the term of the Tyrannis (Greek τύραννις) particularly describes a system of government of the antique Greeks, those in the period between 600 v.Chr. and 300 v.Chr. occurred. 1 term history concerned and meaning of the
term history andMeaning of the Tyrannis term
the word, which is not to be found with Homer yet, probably came from Lydi (turannu) over small Asia to Greece. Another tradition wants to locate the roots in the tyrrhenischen linguistic area and brings Tyrannos with the etruskischenturan (gentleman) in connection.
Starting from Archilochos (19W=22D), a Greek poet 7. Century v.Chr., the Tyrannis is occupied in the Greek one, means a far ruler power there however quite material neutral. Thereby a phenomenon was tried to obviously describe, for that the Greeksstill possessed no adequate designation.
Early then a negative associates Beiklang, which describes the Tyrannen as a scruplesless ruling power, who holds the power illegally and which valid Polisordnung destroys. In the poem collection delivered under the name Theognis of Megarabecomes the Tyrann exponent demo in the fight against the aristocracy, which tries to use the misery of the people for itself and by riot and civil war to power brings themselves. However this is the reduced perspective one at old traditionsand aristokratischen ideals holding, that the changes in the Poliswelt in the second half 6. Century hostilely faced.
the evaluation of the Tyrannis in 5. and 4. Century v.Chr.
Thukydides (I, 13, 1) leads as the first economicalReasons on, which let a Tyrannis develop: Therefore it is the result of the higher income of trade and handicraft. These lead to it that a rich, politically disadvantaged aristocracy layer against the prominent aristocracy to revolt begin themselves.
The evaluation of the Tyrannis becomesuntil today however particularly of Aristoteles (pole. 1305a, 7 FF. ; 1310b, 12 FF.) determines. It puts the yardstick of the political theory and personal experiences in 4. Century v.Chr. to the rule phenomenon on. From its perspective the Tyrannis is oneabsolute rule, which blows up the traditional order and the traditional laws and alone the personal will of the ruler obeyed. As schlechtestmögliche system of government it becomes of the Königtum (Basileia), that on the basis of the traditional laws and order constructs andfor the benefit of the subjects is defined. He sees reasons for the emergence in the occurrence of the Hopliten, which the old aristokratische into a new condition determined by the Hopliten to have advanced.
This on the one hand critical - Tyrannis -, on the other hand idealizing - Basileia - aspect has the crisis of the Poliswelt as background in 4. Century v.Chr. and the experiences with the younger Tyrannis, to which the description is cut. These rulers supported themselves after internal, unrests by force of a goaded on people uptheir material basis, on mercenary troops and the power of allied one - in late forming out approximately on the brightistic kings. The seizure of power accompanied besides with driving political opponents out from the Polis into an exile. Are very much strongerhere excessive lust for power and striving for an absolute autocracy ascertainable.
the ideal-typically thought operational sequence of the emergence of a Tyrannis
starting point is therefore an internal crisis in a Polis, which makes it for individual aristocrat possible, itself to the advocateto make (socially disadvantaged) the people. During the people-connected government the interests of broader groups of peoples are taken up, made concessions and achieved Wohltaten. Arranged the rule is particularly against the noble competitors within the Polis. The autocrat loses then howeverwith (in its meaning) erstarkenden people the basis, because it places itself outside of the framework and the standards of the Polis, and goes the people with other Aristokraten together, develops from the fight for the keeping in power of the Tyrann: Itseizes to arbitrary acts and brutality. An attack from the outside or lead a revolution within the Polis finally to the Tyrannensturz.
Regards one occurrence and frequency of the Tyrannis in 6. and 5. Century v.Chr., becomes - contrary to the younger Tyrannis -however no generally Greek phenomenon recognizably. Into that altogether about 700 pole ice can be proven only 27 Tyrannenherrschaften, which besides are distributed over 150 years. The Tyrannenherrschaften is rather a phenomenon the larger pole ice with a larger citizenry and onebroader Oberschicht. From this perspective the older Tyrannis than fight can be evaluated the leading positions in the Polis, with which it succeeded to individual outstanding personalities, itself at longer term to the point its citizenry, limited of aristocracy parliamentary groups in their competition around, toobring. Each individual case must be regarded in the context of its Poliswelt separately.
representatives of the older Tyrannis
important representatives were
- Phalaris of distal extremity gas
- Theron of distal extremity gas
- Gelon of Syrakus
- Hipparchos of Athens
- Hippias of Athens
- Hieron I.from Syrakus
- Kleisthenes of Sikyon
- Kypselos of Korinth
- Peisistratos of Athens
- Polykrates of Samos
- Theagenes of Megara
- Thrasybulos of Milet
representative of the younger Tyrannis
important representatives were
- Dionysios I. of Syrakus
- Dionysios II. of Syrakus
- Hieron II.of Syrakus
- Agathokles of Syrakus
- Euphron of Sikyon
- Iason of Pherai
See also: Despotism
- Helmut Berve: The Tyrannis with the Greeks. 2 Bde.Beck, Munich 1967.
- Hans Joachim Gehrke: State security service. Investigations to the internal wars in the Greek states 5. and 4. Century v. Chr. Beck, Munich 1985. ISBN 3-406-08065-0
- Konrad H. Kinzl (Hrsg.): The older Tyrannis up to the Perserkriegen. Contributionsto the Greek Tyrannis, Wiss. Buchges., Darmstadt 1979. (Ways of the research, 510) ISBN 3-534-07318-5
- Loretana de Libero: The archaische Tyrannis. Steiner, Stuttgart 1996. ISBN 3-515-06920-8
- Oswyn Murray: The early Greece. 5. Aufl. dtv, Munich 1995. ISBN 3-423-04400-4
- Karl William Welwei: The Greek Polis. 2. Aufl. Steiner, Stuttgart 1998. ISBN 3-515-07174-1