Ubuntu

Ubuntu
Ubuntu-Logo
Bildschirmfoto von Ubuntu 5.10 („Breezy“) mit GNOME 2.12
screen photo of Ubuntu 5,10 („Breezy “) with GNOMES 2,12
base data
developers: Ubuntu Foundation
version: 5.10 (13. October 2005)
Family tree: \ Debian
\ Ubuntu
architectures: x86, ppc, x86-64
license: GPL and other licenses
other: Price: free of charge
language: in several languages
Desktop: GNOMES
Website: www.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu is a Linux which is based on Debian - distribution. Ubuntu becomes of Canonical Ltd. gesponsert. At the 1. July 2005 became the Ubuntu Foundation with a starting capital of 10 millions US Dollar in the life called.

The word Ubuntu comes from the languages the Zulu and the Xhosa. It stands for public spirit “for „humanity “and „, in addition, for the faith in „a universal volume of dividing, which connects all human one “. Most that approximately 40 full-time Ubuntu developers come from the Debian - and GNOMES - communities.

Table of contents

of aims of the project and principles

after own stating is to Ubuntus emphasis on the user friendliness. The standard installation supplies software for usual applications (E-Mail, Browser, Office). The goal of simple operability was however only achieved within the range of the daily work. Thus for example still no graphic user surface (GUI) is available for the selection of the diagram driver, so that one the command line to endeavor or the X11 - configuration file to use must.

Ubuntu considered also safety aspects and goes to it during the user administration special ways. The user furnished during the standard installation has only reduced rights. Administrative tools can be used over sudo also by the reduced user. The root account is present, but at least after the installation - as with Mac OS X - deactivates. Thus the behavior preferred with Windows systems of most users from comfort working exclusively with administrator rights effectively prevented.

Ubuntu uses the modifications Kubuntu and Xubuntu KDE and/or Xfce which were added later as Desktopumgebung of GNOMES . The different modifications differ only by the preselection according to standard installed of the software packages and can be regarded therefore technically as different configurations of a distribution instead of as different distributions.

There is to be every six months a new version, which is supported in each case 18 months with safety updates. For April 2006 the announced and on June shifted version 6.06 LTS is for the normal version three and for the server version five years support with appropriate actualizations to experience. This is expressed also by the additive LTS in the version number, which upport for l ong t erm s, long-term support, stands. The publication cycle of Ubuntu orients itself to of GNOMES, so that after the publication of a new GNOME version a new Ubuntu version is present in each case briefly, which integrates these. Thus Ubuntu tries to be both a current and a stable distribution for the normal user.

Further goals of the project are the improvement of the internationalization and the barrier liberty, so that the software is to as many humans as possible at the disposal. At present here mainly the translations and aids come for barrier liberty from the gnome development project to carrying.

Ubuntu uses the same package format (deb) as Debian, and also otherwise both projects are close each other much. All changes and improvements on Debian packages, which are made in Ubuntu, are to the Debian project as Patches at the disposal. Numerous developers of Ubuntu are likewise in the Debian project active and care for there important packages.

the software divides components Ubuntu into four ranges, so-called „components “, in order to clarify the differences between the Lizenzierungs variants and the degree at support. To be installed only according to standard one selection of Main - packages, with which the needs of most users are covered, and those packages restricted - components, which are absolutely needed for the system.

Main

the Main - components cover only the packages, which correspond to the Ubuntu Lizenzanforderungen and which the Ubuntu team supports. Thus a generally usable Linux system is to be made available. For all packages in this component the Ubuntu team guarantees technical support and punctual Sicherheitspatches.

Restricted

to restricted - to components belongs software, which the Ubuntu developers support because of their importance, that do not stand however under a suitable free license, in order to implement her in Main. This concerns binary packages for diagram maps - drivers. The degree at support is smaller than for Main, because the developers do not have an access to the source code.

university Universities of

the university verses - components cover a broad spectrum at suitor software, which is not supported independently of their license of the Ubuntu team. Thus the user has the possibility of installing such programs within the Ubuntu Paketverwaltungssystems but they are separate from supported packages as in Main and restricted.

multi-verses

to the multi-verse - a still broader spectrum at software, which does not support the Ubuntu team independently of their license, belongs to components. Here packages are to be found, not contained in the other groups, but than Debianpakete are present.

Kubuntu

screen photo of Kubuntu

5,10

Bildschirmfoto von Kubuntu 5.10 mit KDE 3.4
with KDE 3,4 the word „Kubuntu

“the same means, comes modifications [work on] as „Ubuntu “from the Bemba - language and „Ku-bun-does “spoken. „The K “stands symbolically also for KDE.

At the same time with the release of Ubuntu Hoary appeared also the first stable version of Kubuntu. The only difference to Ubuntu consists of the fact that Kubuntu KDE uses instead of GNOMES as Standarddesktopumgebung. Always the current version of the KDE as well as some (still) up-to-date applications taken up to the KDE project is not used. Kubuntu and Ubuntu divide basic system, installation program and the Repository (sources of package), it differ only in the Desktop environment. In Kubuntu and Ubuntu simply those different Desktop surface can be after-installed in each case (packages ubuntu desktop and/or. kubuntu desktop). Accordingly one can regard Kubuntu and Ubuntu as “configuration variants” to the same GNU/Linux distribution.

Xubuntu

Xubuntu uses XFCE instead of GNOMES as Standarddesktopumgebung. Since Hoary can be installed xfce additionally to Ubuntu. With the next Ubuntu version there is to be 6.06 LTS (Dapper) also for Xubuntu own installation and liveCDs.

Edubuntu

Bildschirmfoto Edubuntu 5.10
screen photo Edubuntu 5,10
Edubuntu is a Ubuntu developed particularly for the use in the classroom, which was developed central along the new implementation of the Ubuntu LTSP and education-oriented software as well as learning plays contains. Edubuntu is like Kubuntu an official Ubuntu project and within the Distributon is developed. So the dedicated server or Desktopteil of the Edubuntu distribution can be installed as with Kubuntu or Xubuntu simply to an existing Ubuntu in addition. The functions of the project Skubuntu stopped meanwhile flow now into Edubuntu.

Core components of Edubuntu are the teaching programs belonging to the KDE, GCompris, Tux4Kids, the Schooltool Calendar and the office package OpenOffice.org. As Desktop environment is used, like also with Ubuntu themselves, GNOMES.

Gnubuntu

with Gnubuntu is planned a derivative, which contains excluding Ubuntu packages, which correspond to the guidelines of the Free software Foundation (FSF). Mark of Shuttleworth, founders of the Ubuntu distribution, discussed this already with GNU - founder smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Stallman.

nUbuntu

nUbuntu (or network Ubuntu) an unofficial Ubuntu is derivative, which addresses itself particularly to network administrators. The project attaches importance to a high security and provides many network programs already, whereby it is particularly well suitable for network-specific tasks. nUbuntu flux box is available as liveCD and uses the window manager. The developers of nUbuntu indicate to be primarily in learning connected with providing interested and not to the use of nUbuntu in others.

Ubuntu Lite

Ubuntu Lite is an unofficial Ubuntu version, which is particularly conceived for older computers and IceWM than graphic surface used. There is a project web page with closer information as well as its own Wiki (see Web on the left of).

spreading

Kostenlose Ubuntu-CDs aller drei Architekturen
free Ubuntu CDs of all three architectures

Ubuntu experienced an amazingly high degree at attention in the media after short time. Over an Internet side Ubuntu CDs can be ordered free of charge. This marketing - action led to a very high resonance.

Ubuntu is available for the usual network architectures Intel x86 , PowerPC , AMD64 and EM64T. Beside that installation CD gives it also to liveCD. With it Ubuntu can be tried out and used also without installation. In addition there is a DVD, with which both an installation and implementing and live-distribution are possible.

The next Ubuntu version 6.06 LTS (Dapper) will unite Live and installation CD for the first time. By the installation assistant Espresso will it possible to write the data to that liveCD directly on the non removable disk.

Ubuntu Germany

to 12. November 2005 was created because of the success of the distribution the non-profit association „ubuntu Germanyin Nuremberg, in order to thus support the Ubuntu Foundation in the German-speaking countries. The association strengthened on fairs and different Events represented to be.

its own code name and a version number, which on the respective publication year and, has versions each version - month is based. Thus for example 5,10 stands for October 2005. The project has itself to publish to the goal set every six months a new version of the distribution. This goal was achieved with the first three versions, which became publication date of the fourth version (6,06 LTS) however around six weeks shifted, in order the developers additional time for finding and repair of nose, for testing, for the improvement of the asiatic language support and to the Linux standard cousin - certifying of giving.

Ubuntu publications
version publication code name code name translation
4,10 20. October 2004 Warty Warthog Warziges wart pig
5,04 8. April 2005 Hoary Hedgehog of turned grey hedgehogs
5,10 13. October 2005 Breezy Badger quick Dachs (impudent frechdachs)
6,06 LTS 1. June 2006 (planned) Dapper Drake of elegant Erpel
6,10 planned for October 2006 Edgy Eft nervous scrapper-cleaning

literature

Web on the left of

Wikibooks: Ubuntu user's handbook - learning and teaching materials
Commons: Ubuntu Linux - pictures, videos and/or audio files

Ubuntu

Kubuntu

further modifications


Debian derivatives

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