the term Typografie or typograhy (τυπογραφία , tipografía, of τύπος , típos „ “and γράφειν, gráfin „paint, write impact , casting, figure, type Greek, cut “) means strictly speaking shapes with reproducible writing. Exactly the same classical-proves that counts to shapes ofWriting to the Typografie. In the broader sense Typografie than organization is understood by means of writing , pictures , lines , surfaces and” typographic area “(optically effective distance) in a visual medium.

The Mikrotypografie is predominantly occupied with the structure of individual letters and indications,while the Makrotypografie the total conception of a work from formative view treats.

The typographic organization must to the medium (z. B. Book, form, Internet) and the goal (z. B. Legibility, advertisement or also experimental Typografie) adaptedbecome.

To table of contents

use of Typografie

Typografie clarifies and supports by the form contents and purpose of a work.

Their goal is it, the reader the intention of a text almost-brings. In most cases optimal legibility of the represented information is to be achieved. In addition, shapesthe small print in contracts and purposeful emphasizing of certain information with leaflets belongs to the tasks of the Typografie.

Possibilities of typographic organization are the employment of different character fonts, character sizes and kinds of honor, the choice of the measure (line length), the line case, of the Type-area within the paper format and. v. m.

Typografen always strove to set up standards for the good organization of printing elements. Rules for good Typografie are however always bound to the historical context and the technical possibilities. Have in the course of the timesmany conventions in an educated manner and changes, which a Gestalter has to consider with the choice of a writing and the organization. These are different after time and place.

Thus become quotation marks, hyphens, punctuation marks and headings in different countries thatWorld and even within Europe every now and then very differently represented and treats.

Primarily however the statement, which is obtained by the medium text by the author to the reader, is to be supported visually. It is the goal of the Typografen,to be received a defined relationship between message of the arranged work and the visual dressing. Such a relationship could be high legibility, clear structuring or reduction, which would be attached with a warning for example; exactly the same irony or intended bad legibility could do an attachedStyle means its.

If Typografie was since good mountain part of the specialized knowledge of the printers and Schriftsetzer, it is today an important component of the training of commercial artists, Mediengestaltern and. A. Occupational groups. However today everyone can provide documents on the computer and thus typographicbecome active. Whether Typografie is an art in the actual sense, is disputed among specialists. Thus z states. B.Briefly pasture man (and. A. Designer of the house writing of DaimlerChrysler) that Typografie is” inconsequential “as art, there it on restraint in favor of thatLegibility and the effect desired of the document with the reader arrive and it evenly around a self implementation of the Gestalters do not go.


in the Typografie are common many different units. Some of them, z. B. Pica and Didot pointdecrease/go back to the historical development of the Typografie. Letters and other typographic elements are measured with the typometer. A detailed representation is under writ measure.

foot 324.90 mm of Foot 304.800 mm
tariff (fr.) 27.08 mm inch of 25.400 mm
Line 2.26 mm of Pica 4.233 mm
Didot point (historical) 0.376 mm since 1973 rounded: 0.375 mm
Cicero 4.512 mm of POINT (pt)
0.3527 mm

of Mikrotypografie

typographic technical terms

the Mikrotypografie or Detailtypografie the organization of the sentence does not concern betweenLetter and indication, words and lines, D. h. character size, the refinement of the indication, word and line spaces, the Buchstabenbildern, separations and the run width. After Wolfgang's leg ore describes the Mikrotypografie contrary to the Makrotypografie (v. griech. μικρός „small, small, finely “and/or.μακρός „largely “) the writing and their application. The Mikrotypografie covers thereafter both the writing draft, therefore the formative construction of the letters and figures themselves, and their application.


contrary to the Mikrotypografie is occupied those Makrotypografie (after Hans's Peter Willberg) with the total conception, the format, the type-area, the structure, the arrangement and the relationship from writing to picture, the writing choice and the honors.

Basic elements in the sentence are the line for horizontal, those Column for vertical writing direction, as well as the column.

see also


Bibliografien, reference books, encyclopedias

  • Eberhard Dilba: Typograhy encyclopedia and reader for all. Books on and, north first EDT 2005, ISBN 3-8334-2522-9 (the author the book places here as Pdf (approx. 4 MT) for the order.)
  • Duden volume 1: The German orthography. 22. Aufl. Duden publishing house, Mannheim, Vienna, Zurich 2000, ISBN 3-411-04012-2
  • Brigitte Witzer: Duden: Sentence and correction. Duden publishing house, Mannheim, Vienna, Zurich 2002, ISBN 3-411-70551-5
  • Friedrich Friedl, Nicolaus Ott and BernhardStone (Hrsg.):Typograhy - when who how. Könemann publishing house company, Cologne 1998, ISBN of 3-89508-473-5

manuals, text books

  • max Boell-dares: Typografie compactly. 2. . Aufl. Springer publishing house, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-22376-2
  • Hans Rudolf bad hard: Typografie writing legibility.Niggli publishing house, Sulgen1996, ISBN 3-7212-0163-9
  • Robert Bringhurst: The of element OF Typographic Style. 3. Aufl. Hartley & Marks Publishers, Vancouver 2004, ISBN 0-881-79206-3
  • Friedrich Forssman, Ralf de Jong: Detailtypografie - reference book for all questions to writing and sentence.Second, revised and extendedEdition. Publishing house Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 2005, ISBN 3-87439-642-8
  • Rudolf Paulus fermenting brook: Typografie professionally. Galileo press, Bonn 2001, ISBN 3-934358-73-X
  • Ralf gentleman man: Indications set: Sentence knowledge and Typoregeln for Textgestalter. mitp, Bonn 2005, ISBN 3-8266-1572-7
  • Indra coppersmith: Letters come rarely alone.Niggli publishing house, Sulgen 2003, ISBN 3-7212-0501-4
  • Philipp Luidl: Typografie basic knowledge. German printer, Ostfildern 1996, ISBN 3-920226-75-5
  • Emil rudder: Typograhy. New edition of the Orignalausgabe of 1967. Niggli publishing house, Sulgen 2003, ISBN 3-7212-0043-8
  • Eric Spiekermann: Heading.Publishing house Hermann Schmidt, Mainz2005, ISBN 3-87439-661-4
  • Günter pupils: Arrange digital: the Erste-Hilfe-Kurs in Typo, color and layout; for Mac and PC. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-499-61253-4
  • January Tschichold: Pleasing prints by good typograhy. Booklet for everyone.2. Aufl. MaroPublishing house, Augsburg 1992, ISBN 3-87512-403-0
  • Ralf Turtschi: Practical Typografie. 5. Aufl. Niggli publishing house, Sulgen 2003, ISBN 3-7212-0292-9


layout, organization raster

Monografien, other

Web on the left of


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