the underground, also subway or Metro mentioned, is similar a public suburban traffic means belonging to to the courses (ÖPNV , city traffic) S, the road or to the metropolitan railway (in summary as rail local passenger traffic). Even ifthe U actually an abbreviation for underground is, operates many undergrounds also aboveground; for this reason the U in Germany is interpreted every now and then also as independent, concerns it nevertheless rail traffic systems, those as independent systems crossing-free and independently ofother urban traffic systems are conceived.
the internationally most common term is Metro. This would be allowed to do on the English terms metropolitan Railway in London (today metropolitan LINE) as well as the Chemin de more fer métropolitain, briefly Métro, in Paris to decrease/go back. Further also Underground ( London) and Subway ( New York) are common,in the Scandinavian area also T-Bana (Tunnelbana). The undergrounds in Manila, Singapore and Taipeh carry the designation March for English measure rapidly for transit, while in Hong Kong the abbreviation MTR for measure transit Railway is used. In Buenos Aires are called finally the undergrounds Subte (of Subterráneo).
definition and demarcation
After German right (§ 4 transportation of human beings law) one appliesUnderground as streetcar; it is therefore operated after the regulation over the building and enterprise of the streetcars (BOStrab). In Austria in a general manner the streetcar regulation ( StrabVO) applies.
The federation of German transport enterprises (VDV) defines an underground as rail-bound, from the individual traffic completely separated led Mass means of transport, which form a closed system. Their distances can be put on both in the tunnel and on dams and high distances or in the free area. The driving current feed is made generally by one laterally at the track arranged bus bar, which howeverno condition is.
At the same time the VDV distinguishes the underground conceptually from the streetcar and the metropolitan railway , which can have a routing on public roads at least in parts, within whose range road traffic regulations to be considered is.
The demarcation to the rapid-transit railwayresults particularly from their legal position as Vollbahn and/or. Railway, the z. B. to have knows crossings also on the same level with other means of transport. Purely technically regarded the difference to the rapid-transit railway exists particularly in their larger light space profile, thereit is not with priority for tunnel enterprises conceived.
Thus an underground is operated in principle without crossing on the same level with other means of transport, drives into more closely timetable clock sequence in the urban range and is electrically propelled and steered.
- Source: “The Strassenbahner - manual for U-Bahner, cityand Strassenbahner ", given change of the federation of German transport enterprises (VDV), 2001.
technical preconditions and milestones
the means of transport subway, how it is used today in numerous cities, is the result of a longerDevelopment, itself by the whole second half the 19. Century pulled. At the beginning plans stood for connection in the city and underground between two remote course railway terminals - a task, which would come today rather to a rapid-transit railway. There were such plans about already 1844 in Vienna, the first realization of such a concept took place until 1863 in London.
break-through owing to electrical operation
the Londoner tunnelled route was operated with steam courses, which - easily comprehensibly - did not represent an acceptable solutionand therefore also no imitations in other cities found. An important break-through for the development of underground city traffic was therefore the use of electric motors in rail traffic means. Here the citizen of Berlin entrepreneur Werner von Siemens carried important pioneer work out. On the citizens of Berlin industrial show 1879Siemens presented an electrical locomotive ; it opened the first electrical streetcar of the world to 1881 in Berlin light field. Doubt carriers and bureaucracy prevented Siemens however over decades from the building of an electrical rapid-transit railway net in Berlin. Instead the electrical enterprise became starting from 1890assigned in London. Thus the most important condition for the triumphant advance of the new means of transport was created.
system question: High or subway
the second first unanswered decision of general principle of the early years was the question of the drawing of the rapid-transit railway distances: The Londoner underground operatedpredominantly in the tunnel. Projects in other European cities and in North America preferred the routing on iron viaducts, than overhead railway. The majority of the Metrostrecken built before the First World War developed in the long run as overhead railway, the construction costses was subject clearlythose a tunnelled route, and in the quarters of the lower layer one meant in particular to have to give no consideration to the consequences concerning town construction. After the world war the sheet turned however; new distances were established now almost exclusively in the tunnel. In North America,particularly in New York, even whole overhead railway distances were diminished and replaced by tunnels. The subway developed instead of the overhead railway to the standard solution.
the first subways in London
As firstUnderground of the world generally applies to 10. January 1863 in London opened metropolitan Railway. It however first still concerned thereby a railway operated with steam engines. It was as connecting line between the remote stations PAD thing clay/tone, King's CROSS, Sp Pancras and Euston, which lay all relatively far outside of the city center, and which town center OF London meant.
The first electrical underground, which corresponds thus to the today's conceptions, was the town center & South London Railway (today Northern LINE), opens to 4. November 1890 in London. It led of stick-waves to the King William Street. Thus London solved an underground boom out, since also many other European metropolises looked at the same time for possibilities, their traffic problems in the city toosolve. One believed to be able to solve with the concept of the subway all these problems.
1896 opened early u and overhead railways
The second electrical Metro of the world was the Liverpool Overhead operating as overhead railway, which to 4. February 1893 as connection between city centre and port however already opens, to 30. December 1956 was again shut down. The first electrical undergroundon the European mainland, after which already 1875 opened, up to the electrification 1910 however still of horses and ox pulled underground cable railway Tünel in the European part of Istanbuls, became to 2. May 1896 in Budapest opens. This line, those todaywhen Milleniums U course is designated, on initiative of the inventor Werner von Siemens had developed. Originally it was first planned for Berlin. Since the local authorities could not agree there however, Siemens left the Budapester underground quasi as demonstration object for furtherEuropean underground nets build.
Likewise 1896 went to 14. December the Glasgow Subway as the fourth rapid-transit railway in enterprise. Here the distance was driven on first as cable railway and electrified only 1935. Something similar happened with the 1898 opened Viennese metropolitan railway, to1925 with steam courses were driven on.
In the year 1900 Paris with (from the beginning electrically operated) the net of the Métropolitain followed. In only few years a net from numerous lines was built here. Also today that carries Paris Métrosystem oneMajority of the traffic streams of the French capital.
The 1901 in the West German neighbour cities Barmen and Elberfeld open einschienige overhead conveyor system Eugen being enough, today better admit than Wuppertaler suspension railway, represented a special form of an overhead railway: the courses do not drive Rails, but hang among them. The viaduct construction failed thereby more aufwändiger than with a conventional overhead railway, because the carrier frameworks must be enough over the courses away.
After long discussions became finally to 15. February 1902 also in Berlin a Metrostreckeopened. Siemens did not experience its late victory over the citizens of Berlin building bureaucracy however any longer, it 1892 had already deceased. The electrical high and subway of the operator Siemens & Halske ran to a large extent on a viaduct. Later extensions by the city center and throughwealthy residential areas were established however underground. From Berlin also the term underground, it originates 1929 was invented, after the German National Railroad for its city, ring and Vorortbahnen had introduced the handy contraction rapid-transit railway.
But not only in Berlin andBudapest had spoken Siemens its idea of an electrical rapid-transit railway, had planned also for the Hanseatic city Hamburg it a net. This became exactly ten years to Berlin, to 15. February 1912 of the public hand over. The enterprise carried Hamburg overhead railway for the namesAG, since the largest part of the distances on viaducts and dams was put on.
the pioneer enterprises in America
But in Europe those did not only prospergradually the idea of the independent rapid-transit railway became generally accepted first underground nets, also in North America. The first system, a pure overhead railway, in Chicago 1892 as Chicago & South simmer rapidly transit opened, the electrification followed three years later.The second system went 1897 into bad clay/tone into enterprise, the first tunnelled route served streetcar traffic, how one rediscovered it 70 years later (than “metropolitan railway”) in numerous cities. On this relatively early opening date are the inhabitants from bad clay/tone to today muchproudly, since only 1904 the probably most well-known American large city, New York, a U-Bahnetz under the name opened „to Subway “. The last one of the old east coast metropolises, Philadelphia, followed 1907.
In the year 1913 the underground line in the Argentine Buenos Aires wentin enterprise, which carries today the letter “A”. This first South American underground is operated also today still with courses from the start time. Beginning of the First World War was given up most construction work at new nets. Thus the first stage ended of theSubway railway construction.
subways for the goods traffic
No borders were set to the creativity of the technical designers. After the electrical enterprise and the increasing experience animated many cities with the tunnel construction to the planning of Metronetzen, it was obvious,to begin the new technology also for the goods traffic in the city. The two realized plants were however fewer advancements of the conventional goods traffic on the railway than rather such the pneumatic delivery technology.
The first rabbit system of the world, which became pneumatics Despatch Railway,1859 taken in London in enterprise. In the consequence such underground nets in some dozen of European developed as well as unite for non-European cities. Citizen of Berlin the net was 1940 approximately 400 km long and served 79 post office and offices for telegraph. The mails became inlocked caps carried, to the drive compressed air served. The capacity of these plants was small. In Berlin letters were allowed to weigh maximally 20 gram, in Munich 100 gram, the net in New York could packages nevertheless carry. To the distribution in the city of heavier goods underthe earth had to be fallen back thus wheel rail technology, and the subways of the passenger traffic had created the bases for it.
In Chicago the building of such a underground net, Chicago tunnel company Railroad began, the 1906 was finished and at 1899Tunnelled routes under almost any road of the city center possessed. The net achieved a maximum length of 97 km, with 149 locomotives and 3000 goods railroad cars became freight and coal of goods stations of the railway department stores, offices and camps in the city center andAsh from there away carries. Arising truck traffic and the conversion of charring to gas heating let the conversions into the 1940er year break in, the Betreiberin had 1956 bankruptcy to announce. The net was shut down 1959. The tunnels become however today stillfor the transfer of current and voice grade channels uses.
After model of the system in Chicago 1927 the post office Office Railway ( also Mail Rail) in London developed. This small underground net supplied eight post offices. The tunnels are up to 21 meters under thatRoad level. The 10.5 kilometers long distance ran from the post office sort office at the station PAD thing clay/tone in westeastern direction to the district post office in the eastern quarter Whitechapel. Since five of the attached post offices in the course of the time were closed, the plant was shut down 2003.
Subway railway construction between the world wars
With the beginning of the First World War the first phase of the building of undergrounds in the metropolises of the western world ended. The substantial system questions were answered. The subway had itselfagainst the overhead railway interspersed. The vehicles of the oldest systems had proven as too small, one turned into to larger tunnel sections and courses with larger capacity. The escalator was developed practice ripe and made the transport possible of large passenger quantities between low-lying underground yardsand the earth's surface. The system underground had developed in all substantial ranges and until was today to a large extent invariably used.
Between the world wars only three nets went into enterprise in Europe: One 1919 in the Spanish capital Madrid and littlelater, 1924, in Barcelona. The system of Madrid belongs today to the largest and at the fastest increasing; until 2007 is to develop still 40 kilometers new subway railway tunnels. The third net developed in Moscow. There the first underground rapid-transit railway becametaken in the year 1935 in enterprise. Before an expert commission had been sent to Berlin, in order to examine the system and gain experiences. Admits is Moscow particularly by its very deeply lying and splendidly decorated stations. The Soviet at that timeLeader Stalin wanted to see the underground yards regarded as „palaces of the working class “.
The nets already existing before the world war were continued to remove, partly than completely new systems incompatible with the older lines, in order to make the employment possible of larger vehicles.
Firstasiatic underground went in the Japanese capital Tokyo 1927 into enterprise. The Ginza line between Asakusa and Ueno was the first section of the there underground. 1933 followed the Japanese metropolis Osaka with the Midosuji line.
the development of the post-war period
the subway railway construction stagnated
to mass motorizing and traffic policy during and after the Second World War almost everywhere. After 1945 increased in the cities of the western world the number of motor vehicles rapidly, the increasing prosperity provided for the mass motorizing.
In order to become fair the traffic increasing strongly thereby, it applied in many cities as „modern “to quiet-add the there streetcar nets since the streetcars would obstruct allegedly the motorized individual traffic substantially. Thus disappeared among other things in London, Paris, West Berlin and Hamburgall streetcars from the townscape.
Also the building happening within the range of the underground nets came to a large extent to succumbs. In many metropolises, approximately in Paris, for many decades not one new distance was opened. Exceptions were partly politically motivated, as in West Berlin, ofthe GDR National Railroad and their rapid-transit railway net independently will wanted, or in Moscow, which was removed to the representative capital of the Soviet Union ascended to the world power.
U-streetcar and metropolitan railway
Where there was still no underground, the idea arose to shift streetcar distances in sections into the underground in order to provide for the traffic at the surface more place and the Tramnetz up completely medium-term to give be able. This solution became above allin the German-speaking countries and in Belgium applied.
Two different basic concepts are to be differentiated. With the simpler variant a piece of streetcar distance is shifted under the earth, but operated already otherwise like before, like 1897 in bad clay/tone. With these as U-streetcar designated plants gives it for example underground reversing triangles and quite close turning radii.
The aufwändigere metropolitan railway concept plans tunnelled routes, which are regarding turning radii, crossing liberty and strain-relief partly to the plants of classical Metros identical within the internal city ranges against it, however inthe outlying districts use existing streetcar distances. The basic idea thereby was to be represented that a tunnel section posed can be merged immediately into the existing streetcar net, instead of, as for instance a short „classical “Metrostrecke over many years a foreign body in the transportation network.
This short term advantagehowever by certain disadvantages „one bought “, in addition the crossings (in some cases even common roadway use) with the traffic belong and the associated fault liability as well as numerous heavy traffic accidents.
The first streetcar tunnels opened 1966 in Vienna and Stuttgart, in more rapidConsequence came further cities in addition (meals 1967, Frankfurt and Cologne 1968, Brussels 1969, Bielefeld 1971, Antwerp and Hanover 1975, Bonn and Bochum 1979, Zurich, Duesseldorf 1981, Charleroi and Dortmund 1983).
For prestige reasons even medium sized West German large cities established how Kassel or Ludwigshafen underground streetcar act ions, the financial expenditure stood thereby however - from today's viewpoint - in no relation to the obtained verkehrlichen use.
Some cities, about Cologne or Stuttgart, which set U-streetcar first on the more inexpensive solution, changed in thatFollow its planning and developed it further to (more efficient) a metropolitan railway enterprise.
Some metropolitan railway nets develop with increasing development tendentious toward Metro standards, then there is already one in Frankfurt/Main since 1980 „genuine “underground line, in meals, Bochum and Dortmundoperate metropolitan railway lines, which exhibit almost no more traversing with the traffic. In Brussels two metropolitan railway tunnels were reequipped after reaching a verkehrlich meaningful length on bus bar enterprise and are operated since then with Metrofahrzeugen.
new installations „classical “underground nets
The metropolitan railway concept could become generally accepted in North America only in the 80's (Light Rail), whereby in most cases without tunnelled routes one did. Mostnew rapid-transit railway nets outside of Europe were therefore built as classical Metrosystem, so for instance in Cleveland, Montréal, Toronto and Nagoya.
At the same time also a new technology was introduced, the rubber tires. For the first time this became starting from 1954 on a test section that Paris Métro tested, where 1959 also the first line were equipped with it. This system, which maintains further the wheel rail technology, is particularly characterised by good braking and starting values. Among other things today approximately in Paris, those use half of the MétrolinienNets in Marseille, Lyon, Montréal, Mexico town center and Santiago de Chile gummibereifte courses.
Also in Germany still two new underground nets were built, first in Munich. Originally an underground streetcar net was planned also in the Bavarian capital. But laterthe concept was revised and umgeplant to a full underground. The opening planned at first for 1974 was preferred due to the olympic plays 1972 on 1971.
The fourth (and youngest) German underground net went 1972 into Nuremberg into enterprise. Also there original was a metropolitan railway net planned. A characteristic is that the underground vehicles of Munich and Nuremberg are originally by the same type of building and thus at any time exchangeable. So the two cities can help each other out with bottlenecks, which happened so far three times.
new Metrosin Eastern Europe
production for the 60's in the Soviet Union and other Eastern European States of numerous new subway railway facilities. New underground cities were for example Leningrad (1955), Kiew (1960), Prague (1974), Charkiw (1975), Bucharest (1979) and Minsk (1984). In Budapest additionally to 1896 was built the opened line two modern lines, the first section opened 1970.
The technical bases, the vehicles and even the net conception were relatively uniform. Into mostCities a secant net with three lines was conceived. Distance tunnels and stations are partly very deeply under road level, long escalators connect road and platform. The distance between individual stations is larger than in the Western European nets of the same period, which thoseAverage speed increases, but further streetcar or Buslinien for the fine locking of the accomodation requires. Differently than in western cities there were no large cities, which did without their streetcar in socialist Europe however also.
calm airin the western world, Metro boom in Asia
Also in „the west “new systems went into enterprise. Beside some cities in France, Italy and Spain this applies particularly to the non-European area.New Metronetze in the industrial nations of Eastern Asia, in addition, in megacities of the so-called developing countries, like Mexico city , developed São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro or Cairo. Despite intensive development these enterprises often push to their capacity borders. Likewise Caracas received1983 an underground, which applies until today as one of the cleanest and most maintained undergrounds world-wide.
The number of the re-openings was reduced nevertheless, particularly due to the high construction costses for tunnelled routes since end of the 1980er. On other continents existing nets are extended,new however hardly still built. An exception are thereby the GUS states, where due to the there financial scarceness since the 1980ern still construction work for nets not opened yet take place, for example in Chelyabinsk or Donezk. Therefore the railway industry has itselfaligned to the establishment by more economical „Light Metros “, which at present are in „the bloom time “. Normal undergrounds („Heavy Metros “) are to be hardly still interspersed at present.
An exception represents the East Asian area - here developed and numerous develop in the last yearsnew distances, further are in planning.
after France into the 1950ern with the rubber wheel drive as innovation location to undergrounds, became into the 1980ern a new system already applied established and successfully assigned: the VAL enterprise. The word VAL (written out Véhicule automatique more léger) stands for a new gummibereiftes, automatic underground system, which is to be provided owing to numerous standardized components more favorably than conventional undergrounds. As the first one converted this system successfully in Lille. Thus Lille with only approximate hadone million inhabitants shown that also medium sized cities can operate a profitable and efficient underground net. Until today the French city applies as model, other places followed. Thus Toulouse possesses the VAL system, Taipei since 1993 since 1996, Rennes since 2002, Turin since 2006. In the near future Lausanne ( 2007) and Brescia want (approx. 2012) follow.
routing and enterprise
during in the birth cities of the underground, London and Paris, which first distances were built underground from the beginning, one put these in other cities often than overhead railway on viaducts on, beforeincreasingly tunnelled routes were inserted into the process, as for instance in Liverpool, Chicago, Berlin, Hamburg, Vienna and New York. This was above all because of the fact that the technical designers still no experiences with the tunnel construction under difficult conditionshad. In addition, today there are cities, which have only few because of the muddy underground, but however in the realization very expensive undergrounds. The problem is the lift of the hollow, air-filled tunnels, in addition the danger of dropping roads existsand buildings. Therefore it gives for example in Glasgow, Amsterdam and pc. Petersburg only in each case few underground lines. The underground building method is relatively simple in rocky underground against it to realize.
Main advantage and - reason of the undergrounds is appropriate for that in independenceDistance by transfer into another level. By avoidance both of crossings with roads and also on roads running rails can be reduced disturbances of the enterprise to a minimum. Thus then also, like in the meantime repeatedly one practices, fully automaticEnterprise possible. There are fully automatic undergrounds meanwhile in Paris, Lyon, Rennes and Copenhagen. First attempts with fully automatic enterprise in Germany took place in Berlin, Hamburg and Frankfurt/Main. The first fully automatic underground in Germany in the normal operation, thosein addition world-wide uniquely one year will long partly drive in the mixing process with conventional courses, is dependent on the test travels autumn accomplished at present 2007 or later the U3 at present under construction into Nuremberg to become.
Undergrounds draw in thatRule by a close clock sequence out. However the time advantage is lost on short distances with deeply lying stations through the way to the underground station. Likewise humans with handicaps, particularly difficult or with older systems, are the use often onlynot possible. Only gradually the underground yards are equipped obstruct-fairly with elevators. Thus the citizens of Berlin of transporting enterprises set up a calculation that the installation of an elevator costs approximately just as much as the reorganization of a complete station. The Nürnberger underground is one of the few systems, which can be achieved in the meantime completely barrier-free. With new buildings since end of the 1980er always an elevator with is generally taken into account.
The undergrounds are after the rapid-transit railway the most efficient Verkehrsträger in the urban transportation network. Per hour can everDirection 35,000 to 40,000 passengers to be carried (rapid-transit railway: 40.000 to 50.000; to the comparison passenger car with an accepted occupation degree of 1,3: 2,500 persons per hour and driving strip).
There are different network configurations with the numerous underground systems existing in the world. Thus developfor example the loop networks mostly on equal running struggle races. An advancement is thereby the ring radial net. The secant nets are very typical for underground systems in cities in formerly material-socialist countries like for example in Minsk, Charkiw or Prague. These systems becomedespite the collapse of the Soviet Union still further-planned and - built. Meshed nets mostly develop under an already existing road system like for example in New York or Paris. With all these systems deviations understandably occur.
Loop network (z. B. Glasgow)
X-förmiges net (z. B. Oslo, San Francisco)
the power supply effected for decrease of the tunnel cross section usually via one between or besidethe rails lying bus bar. Only in rare cases underground courses possess current collectors on the roof, which points the clear demarcation to the iron and streetcar. There are in the meantime also numerous special forms, all kinds of current systems nevertheless and - supplying possibilities. Thus becomes in some citiesa second bus bar for avoidance of stray current corrosion assigned, in Budapest gives it on the line to M1 a firm bus bar at the tunnel cover. Also with the bus bars exist to all kinds of variants. The most common kind is coating by the current collector ofdown. With the citizen of Berlin small profile happens this from above, which represents however a larger safety risk. During the driving tension in the meantime a value from 600 to 900 V settled down. Thus into Berlin for example with 750 V one drives, in all citiesthe earlier Soviet Union with 825 V. Since with the underground often substantial differences in height are to be overcome and so a higher engine performance are necessary, the tension is frequently higher than with streetcars.
for undergrounds are in principle the same safety devices necessary as for all rail-mounted vehicles with transportation of human beings. Opposite the railway however the risk fields are shifted. On the railway those lieRisks with priority during the distance travel with high speeds on an open track body. In contrast to this the danger moments are given to more with the underground far in „the platform situation “, whereby above all the crush plays a role in rush hours with its intensive passenger change. Thosepredominant execution in tunnelled routes leads to it that also stopping on „free “distance becomes because of the close confinement by the tunnel a special risk field, above all if from the course additionally danger moments, approximately by the fire with operating equipment, proceed. Besidesoffer undergrounds and their stations with its easy accesibility and that temporally and to spatially short retaining distances in population centres far more than the railway a field for criminal procedures, in particular in the times with small passenger frequentation, both on the platforms andalso in the vehicles.
doors and passenger change
since the opening London Underground as the first underground rapid-transit railway were introduced many measures, in order to ensure a highest possible security for the passengers. To the standard of a today'sUnderground system belongs apart from the departure announcement also a departure signal, which is understandable for foreign passengers also. Visual departure signals, which are meant for gehörlose ones in particular, are only re-tooled for some years, while they were already from the outset present at other places.
After a deadly accident in Munich and a nearly identical accident with hurting in Nuremberg with those did not notice the driver in the doors gotten jammed persons and also the technical mechanisms one driving off in such situations to preventshould not had responded in Germany the sensitivity of the door closing mechanism more strongly one considers, in order to avoid a getting jammed from persons or articles to. Thus with the Munich underground with new building courses the door edge is provided now with a pressure-sensitive sensor, old coursesare re-tooled. Likewise the again delivered DT3-Züge in Nuremberg with according to sensitive door rubbers will become delivered and the courses of the types DT2 and DT1 (with exception of the DT1, which are to be superseded shortly), already in the operating service, with thatTürgummies resemble and with visual door closing warnings re-tooled.
A further safety risk is the gap between course and platform, which is centimeters wide in some cases up to fifty; this is particularly with stations the case, which lie in a curve.Actually insurmountably, the risk does not arise as a result of the time pressure in the case of in and stepping out as well as the vagueness in the case of strong passenger crush. Solutions for it are for example the famous „Mind the Gap “in London, that by announcements and signatures on the platform soilone clarifies. An alternative is the mounting of additional folding boards or pushing rides, as they are present with many German metropolitan railways with the DT3-Zügen in Nuremberg and.
Danger situations can arise also as a result of the presence of a person on the tracks.They force the course driver to rapid stops, which can perhaps prevent a misfortune also not more. In order to proceed against it, particularly in asiatic cities (and isolates also with London Underground) platform doors were installed. These open synchronously with thatCourse doors and can prevent such an unintentional „on the tracks traps “before the course. Alternatively in Copenhagen on the overhead railway yards electronic sensor systems were attached at the courses without driver, the danger situations to recognize to be supposed automatically and an emergency braking release if necessary. In Nurembergon without driver the distances planned for enterprise (U2 and U3) on the stations microwaves " light " barriers were installed. These are under the platform edge and at the opposite wall, and are into the track range falling articles and humans from 20 to 30cm size recognize and obligation brakings of approaching courses without driver arrange. This system is not so far yet in enterprise (vsl. Start-up September 2006).
The BOStrab valid in Germany for undergrounds means in §31 stops:
- (4) As far as operational conditions require it,must stops be provided with
- mechanisms for the information and dispatching of the passengers,
- plants for the monitoring of the passenger change,
- emergency call mechanisms,
- fire-extinguishing equipments, fire-fighting water supply,
- means and mechanisms to the first assistance.
- (7) the horizontal distance between platform edge and vehicle floor or steps must as small as possibleits; it may not exceed 0.25 m in the most unfavorable case in the door center.
- (8) The heights of platform surfaces, vehicle floor and vehicle steps must be so one on the other co-ordinated that the passengers can in and step out comfortably. The platform surface is not to lie more highlyas the vehicle floor in its deepest situation; it must be slide-restraining.
- (9) At the platform borders must be prevented to the danger of falling persons. Platform edges must be clearly recognizable.
safety device against destruction and threats
Due to savings obligations and rationalization measures of many transporting enterprises there is in the meantime to a large extent neither initially nor usual course companion still the station attendants, who dispatched the courses on the stations and led a general supervision. Their function becameto a large extent by a monitoring with cameras taken over. For the general security of the passengers for example in Berlin and Hamburg safety call columns were established, which make a direct voice communication possible to the direction and information centre.
Same applies also to the courses: By into thatlast decades in mode Scratching and Graffiti come the vehicles are to be partly hardly still recognized. Also for the general safety feeling of the passengers in many Metrostädten constant camera monitorings are installed also in the vehicles. Against the Graffiti and the Scratching becomeare noticeable in addition also to special foils at the windows used as well as on the seat padding „a Würmchenmuster, “, on the Graffiti only heavily and their mounting therefore make unattractive. Additionally there are mostly by the railway taken over the emergency brakes for the passenger, at thosestill another emergency call, i.e. a direct voice communication to the driver, are coupled. In addition also fire extinguishers and emergency hammers are in the courses present.
Risikominderung in the tunnel
around danger situations in the tunnel to meet, are with some undergrounds between thatStations additional emergency exits inserted, as well as attached at the tunnel walls graphic referring to the most favorable „escape direction “. The BOStrab valid for undergrounds in Germany demands tunnels in §30: „(5) in the tunnel leading emergency exits must available and so put on in the freeits that the emergency route up to the next platform, emergency exit or up to the tunnel delta is long no more in each case than 300 m. Emergency exits must be present also at tunnel ends, if the next emergency exit or the next platform more than 100 mis distant.“In Hamburg tunnel act ions, which had an exit so far only on a side, on the opposite side were provided with a further exit or at least a normally unused emergency exit.
a large part of the heavyAccidents with undergrounds happens intentionally. The easy accesibility of underground yards and distance tunnels and the relatively high speed of a course bringing in into the station are used again and again for suicides. The Schienensuizid in such a way specified belongs to the most common forms of the self selbsttötung,surviving is less probable than with other methods. Even a not-deadly Suizidversuch on the rail has heaviest and lasting injuries in all rule to the consequence, in most cases separated member masses such as arms or legs.
The suicide on thatRail belongs to the Suizidmethoden, which (beyond the own members) have completely substantial consequences for indifferent ones. A Schienensuizid on a railroad line outside of localities pulls a heavy Traumatisierung for the engine driver usually. Also for the rescue forces goes„the a collecting “of corpse parts scattered far the far beyond usually Zugemutete to them. During a self selbsttötung in an underground station in the city the describing applies even to a still larger circle of acquaintances, because passengers also waiting become direct eye-witnesses of the suicide.
in the whole world give it well 120 different underground systems. All developed differently. Some stagnate on its opening condition, other one develop themselves further rapidly. The largest underground net is undisputedly thatLondon Underground at 408 kilometers and twelve lines branched out partly several times. Whereupon the New York town center Subway at 368 kilometers follows - there there are 26 lines, whereby also express lines are taken in account. Further large nets are in Tokyo (292 km), Seoul (286 km), Moscow (269 km), Madrid (226 km) and Paris (212 km). The largest German net, that the citizen of Berlin underground (144 km), is to be found on the world rank list at place 12.
Particularly in the former socialist statesput one prefers low-convenient underground yards on. The Budapester Metrolinie M2 lies up to sixty meters deeply. Still more deeply the underground nets of Moscow are partial and sank Petersburg with up to eighty meters. Current record owner is at present in the year 2005opened pc. Peter citizen station Komendantskij folder of the line 4. A reason for the building of the underground yards in large depth were and/or are on the one hand geological aspects, on the other hand however should the stations at present the cold war than protection shelters with a possible Serve nuclear war. In order to reach the stations, unusually long escalators were installed.
Regarding the passenger numbers the Muscovites Metro applies as the most-used. Approximately 3.2 billion humans use annually the dark-blue courses of the Russian capital. On place two is the TokioterMetro with 2.7 billion annually. At the third place the Metro Seoul with 1.6 billion.
As city with most underground planning to the world Vienna is considered. It is reported even by plans from the year 1843 . However becamethe first section of the Warsaw underground only 1995 opens, although first planning already dates 1925 from the year.
So for example in Stockholm (s.o.) a line, in Munich above all the stops king place (art) and Tierpark (animal world). In the stop king place (art center) does not only give it resemblances to paintings,but also at sculptures, which are to be admired in showcases on the platform in the form of copies.
It is remarkable that with Russia the arrangement of the Muscovites Metro is world well-known, but other cities (in the GUS) in the regardare absolutely unknown. To the unawareness probably it contributed that it was forbidden at that time to make in these Metros photos.
So at that time the central stations are from the Soviet Union in many cities, for example in Leningrad at that time and in Minsk,developed just like in Moscow as artistic palaces.
Architecture is particularly interesting, if it concerns a city with other one than European culture. In Taschkent (Usbekistan) one is for example a stop, to their coverby columns supports, which are very beautifully shared to the wood columns of the Uzbek older Islamic temples. Besides there is a stop, those space travel dedicated actual in deep night-blue as basic clay/tone.
cities with underground
in Germany give it at present only four genuine underground systems. On the one hand the citizens of Berlin underground, which was taken 1902 as the first in enterprise. Ten years later those followed Hamburg overhead railway, of them today altogether 101 km longRoute network in three lines is divided.1971 were taken the underground net in Munich as the third German underground system in enterprise, whereby the olympic plays which are approaching at that time accelerated the building of the system. Only one year after went fourth and youngestand smallest net in Nuremberg in enterprise. At present (2005) it has two main lines with altogether 30 kilometers of distance. Starting from 2006 a third line is to follow. Nuremberg is so far the only city, in which concrete planning exists for an enterprise without driver.
Other German cities and/or. Population centres, for instance the Rhine Ruhr district, Hanover, Frankfurt/Main or Stuttgart, have underground-similar systems, less strictly crossing-free are and officially mostly as metropolitan railway, in the daily linguistic usage however than underground or streetcar are designated.
the only classical underground of Austria is in Vienna, the Viennese underground. In Serfaus, Tirol, gives it to 1,280 m a long underground air cushion course with rope drive. In Linz wrongly since 2004 the streetcar on 1.9 km a long underground section with three underground stations, which is called mini underground, but corresponds rather to a metropolitan railway.
in Lausanne becomes the rack railway Lausanne Ouchy into onefully automatic underground of the type VAL converted and until Epalinges extends. The planned opening of the m2 (line 2 the Métro Lausanne) is 2007. Due to the upward gradients the courses are equipped with tires.
Projected a totalSwiss underground is long-termunder the name Swissmetro. It is conceived as magnetic levitation transport system, which is to drive in a partial vacuum. It is to connect the city centers and to have a medium speed of approximately 500 km/h.
of pioneer enterprises: Metrosystemeuntil 1914
|Brooklyn||Atlantic Avenue tunnel||3. December 1844||also, the scarcely 500 meters long section of the Long Iceland Rail Road well-known as Cobble Hill tunnel was built first in a ditch and over-curved 1850. Over itthe Atlantic Avenue lay, why the tunnel in the literature is called isolated first underground of the world. It concerned however a railway tunnel without stations. It was shut down 1861.|
|London||metropolitan Railway||10. January 1863||opens asunderground extension of the Great Western Railway between Farringdon and PAD thing clay/tone (7 stations), steam enterprise (electrification starting from 1905), first extension 1868. The distance is today a part of the Hammersmith & town center LINE.|
|New York||west simmers and Yonkers patent Railway||1867||Overhead railway with cable drive (late steam enterprise) in Greenwich Street and Ninth Avenue.|
|London||District Railway||24. December 1868||first section: from Westminster to South Kensington. First daughter, then Konkurrentin the metropolitan Railway, built and used (starting from 1884) common alsothis struggle-strains the today's Circle LINE.|
|New York, Brooklyn||24. September 1883||overhead railway over the Brooklyn Bridge, later of the BRT taken over.|
|London||Tower Subway||2. August 1870||first subway built in bergmännischer building method, cable drive, shuttle traffic alsoonly one car under the Themse through. Already to 24. December of the same yearly shut down.|
|Istanbul||Tünel||17. January 1875||underground endless rope haulage system with two stations. To 1910 the courses were drawn not by ropes, but by horses or oxen. The distance574 m are long, the upward gradient amount to approximately 15%.|
|Brooklyn||Brooklyn rapidly transit||13. May 1885||first (steam-claimant) overhead railway in Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Bridge ran along the Lexington Avenue to the Brooklyner Broadway of.|
|London||town center and South London Railway||4. November 1890||first electrically operated underground of the world, first distance section: from King William Street (1900 shut down) after stick-wave. Mountain one niche building method (tube), Themse underrunning.|
|Chicago||Chicago Elevated||27. May 1892||although substantially in former times an overhead railway possessed New York,those is considered to Chicago L (of El for elevated) as the most well-known overhead railway of the world. The first distance (South simmers rapidly transit) went from the Congress Street to 39. Road south the center, was rapidly extended and firstdriven in the steam enterprise. Starting from 1896 electrical operation. It is today part of the Greens line of the operator CTA. 1893, 1895 and 1900 took up three further overhead railway companies the enterprise. 1897 opened the common heart of the net, the union loop, oneStruggle-strain in the city centre.|
|Liverpool||Liverpool Overhead||4. February 1893||the first electrical overhead railway of the world connected the city centre of Liverpool with the port. On 10 km route distance had it 14 stations. With later extensions also a Tunnelbahhof developed. The netbecame to 30. December 1956 shut down, the distances torn off.|
|Budapest||Millenniumi Földalatti Vasút||2. May 1896||first underground in Continental Europe. Built to the 1000. Birthday of Hungary, under which plaster of the splendour road Andrassy planned to the same cause út. The distance was 3700 meters long and had nine stations. Electrical operation.|
|Glasgow||Glasgow District Subway||14. December 1896||ring line (10.5 km, 14 stations). First wiring loom impulse, starting from 1935 electrical operation. 1977-80 because of renovation completely shut down.|
|Bad clay/tone||Tremont Street Subway||1. September 1897||thosefirst subway outside of Europe was a streetcar tunnel with three underground stations. Two of it were torn off 1963 and replaced by new buildings. 1901-08 also of courses of the overhead railway used (viergleisiger development).|
|Vienna||Viennese metropolitan railway||1. June 1898||first, 14 km is enoughSection ran from Hütteldorf to holy city (15 stations). Along the belt as overhead railway, along which Vienna in the ditch establishes. The 29 days later opened, 5 km long branch ran in the tunnel under the struggle race. Steam enterprise, electrification 1925.|
|Paris||Métropolitainde Paris||19. July 1900||the first distance ran of the havens de Vincennes across the city to havens the Maillot and is part of the today's line 1. In Paris planned not private business, but the city administration, therefore developed from beginningto a meaningfully connected net. Electrical operation.|
|Barmen, Elberfeld and Vohwinkel||Wuppertaler suspension railway||1. March 1901||the three neighbouring bergischen industrial cities decided for an overhead railway of special kind: a einschienige overhead conveyor over the river Wupper. 13.3 kmlong distance is operated until today, it gave no extensions. Electrical operation.|
|Bad clay/tone||Main LINE Elevated||10. June 1901||four years after the streetcar tunnel received a Metro to bad clay/tone. It ran to a large extent as overhead railway and used in the center the Tramtunnel also.1908 were shifted the distance into the parallel Washington Street tunnel, it are today as orange LINE part of the bad toners underground.|
|Berlin and Charlottenburg||electrical high and subway Siemens & Halske||15. February 1902||also the second Metrosystem in at that timeGerman Reich ran almost exclusively on viaducts. Only one station in Berlin as well as the three in the neighbour city Charlottenburg lay underground. Electrical operation.|
|New York||Interborough rapidly transit||28. October 1904||first tunnelled route of a New Yorker Metro, is considered as birththe Subway. 14.5 km long distance ran from the city hall to 145. Road in Harlem.|
|Philadelphia||Philadelphia rapidly transit||4. March 1907||overhead railway along the Market Street, west the river Schuylkill in the tunnel up to the city hall. Thatviergleisige tunnels by streetcars and is today a part (blue) of the Market Frankford LINE is shared.|
|New York, Hoboken, Jersey town center||Hudson and Manhattan Railroad||26. February 1908||subway between Manhattan and new jersey. Principal item was a tunnelon the reason of the Hudson River, starting from 1909 still another further Hudsontunnel. The enterprise ignored 1962 to the port authority, which let the World trade center establish on the property of the railway terminal in the city.|
|Beautiful mountain||urban subway||1. December 1910||In beautiful mountain with Berlin 1910 opened the first locally operated underground in Germany. Those scarcely 3 km long distance had five stations and to today invariably as a citizen of Berlin line U4 is operated.|
|Hamburg||Hamburg overhead railway||15. February 1912||struggle-strains approximatelyaround the Alsterseen, viaduct and dam situation, only in the city centre partly underground. The first section ran from the city hall to Barmbek. Electrical operation.|
|German Wilmersdorf and royal domain Dahlem.||Subway Wilmersdorf||12. October 1913||the subway of the city Wilmersdorf was approximately 9 km long and had ten stations. It was enough from the citizen of Berlin U-Bahnhof joke mountain place to the Thielplatz. The distance is today part of the citizens of Berlin line U3.|
- W. J. Hinkel, K. Driver, G. Valenta and H. Liebsch: yesterday today tomorrow - undergrounds from 1863 to 2010. Forge publishing house, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-900-607-443
- streetcar magazine: Undergrounds. Geramond publishing house, Munich 2004,1. ISBN 3-89724-201-X
- Mark of Ovenden: Metro map OF the world. Capital transport, London 2005, ISBN 1854142720 (English)
- Paul Garbutt: World metro of system. Capital transport, London 1997, ISBN 1854141910 (English)
Web on the left of
|Commons: Underground - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Underground - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.|