Tzahal (צה " ל, from the abbreviation צבאהגנהלישראל Tzwa hagana leJisra ′ el; sometimes also Zahal or Tsahal written), the Israeli defense forces (Israel Defense Forces, IDF ) and of Israel names official army. The Tzahal became to 31. May 1948 based andcame out from underground organizations in the Jischuw (the Jewish community in Palestine before establishment of the State of Israel), in particular from the Hagana and the Palmach. Also the paramilitärischen parts with the Hagana rivaling Irgun and Lechi were integrated into the Tzahal.

Table of contents

service with Tzahal

Military service

IDF-Soldatin verleiht Sar-El-Freiwilliger die Schulterstücke  Negev, April 2005 </br>(man beachte das Handy am Koppel)
IDF soldier lends Sar El - Freiwilliger the shoulder pieces
Negev, April 2005 </br> (one considers that mobile phone to ouple)

in Israel apply to women two years and to men three years military service. From the military service are excluded only orthodox Jews, Israeli Arabs as well as all not-Jewish,pregnant women or married women. Legally it only women is permitted to carry out the military service for conscience reasons not to follow (is there in the so-called orthodox Judentum alone the man to the defense of Israel obligated) and a civilian alternative service of in or two years.

The Verweigerung of the military service is for men a lengthy procedure with several hearings, at whose end the Verweigerer before a so-called conscience committee has to answer for itself. Whereupon legal proceedings (comparable with the total totalverweigerung in Germany ) possibly follow, at whose end of the Verweigerer from the military service are released nearly always, however perhapsalso with a detention by up to three years to be punished can. As alternative to the Verweigerung as a rule however posts are offered outside of the combat units, e.g. within the armed forces. when giving civil defense instruction at schools.

Contrary to women, who carry alternative service out, men become, thoseit does not follow their military service, socially outlawed since it applies in Israel contrary to Germany as natural that a man carries the army service out. Verweigerung can to difficulties with the job search among other things lead. Something similar applies to a retirement from service due to drugs, whereby also yield drugs to it-countedbecome.

service in the reserves

on the military service follows one month reserve service (Miluim) per year; with men up to the completion 42. Lebensjahres (or 51. with officers) and with women up to the completion 24. Lebensjahres. Not all women and meneach year to reserve services are drawn in, however a very large part. This happens also usually in the same units; like that it is possible that the same comrades from the active service serve again and again with one another.

The reserve service became traditional as a very important component of IsraelDefense policy outstandingly, what since the 1980ern however a little changed. “Resisters international” was loud men over 35 often no more into the reserve service is not called up and men at the age of 41 or 45 years from the military service to usually finally dismiss. Women become generally at alldo not call up into the reserve service.

Sherman-Panzer auf Ammunition Hill
Shearing one tank on Ammunition Hill

of Freiwilliger service

Tzahal is a classical person liable for military service army. Nevertheless one can commit oneself also beyond the basic military service there. For Jewish Nichtisraelis at the age of 18 to 23 years beside it the possibility exists, voluntarily for14.5 months to the so-called Machal - to go to units of the armed forces. Jewish and not-Jewish Freiwillige from the foreign country can carry also over the Sar El program for a short time with Tzahal service out without weapon. Numerous reservists carry out also over the age limit for the obligating reserve service outsidevoluntarily reserve service.

women with Tzahal

in Israel are subject also to women since the establishment of Israel of the compulsory military service. However a third of the women, usually for religious reasons, is released from the service.

Women were excluded in history from Tzahal from the fight. They servedinstead in a multiplicity of technical and administrative support posts. An exception forms the war of independence of 1948, where many women participated due to the scarceness of the men also in active fighting.

After the complaint of Alice Miller, a Jewish Einwanderin from South Africa, decided the highest courtwith a decision of general principle 1994 that the Israeli air Force (IAF) must open their pilot training for women. During the war of independence 1948 and the operation Kadesch 1956 women had already flown transportation machines, however the IAF closed its rows for women later again. Alice Miller failed with thatAttitude tests, nothing the despite were opened after their initiative many additional posts for women. Since 2005 Mrs. 83% of the armed forces are open, including to the service on board warships (the service on submarines is excluded) and in the artillery. However the employment is inCombat units for women voluntarily.

2002 was 33% of low officer ranks and 21% of the serums and Raw serums, however only 3% of the staff officers women.

At present 450 women in combat units of the Israeli security forceses serve, very frequently in the border police. Firstfemale combat female pilot received her flier badge 2001. In an action the Tzahal 2004 their Women corps solved controversies - command on with the reason that it was a contrast and an obstacle for the full integration of the woman as a normal soldier without special status into the armed forces. On urgefrom toolists the general staff boss maintained the post of the advisor for affairs of woman however.

service everyday life

after a basic training hard in the international comparison are left to the soldier more liberties than in other armies. The suit order is very fakultativ, carrying private footwear in the servicee.g. is. permitted, as long as it is black. Military greeting is rather uncommon, superiors goes along on guard, many of the officers is gotten people liable for military service and only slightly higher pay than the crews. On all military mechanisms prevails however a strict prohibition, which is also kept, although due toa problem to the immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union alcohol increasingly also in Israel represents.


of ranks and badges

of officers of the Tzahal
Raw Aluf
רב - אלוף
service uniform
dress uniform
act Aluf
תת - אלוף
combat suit
Aluf Mischne
service shirt
Sgen Aluf
dress uniform
Raw serums
combat suit
service uniform
combat suit
benediction Mischne
סגן - משנה
service uniform
OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1b OF-1a
of NCOs of the Tzahal
Raw Negad
service shirt
Raw Samal Bachir
service uniform
Raw Samal Mitkadem
combat suit
Raw Samal Rischon
service uniform
Raw Samal
combat suit
OR-10 OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6
crews of the Tzahal
Samal Rischon
Raw Tura ′ i
Tura ′ i Rischon
Tura ′ i
OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
no badge


1.Only in each case the general staff boss of Tzahal holds the highest rank Raw Aluf. Since with Tzahal only three general ranks exist, it is comparable with a lieutenant general, corresponds however as a rank-highest soldier probably rather to a general.

2.Contrary to many other armed forces, Tzahal usesfor all armed services the same ranks.

3. To the comparability appropriate NATO pay stages are indicated.

4. The first transport takes place for some time in the crew career equal to the Raw Tura ′ i, which rank Tura ′ i Rischon no more not assigned.

5.The blattförmige symbol on the shoulder pieces of the higher officersof the crews colloquially Falafel one calls.

the general staff

Tzahal stands under the command of a general staff. The boss of the general staff (רמטכ " ל - Ramatkal) holds as only rank Raw Aluf (רבאלוף - comparably with a lieutenant general or a general) andis the Commander-in-Chief of Tzahal. It is subordinate directly to the Secretary of Defense and thus indirectly the prime minister of Israel and its government. The general staff bosses (Ramatkalim) are appointed by the government, to suggestion of the Secretary of Defense, for three years. The government has however the right its serviceto extend to four (in exceptional cases five) years.

The post of the Ramatkal represents a key position in Israel. From there out the next, close lying step is, that into the Ministry of Defense and thus into the policy. Compared to the general staff bosses of other countries are the Commanders-in-Chiefthe Israeli army often very young been. The victories of the years 1967, 1956, 1948 became among the generals Rabin (45 years), Dajan (41 years) and Jadin (32 years) erfochten.

list of the general staff bosses

Name beginning of the appointment end of the appointment
Dan Chalutz 2005
Mo ′ alon 2002 2005
Scha ′ ul Mofaz 1998 2002
Amnon Lipkin Schahak 1995 1998
Ehud Barak 1991 1995
Dan Schomron 1987 1991
Mo Lewi 1983 1987
Rafael Eitan 1978 1983
Mordechai Gur 1974 1978
David Elazar 1972 1974
Chaim bar Lew 1968 1972
Jitzchak Rabin 1964 1968
Tzvi Tzur 1961 1964
Chaim Laskow 1958 1961
Mo Dajan 1953 1958
Mordechai Maklef 1952 1953
Jiga ′ el to Jadin 1949 1952
′ akow Dori 1948 1949

the general staff consists of the following posts:

  • Boss of the general staff - Raw Aluf Dan Chalutz
    • Stellv. Boss of the general staff- Aluf Mo Kaplinsky
    • GOC army headquarters - Aluf Benny Gantz
    • director of the technology and logistics department - Aluf Awi Mizrachi
    • director of the military secret service Aman - Aluf Aharon Ze'ewi Farkasch
    • director of the personnel department - Aluf Elazar star
    • director of the department for operations - Aluf Gadi Eizenkot
    • director thatPlanning and strategy department - Aluf Jitzchak Harel
    • commander the Israeli air Force - Aluf Eliezer Schkedi
    • commander the Israeli Navy - Aluf David Ben Ba ′ aschat
    • GOC central command - Aluf ′ IR Nawe
    • GOC command north - Aluf Udi Adam
    • GOC command south - Aluf Dan Harel
    • GOC homeland front command - Aluf Jitzchak already
    • commander of the military colleges and senior Field COMM other - Aluf Ejal Ben RH ′ uwen
    • co-ordinator of the government activities in the regions - Aluf Josef Mischlaw
    • president of the military industrial tribunal - Aluf Jischai bar
    • director of the C4I and senior Field COMM other - AlufUdi Schani
    • Generaldirekor of the Ministry of Defense - Aluf (d.R.) Amos Jaron
    • military Minister of the prime minister - Aluf Gadi Schamni
    • speaker of the Tzahal - act Aluf Miri Regew
    • financial adviser of the general staff boss - act Aluf Mo Lipel
    • director of the department for the development of weapon systems - Aluf (d.R.) Schmu ′ elKeren
    • controller of the Tzahal - Aluf (d.R.) Jossi leg horn
    • military general attorney - Aluf Awichi Mendelblit

the ground troops

M113 Zelda armored personnel carrier, because of their vulnerability also as “mobile field crematoria” designates, Israel 2005
  • infantry
    • Giw ′ ati brigade (גבעתי)
    • Golani brigade (גולני)
    • Nachal brigade (נח " ל)
    • paratrooper brigade (צנחנים)
    • different one Special-purpose forces and anti-terror special-purpose forces (Sajeret)
    • five additional mixed battalions (Haruw, Schimschon, Nachschon, LAWI, Duhifa)

  • armored troops
    • Barak armored brigade (188. Brigade)
    • Ga ′ asch brigade (Chatiwa Schewa or 7. Brigade)
    • Ikwot haBarzel brigade (401. Brigade)
  • of pioneers
    • Israeli pioneer corps (consisting of a brigade and additional smaller units)
    • one Engineer company in each infantry brigade

the Air Force

the Israeli air Force (IAF - חילהאוויר) consists of:

the navy

Israeli the Sea Corps (ISC - חילהים) consists of:

  • Patrol boats
  • rockets flotilla
  • submarine flotilla
  • naval secret service
  • Radar units
  • naval special command Schajetet 13
  • underwater employment unit
  • port security forceses

military secret service

combat support

  • C4I-Direktorat (COMMAND, control, Communications, computer and Intelligence - command, control, communication, computer and intelligence service)
    • C4I-Korps
  • technology and logistics department
    • logistics corps
    • Ordonnanz - corps
    • medical corps
  • personnel department
  • of military courts and military lawyers
  • military schools and military academy

regional command

the military guidance is divided in four regional commands:

  • Command north (פיקודהצפון)
  • central command (פיקודהמרכז)
  • command south (פיקודהדרום)
  • homeland front command (פיקודהעורף)
    the homeland front command (Pikud haOref) became 1991 after that The second Gulf War based, in order to replace the HAGAH (civil defense). The major task of the command is the defense of civilians in times of war and with disasters.


due to the traditionally strong connection of Israel to the USA comesa majority of the Israeli army equipment from American production. The Israeli Ministry of Defense reserves itself however own far and new developments, which led in the past to diplomatic entangling of Israel with the USA. Thus Israel with India at the beginning of the 2000er developed the bar AC air defense system, that to dateeach NATO - Air defense is superior, and placed thereby its own extensive order over American systems in question. In addition came in recent past (2004) a conflict, with which Israel resold an advancement of into the 1990er years at China of sold American technology, withoutas the permission of the USA for it agrees to catch up.1

hand weapons


  • victory sourly P226
  • victory sour 228
  • Glock 17
  • Glock 19
  • IMI Jericho 941
  • IMI Barak (pistol)


storm rifles

of sniper rifles

  • modified Galil
  • TCI M89
  • IMI 99SR
  • M24
  • M82
  • Ruger 10/22
  • Mauser 66
  • Mauser 86
  • modified Remington of 700

machine guns

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Tzahal a code of practice


rockets M72 (antitank defense). This Kodex is a mixture from international and Israeli right, Jewish tradition and an Tzahal own ethical Kodex. This Kodex is called Ruach Tzahal (רוחצה " ל)

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Values, those the Kodex contains

the code of practice sets emphasis to the following values:

  • Reliability during the mission execution, in order to triumph (חתירהלניצחוןוהשלמתהמשימה)
  • to responsibility (אחריות)
  • reliability (אמינות)
  • personal model (דוגמהאישית)
  • value of human life (ערךחייאדם)
  • professionalism (מקצועיות)
  • discipline (משמעת)
  • comrade shank (רעות)
  • Mission understanding (שליחות)
  • weapon purity (טוהרהנשק) - purity OF of arm

of these Ethos reads literally: „The soldiers of Tzahal will use their weapons and forces only, in order to fulfill their mission, and become their humanity also in the fight to retain. Soldiers of the Tzahal become their weapons and forcesdo not use, in order to endanger humans, who are Nichtkombattanten or prisoners of war, and become all standing in their power to do, in order a Gefährung of their lives, bodies, and their possession would prevent. ”

(„The IDF servicemen and women want use their weapons and force only forthe PUR-float OF their mission, only ton the necessary extent and wants maintain their humanity even during combat. IDF soldiers wants emergency use their weapons and force ton of harm human beings who acres emergency combatants or prisoners OF was, and wants DO all in theirpower ton avoid causing harm tons their live, bodies, dignity and property.”)

Amnesty international and other critics deplore however that Israel occasionally its own „Purity OF arm” - Kodex hurts and the soldiers protects, who do this.

code of practice against terrorist

a team ofProfessors, commanders and former judges developed head of the ethical combination of the university of Tel Aviv, a code of practice, which contains rules, in order to fight against terrorists under the civilian population under the guidance of Assa Ka. The reserve and regular units become the following eleven behavior rules as additionto the general code of practice in a scholarly manner:

  1. Military attacks can be led only against military goals
  2. the employment of force must its soldier
  3. be supposed appropriately only weapons begin, which receive them from the Tzahal
  4. to everyone, which results, Pardon granted
  5. only particularly training to be able prisoners to cross-examine
  6. soldiers to haverespect and willful with the Palestinian population and prisoner go around
  7. soldiers must, if the circumstances permit it, appropriate medical assistance for itself and the enemy carry out
  8. plunderings are absolutely illegaly
  9. soldiers must appropriate respect for religious and cultural places and artifacts to show
  10. soldiers haveCoworkers of international relief organizations, their possession and vehicles protect
  11. soldiers must all injuries of this Kodexes announce


at the following conflicts were Tzahal involved:

beside it the following operations were implemented by Tzahal:

see also

Israeli special-purpose forces:

Israeli security forceses:

  • Israeli border police
  • Israeli police
  • Aman (military secret service)
  • Schabak/Prays ( inland secret service) Mossad
  • ( foreign secret service) seemed

programprogram programs of the Tzahal:

Web on the left of

Israeli armed forces (Tzahal)
Israeli Army | Israeli Sea Corps | Israeli air Force

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