Turkmenistan

Türkmenistan Jumhuriyäti
Republic of Turkmenistan
Flagge von Turkmenistan Wappen von Turkmenistan
detail detail
office language Turkmenisch
capital Aşgabat
system of government Republic of
president Saparmyrat Nyýazow (Türkmenbaşy)
surface 488,100 km ²
number of inhabitants 4.952.081 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 9.9 inhabitants per km ²
religion 89% Islam, 9% orthodox
independence 27. October 1991
currency Manat
time belt TMT (UTC +5)
national anthem Garaşsyz, Bitarap, Türkmenistanyň döwlet gimni
Kfz characteristic TM
Internet TLD .tm
preselection +993
Karte des Kontinents, Lage des Landes hervorgehoben

Turkmenistan (turkmen. Türkmenistan; in German at Soviet times also as Turkmenien ) a state is designated in central Asia to Kaspi sea.

Table of contents

geography

Turkmenistan borders (in the clockwise direction) on Kazakhstan, Usbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran and the Kaspi sea.

Almost 80% of the land surface are taken by the desert Karakum, which consists both of sand and rubble desert areas. In the west the Hochebene of Türkmenbaşy and the large Balkans ( 1,880 m extend and. NN). This drops toward the south to the Karakum channel (Turkmeni forward channel), on whose other side the landscape in Kopet Trade Union of German Employees - mountains turn into, which are to a large extent in Iran. While direction southeast to Afghanistan still some Ausläufer of the Gissargebirges rise, findsitself the highest mountain of the country, the Ayrybaba (3,139 m), at the eastern border to Usbekistan.

It prevails everywhere continental climate with extremely hot and dry summers and cold winters.

See also: Weather in Turkmenistan

population

thatCountry is populated mainly by the Turkvolk of the Turkmenen, in addition, by Usbeken and Russians.

About 89% of the population belong to the Islam on (Sunniten of the hanafitischen right school). About 9% are member of the Russian-orthodox church. Only theseboth religious communities are certified in the country. Besides there are small Christian, Jewish (see Buchari Jews) and Bahai - municipalities. The close Iranian border lives besides still another Kurdish population minority.

The settlements are usually limited to oases, inThe south are blown up distributed over the country.

The largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005): Aşgabat (797,900 inhabitants), Türkmenabat (234,828 inhabitants), Daşoguz (199,514 inhabitants) and Mary (114,690 inhabitants).

See also: List of the cities in Turkmenistan

history

Turkmenistanbetween 1880 and 1884 by Russia one occupied and became in the year 1925 the Soviet republic of the USSR. 1991 attained Turkmenistan its independence. Since that time Saparmyrat Nyýazow governs with the help of a pervasive person cult.

politics

Turkmenistan become from its president Saparmyrat Nyýazow, which can be called - Atatürk to the model taking - to Türkmenbaşy (“head of the Turkmenen”), the-poetically governs. World-wide for attention ensures the person cult kindled around it and its family, which expresses itself among other things in the fact that monthswere renamed and after the president and its family members are now called. Opposition parties are forbidden in Turkmenistan.

Turkmenistan is member of the UN, ECO, OIC and OATCT. It explained itself with regard to foreign policy for neutral. Among other things under itsSystem of government is Turkmenistan politically in relative international isolation. Economically it co-operates however with numerous countries, which interest to the rich natural gas - and oil deposits Turkmenistans have, among other things with Russia, Turkey and the USA.

The Russian minority is disadvantaged for religious, cultural and historical reasons and suppressed in the opinion of some communities of interests.

administrative arrangement

Die Provinzen Turkmenistans
the provinces Turkmenistans

Turkmenistan is into five provinces (welaýatlar, singular welaýat) and the capital district Aşgabat partitions. The provinces are:

  1. Ahal welaýaty
  2. the Balkans welaýaty
  3. Daşoguz welaýaty
  4. Lebap welaýaty
  5. Mary welaýaty
  • Aşgabat şäheri

infrastructure

the country is a desert state. The traffic streams run bundled along the former silk road in east west direction of Samarqand (Usbekistan) over Aşgabat after Türkmenbaşy at the Kaspi sea.

economics

Turkmenistan has the world-wide third biggest natural gas reserves, which secured soon after its independence a comparatively high prosperity for the country (see. in addition Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan pipeline). Over thoseSize of the turkmenischen reserves, which cannot be opened without larger foreign investments, exists substantial uncertainty. Deutsche Bank plays a crucial role in the foreign trade of the internationally outlawed regime.

The only international airline of the country is Turkmenistan airlines. [[Ein]]large problem of the state is the high degree at corruption. It occupies one of the lowest places in the statistics of the Transparency international.

Bild:Turkmenistan-Karte.png

literature

Wehner, Markus. In the realm of the large leader: Turkmenistan - an centralasiatic despotism.In:Eastern Europe, 2001,2, S. 127-134.

[Anonymous]: A people. A realm. A Turkmenbaschi. [with many fig.] in: “GEO”, 2005, number 11. S. 152 - 176.

Web on the left of



coordinates: 35°-43° N, 52°-67° O

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)