largest part of west Turkestans as „Turani countersinks “or „.
Turkestan played a large role with the emergence of the today's Turkotataren: In Turkestan z became. B. the Buqai horde/hurdle - upthe area of the western Kasachen Khanates - based, which represented the last rearing up of the Kasak Tataren against the Russians.
A majority of the population is placed by the turkstämmigen peoples: Uiguren, Karakalpaken, Kasachen, Kirgisen, Aserbaidschaner, Karäim, Mescheten, Krimtataren, Turk and Usbeken. The larger Turkvölker forms own Turkstaaten in this area.
However today Turkestans live not only Turkvölker, but also the Perser (Tadschiken ) , Afghans and Chinese in the area, which can be regarded in certain regions as Urbevölkerung of those areas. Furthermorereside there Germans, Russians , Ukrainer and some Koreans.
in Turkestan developed the important Turkish literature languages Karlukisch, choir-mix and for Tschagataiisch. Besides one speaks Iranian languages into far parts of south Turkistans, of those the Persian language the most importantis.
the area Turkestans is divided into three ranges: West Turkestan consists southern ranges of Kazakhstan as well as Kirgisistan , Tadschikistan, Turkmenistan, Usbekistan as well as the northern part of Afghanistan, which is called south Turkestan of. East or Chinese Turkestan covers the southwest partthe autonomous region Xinjiang Uyghur.
Turkestan is in the process of its long history continuously from the asiatic great powers contests. In its borders the following predominantly turkstämmige realms lay:
- Tabgatsch (east Turkestan)
- Kara Khitai
- Scha t'o (at least partly)
- Also Kirgisen (partial
In 15. Century came it to the division of the country at the border between Altai Tienschan Pamir, as thatWestern part Turkestans at Timur i direct fell, while the East part remained now under native dynasty.
already in the 1. Millenium v. Chr. Iranian-speaking trunks in the western Turkestan settled (see also Gutäer). The southern ranges west Turkestans fell then with the conquest of the Persian realm at Alexander the large one.
West Turkestan or Russian Turkestan (turkotatarisch: Batıs Törkistan, Turkishly: Batı Türkistan) in the actual sense originated in in 15. Century from the division of the Mongol Khanates Tschagatai, when the west Turkestans fell to the act arene ruler Timur. West Turkestan formed now the western part of the country.
Starting from that 16. Century foundthe establishment of the Turkish Khanate Chiwa, book era and in 19. Century - Kokand in the area west Turkestans instead of. At the same time the slawische influencing control began, by the Russians was finally conquered Turkestan in the second half 19. Century.
Since 1867 the western Turkestan belongedto Russia, when general buyer, an ethnic German in Russian services, which conquered Kasachi Khanat and there now “established the Russian „Generalgouvernement Turkestan.
In run 19. Century became on areas west Turkestans numerous inscriptions of the Hunnen, the Hephthaliten and the Göktürken found. These inscriptions collected themselves particularly in the region of the Talas and were drawn up in a modification of the Turkish runes (door on style ).
After the Russian revolution (1917) west Turkestans became the Soviet People's Republics book era and Chiwa as well as the autonomous one in the areaSocialist Soviet republic Turkestan in an educated manner. Out these were then formed between 1924 and 1936 new republics. South Turkestan, which had been stressed by Russia, was already surrendered by Grenzverträge (1858/98) to Persia.
east Turkestan or also Chinese Turkestan (uigurisch: Sherqiy or also Xerkiy Türkistan, Turkishly: Doğu Türkistan) lies, like the name already says, in the eastern region Turkestans.
Infollowing centuries east Turkestan of different asiatic rulers governed, among them also of Dschingis Khan in 13. Century. In 9. Century used islamizing with the Uiguren east Turkestans: they created now „the Khaganat Uyghuristan “, which they called also „Dsungarei “. Itbegan thereby the follow-up of the old Uyghurenstämme, which subjected this area 744.
The today's east Turkestan originated in in 15. Century from the division Turkestans, as itself in his area the rulers of the Mongolian Tschagatai - dynasty withdrew. In 18. Century belonged the area east Turkestans to the Mongolian Oiratenreich.
1759 fell east Turkestan at China and with the neighbouring Dsungarei were folded up there. In 19. Century rose the moslemische population east Turkestans several times unsuccessfully against the Chinese rule. 1865 created Jakub Beg, the Khan Kashgars, a Turkreich, however only to 1877 existence had. Already 1871 occupied Russian troops the Ili - area, which they vacated however ten years later again. In the future China east Turkestan could maintain the region against further Russian annex ion attempts, but belonged like the exterior Mongolia and Manchuria into that 20. Century inside for the direct sphere of influence of Russia. 1884 were subordinated east Turkestan with the neighbouring Dsungarei as province Xinjiang of the Chinese civil administration. After outbreak to the Chinese revolution in the year 1911 east Turkestan contrary to Mongolia and Tibet remained with China, were however in fact autonomous. Since 1928 turned out for east Turkestan temporarily under Soviet influence. During the Chinese civil war 1949 troops of the communist „people release army marched “into east Turkestan, which became as province Xinjiang part of the People's Republic of China. The rigide execution of a Sinisierungspolitik released already 1950 a uigurischen rebellion, that by forceone struck down.1964 accomplished the VR China in that 1955 to „the autonomous region “appointed east Turkestan for the first time an atomic bomb test . 1967 followed the first ignition of a Chinese hydrogen bomb.
the south Turkistans belongs to the northern part of the historical, as “Chorasan &Mawar aluminum-feed “admitted region. Contrary to other areas Turkistans was settled only late this region by Turkvölkern.
1973 putschte itself the cousin of the acting king, Mohammed Daud Khan to power and drove Mohammed out Sahir in the exile. Daud Khan was of 1963/a 73 prime minister of Afghanistan and established now an authoritarian regime.
1978 seized the communists under only Mohammed Taraki powerin the country, Mohammed Daud Khan murdered and asked at the beginning of 1979 the USSR for weapon assistance. Many closed thereupon the groups of resistances of the Mudschahedin on.
Babrak Karmal a strong adversary arose for the Mudschaheddin in the new ruling power. Against 1979/86 this fought by approximately 120Bloodily the Afghan freedom fighters, but to break he did not know 000 Red Army soldiers the resistance. With Mohammed Nadschibullah came 1986 the last communist of Afghanistan to power.
From 1989 to 1990 Afghanistan sank in the bloody civil war. „The being lords “attained a material power in the country with the time.Thus now 1990 the so-called Afghan north alliance was formed. When 1994 appeared the first Taliban from neighbouring Pakistan, the north alliance originally stood on their side. Was common them the renewal Islam. To 1998 the north alliance and the Taliban 70% had 30% of theCountry under control.
When however the Taliban began at 1999 to convert Afghanistan to the totalitarian God state the north alliance began to fight these. Retreat and supply area of the north alliance was among other things the neighbouring Tadschikistan, where the fighters and others by Russia and by Iran armsbecame. Since 2001 the north alliance on sides of the Americans fights against the Taliban.