Ukraine

Україна
Ukrajina
Ukraine
Flagge der Ukraine Staatswappen der Ukraine
(detail) (detail)
office language Ukrainian
capital Kiew
system of government parliamentary democracy
president Wiktor Juschtschenko
prime minister Yuriy Jechanurow
surface 603,700 km ²
number of inhabitants 46.958.740 (1. December 2005)
Population density of 78 inhabitants for each km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 1,748 US-$ (2005)
Independence explains to 24. August 1991
currency 1 Hrywnja = 100 kopecks
time belt UTC + 2
national anthem Scht ne wmerla Ukrajina (ЩеневмерлаУкраїнa)
Kfz characteristic UA
Internet TLD .ua
preselection +380
Lage der Ukraine innerhalb Europas

the Ukraine [ukraˈiːnə] (Ukrainian Україна/Ukrajina, Russian Украина/Ukraina) is a state in Eastern Europe. It borders on Romania, Moldavia, Hungary, the Slowakei, Poland, white Russia and Russia. The Ukraine has a coast at the black sea, of that toUkraine belonging peninsula Krim the Asow sea divides. The Ukraine is apart from Russia the surface-moderately largest country of Europe.

Table of contents

Geografie

the largest part of the Ukraine (approx. 95%) are on the area of the Eastern European level. Therefore it is ranked almost exclusively among Eastern Europe.

Other landscape areas outside of thatit is large level only in the southern Westukraine, where the country has portion of the Karpaten and of the Pannoni level, as well as in the extreme south, where the Krimgebirge is. The highest mountain of the country is the Howerla into the Ostkarpaten, which reaches a height of 2,061 meters. The highest collection of the Krim is the novel Kosch with 1,545 meters.

On the part belonging to the Eastern European level large extend in particular in the north and the south of the country Low countries (Ukrainian Низовина) as for instance the Dneprtiefland and blacksea-lower. There the area reaches heights between 0 and 200 M. Due to the low relief the rivers of this area flow very slowly. To it belong for instance the Dnepr (Ukrainian Dnipro), the Desna, and the Siwerskij Donez. Many smaller rivers are coined/shaped of swampy banks with reed existence. Within the range of the low countries there are oil deposits, which in particular to the centralUkrainian Oblast Poltawa smaller natural gas - andbut are not sufficient for a self-supply of the country. Hopes are set into the development by fields in the black sea. Due to the assumed raw material occurrences momentarily border disputes with the southwest neighboring country Romania exist around the queue island.

Relief map

in the central regionextend from the west eastward high-lying areas with area heights between 200 and scarcely over 500 m, which plates (Ukrainian Височина) are called. To these for instance Podili or the Donezplatte belongs. These plates exist predominantly outRock from the earth antiquity, which was again raised by the emergence of the alpidischen mountain belt in the last 10 million years. They are richly at raw materials as for instance iron ore and coal. The largest ore occurrences are over Krywyj Rih in the Oblast Dnipropetrowsk, while the coal camps are predominantly in the area around the city Donezk. The plates are cut through of numerous smaller and larger rivers, which cut themselves partly deeply in the area. This applies approximately tothe upper and middle catchment areas of the Dnister and the southern nose.

Apart from the mountain areas and the southwest and southern coastal regions the Ukraine leaves itself regarding the climate, which soils and the vegetation arranged into three large zones. In the northwestit has portion of the Prypjatsumpfgebieten, which were coined/shaped in particular by earlier glacier raids from Scandinavia during the ice ages. Here are the worst soils of the country. In addition it comes that this region particularly strongly affected by the disaster of Tschernobylis. The area receives relatively much precipitation (500-750 mm), the summers is mild with average temperatures in the month July from 17 to 19 °C.

This zone the so-called forest steppe zone follows after the south and southeast, into which formerly existingForest stands were however already cleared predominantly. Here are release levels expanded far, which developed at the ice age age under periglazialen conditions. From the Löss predominantly very fruitful black earth soils developed, which belong to the most productive world. The amounts of precipitationare between 350 and 400 mm, the July average temperatures about 20 °C. Altogether this area offers very good conditions for a agricultural use. However the soils are very erosion susceptible, if they, how often in Soviet times happen, are ordered wrongly.

InSoutheast borders the Steppenzone, which has only relatively small precipitation of partial under 250 mm in the year. Also the summers are here very hot with average temperatures in the July of partial over 23 °C. The fruitful black and Kastanienbraunerdenthis area could predominantly only starting from center 20. Century in value to be set, after from the building of dams at the large rivers expanded irrigation plants resulted.

The coastal regions south the Krimgebirges and in the southwest Bessarabien are very fruitfuland due to the favorable climatic conditions with mild winters for the fruit and cultivation of wine are used in particular.

The northwest of the Ukraine is called Wolhynien. This landscape is counted on Galizien to „the germ cells “of an independent Ukraine, there these areasonly in the course of the Second World War from Poland to the Soviet Union were surrendered. Divide Galiziens and Transkarpatien to one of Moscow from governed realm had up to then never heard, whereby the majority of the population of the Russian rule and the Russifizierungsmassnahmenvery reserved opposite stood. The developing area of the Ukrainian culture and language lies however probably in the Dneprgebiet southeast from Kiew, where in 17. Century for short time of the Kosakenstaat existed.

The geographical center of the country is in the proximity thatSettlement Dobrowelytschiwka, Oblast Kirowohrad. Beyond that became of Austrian researchers end 19. Jh. stated that the geographical center of Europe is to lie in the proximity of the place Rachiw. This theory is however disputed.

Important cities beside the capital Kiew (ukrain. Kyjiw) are Charkiw, Czernowitz (Ukrainian Tscherniwzi), Dnipropetrowsk, Donezk, Iwano Frankiwsk, Lemberg (Ukrainian Lwiw), Luhansk, Odessa, Poltawa, Saporischschja, Sewastopol, Simferopol, Tschernihiw and Uschhorod.

See also: List of the cities in the Ukraine, list of the names of Ukrainian cities

population

life expectancy with birth 1930-2003 (Germany: Men: 74,01; Women: 80.5 years)

nationalities

after the official census of 2001 live in the Ukraine77.8% Ukrainer, 17.3% Russians, 0.8% Moldawier and Romanian, 0.6% white Russian, altogether over 100 nationalities, among them approximately 260,000 Krimtataren and 33,000 Germans. Of importance also the Kurdish municipalities are in Kiew andNikolajev. (Source:[1])

Ukrainian

speak language 73% the ethnical Ukrainer as native language, 74.4% control Russian. The Russian language dominated in the east and the south of the Ukraine until today and also in Kiew has itstill another relatively high value. The west of the country is purely ukrainischsprachig against it. In the area around Lemberg (Lwiw) also still many humans Polish speak. Since independence these conditions shift however in limited measure in favor of the Ukrainian one,since it now generally speaking country compulsory subject is and instruction language in the schools becomes increasing. At many Ukrainian universities, in particular within the technical range, instruction takes place however for lack of Ukrainian technical literature predominantly in Russian language. A wide-spread verbal combinationwith the Russian one is the Surschyk.

literature and book culture

first, in the year 1483 into the Ukraine book published were written by Yuriy Drohobytsch. The Iwan Kotljarewskyj living in the city Poltawa is considered to that as ErneuererUkrainian writing language.

Important ones Ukrainian writers are:

to the present book market see for example book fair Lemberg.

religion

the Ukraine is traditionally a konfessionell mixed country. Dominating are the orthodox churches, 46% the Ukrainer are trailers of the Ukrainian-orthodox church and the Ukrainian-orthodox church Muscovites of the Patriarchats. First is subordinate to a Patriarchen in Kiew, while the latter belongs to the Russian-orthodox church in Moscow. Between both denominations an embittered controversy raves overLegitimacy and requirements for possession at real estates. Developed Greek-catholic church, which recognizes however the Suprematie of the Pope and with Rome university ore is, follows the orthodox rite also the 1596. You belong approx. 5,5 millions Gläubige on. Besides it gives in thatUkraine approx. 1,1 millionsRoman-catholic Christians (Poland, German), in addition some Pfingstlergruppen, Baptisten, as well as small Evangelist and Islamic minorities (act arene).

historical development

before the First World War several hundredthousand Germans revivedthe national territory of the today's Ukraine (Galizien, Bukowina, Wolhynien, black sea coast); today there is still about 30,000 to 40.000.

To 1944 several millions Poland in the area of the today's Ukraine (Galizien, Bukowina and Wolhynien lived). 1944 came it particularly into Wolhynien to massacres at the Polish population, who over 40.000 Poland to the victim fell. After the war and the Annexion of the formerly Polish areas east the nose the Polish population was driven out.

Up to the Second World War lived into the Ukraine a great many Jews - the Ukraine was one of the main circulation areas of the jiddischen language - which were murdered however to large parts during the crew by the German Reich by SS-Einsatzgruppen. The survivorsemigrate since then into the USA, to Israel and to Germany . Today still approximately 500,000 Jews live in the Ukraine. Their number decreases because of the mentioned emigration and the general decline in the birthrate further.

history

major item: Historythe Ukraine

the Ukraine is, like its neighboring countries Russia and white Russia, a succession state of the Kiewer Rus. After splintering the Kiewer of realm into independent principalities, the invasion of the Mongols and incorporating the western parts of the ostslawischen territoryby the large principality Lithuania and later Poland Lithuania the Ukraine was usually a disputed area between the great powers Poland, Russia, the Osmani realm and Austria Hungary. In 17. and early 18. Century practiced also Sweden, in 20. Century occasional Germany influence on the Ukraine out.

1917 succeeded to accomplish it that predominantly rural Mach NO movement an anarchist revolution, which helps first the Soviet Bolschewisten against the “white ones”, then 1921 however betrayed and by the Red Army under Trotzkiin a bloody war to the CSU one attaches. Deep traces left the hunger emergencies (Holodomor), caused by the obligatory collectivization under Stalin in the years 1932-33, with which roughly 6-10 million humans died.

During German occupation in The country stood for the Second World War as Reichskommissariat Ukraine and Generalgouvernement to the larger part under German civil administration. The Ukraine was scene of numerous mass murders at Jews and Soviet prisoner of war (z. B. Massacre of Babi Jar). Between 1943 and 1947 did not raveonly one guerilla warfare against the German Besatzer, but it gave also a movement of independence (Ukrajinska Powstanska Armija, „Ukrainian insurgent army “) against the Soviet rule and the Polish population fought, which were finally struck down by the NKWD.

In the course „of the west shift of “Polandbecame about 1,24 millions Poland from the formerly Polish areas of the today's Westukraine evacuated, partly also by force drove out. About 4.5 millions there before the Second World War residents Ukrainer were not affected already by resettlements. From today's east Poland became about483,000 Ukrainer into the Ukraine obligation-resettled („operation Weichsel “). Afterwards the Ukraine - like before - was part of the Soviet Union.

The Ukraine is independent since 1991. 2004 experienced the Ukraine a democratic reversal - the Orangene revolution - released by the presidency elections, from which Wiktor Juschtschenko came out as a winner.

military

the Ukrainian armed forces have with approx. 618 million US Dollar (conditions: 2005), which constitutes 1.4% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, one of the smallest military budgets in Europe,related to the Truppenstärke of 295.500 active soldiers as well as one million reservist.

It is arranged thereby into the three classical departments of army, with a man strength of approx. 148.000, Air Force, with a man strength of approx. 49,100 men and navy, which over approx. 8,000 soldiers as well as 3,000 “marine” orders. The army orders over approx. 4,000 main battle tanks, 570 combat helicopters as well as further equipment. The Air Force possesses 822 fighter planes (under it about 70 of the type Suchoi Su-27 “Flanker”), 136 bombers of the type SuchoiSu-25 “Frogfoot” as well as 98 transport aircrafts and 40 helicopters - all from Soviet production.

The navy, which has the smallest man strength, possesses 250 airplanes, 8 speedboats, 2 mine boats and an inactive submarine. In the year 2002 the Ukrainian navy transferred the aircraft carrier“Ex-Varyag” the admiral Kusnezow-Klasse of the People's Republic of China. This was never activated however because of money lacking.

Almost all military equipment took over the armed forces of the USSR, when the Ukraine became independent in the year 1991. There the UkrainianState not the sufficient financial means possesses, the armed forces was never modernized. In case of a war the Ukrainian army to approximately sieved millions militarysuited men at the age of 18 to 49 years could fall back. The administration of the army subdivided thoseUkraine into the three command areas north, south and west.

This armed force is supplemented by the civilian coworkers (95,000 men), the border control and coastal with 45.000 men, the coast guard with 14.000 men, the civil defense troops with Kraft of 9.500 men andthe troops of the ministry of the Interior (39,000 men).

During the cold war in the Ukraine stationed nuclear weapons are meanwhile completely disarmed (see: Budapester memorandum).

Due to the wide-spread poverty the entrance into the army for many young citizens is thatto make only way around career. A high post in armed forces is not only prestigious in the Ukraine, but secures also financial getting along.

With altogether 5 army corps (11 armored divisions, 7 mechanized brigades, 2 artillery divisions, 2 training divisions as well as40 so-called. ) The Ukrainian army belongs to service brigades to the strongest military federations in Europe.

politics

current policy

see: Presidency elections into the Ukraine 2004, Ukrainian parliamentary elections 2006, list of the parties of the Ukraine

afterthe Ukrainian parliament (Werchowna Rada ) confirmed to the office introduction of president Wiktor Juschtschenko in January 2005 to 4. February 2005 the new government under Prime Minister minister Julija Tymoschenko.

During the first 100 days of the government Tymoschenko the privatisations becamesome large enterprises (Kryworisch Stal) from the time of the former president examines Kutschma. It showed up also, like already in the election campaign that the positions of president Juschtschenko and Prime Minister Tymoschenko in the choice of the means partly differ.

At the same timeraising the price of of oil products, above all, to pressure, initiated by Russian enterprises, led gasoline on the Ukrainian government.

In different Ministries like the ministry of the Interior and on regional level the coworker became to dismiss since the change of power up to 30%.

To 8. September 2005 dismissed president Juschtschenko surprisingly Prime Minister Julija Tymoschenko and their government in connection with corruption reproaches and conflicts within the cabinet. The interCIM Prime Minister the restaurant politician Yuriy Jechanurow was appointed.

Jechanurow was appointed the Prime Minister later, with 60Voices more than it needed, which he got surprisingly from the opposition.

administrative arrangement

Übersichtskarte der Ukraine

the Ukraine is in 24 Oblaste (ukr. область/oblast, Pl. області/oblasti; Districts, wörtl. Areas), the autonomous Republic of Krim and two cities alsoSpecial status arranged.

See also: List of the Oblaste of the Ukraine.

Under list of the cities in the Ukraine are enumerated the most important cities of each Oblast.

infrastructure

the Ukraine possesses a north south traffic orientation from times of the Soviet Union above all (Moscow - Kiew - Odessa, Moscow - Charkiw - Krim). One tries however since the independence of the country to reorganize the infrastructure into a west east orientation and to intensify the connections to Poland, the Slowakei and Hungary (bindingto the Paneuropäi passage III: Road connection and railroad line Berlin/Dresden - Breslau - Krakau - Lwiw - Kiew and V: Košice - Tschop - Lwiw and Budapest - Tschop - Lwiw).

The Ukraine is today above all a transit countrybetween Central Europe and the Caucasus and between south Europe and Russia. Main traffic carrier in the Ukraine is followed the railway, of the traffic and the inland waterway craft travel on the Dnepr (Dnipro). In all important large cities are international airports;in Odessa, Mykolajiw, Cherson, Sewastopol and Kertsch are seas port.

economics

the Ukraine is a formerly state-capitalistic country, which introduced a privatisation process into the 1990er years. The year 2004 is located in the indication onerelatively strong economic upswing.

The most important foreign trade partners are followed Russia (28%) , Germany (8%) and Italy (4.2%), of Turkmenistan (3.8%), Poland (3.4%) and the People's Republic of China (3.3%) (numbers of 2003). At times applied for the Soviet Unionthe Ukraine as grain chamber of the country. In addition mining industry and industry come in the east of the country. The growth gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) amounted to in the 1. Quarter 2004 in relation to the period last year 10.8%.

In the northern part of the country there was once oneexpanded forest-quilts with very fruitful loess. Up to a small residue these forests were however cleared and converted into field. The country has today only approximately 5% forest portion of the total area. Admits is the Birkenwälder overKiew.

Tschornobyl in der Oblast Kiew

At the northern border of the country to white Russia Pripjat can be operated since the reactor disaster by Tschornobyl 1986 ( Russian Tschernobyl) because of the continuous contamination no more agriculture in a radius by 50 kilometers around the place. Independently of itthe agriculture suffers for some decades additionally from strong soil erosion. By the associated quilting of the country the Ukraine lost already approximately an eighth of their agricultural effective area.

In the south of the Ukraine at the coast and on the Krim becomesWine and cultivation of fruit claimant, in the remainder of the country are predominantly cultivated wheat. With Krywyj Rih, Dnipropetrowsk and Saporischja are Eisenerzlagerstätten with appropriate processing. In addition come mechanical engineering, building of electrical appliances as well as an extensive shipyard industry. Are implemented above all Coal, steel, electrical appliances and food, to be introduced above all sources of energy (natural gas and oil) from Russia. In the Donezkbecken are many mines, which are strongly reorganization needy and come again and again in those it to heavy Grubenunglücken.

economic development

the Ukraine was „the grain chamber “ of the Soviet Union. At the time of independence 55% of the Ukrainian territory for agriculture were used and altogether 70% of the surface for the agriculture. The Agro agroindustrielle complex carried 1991 approx. 40% of theproduced national income. The raw material basis of the Ukraine covers different metals and coal. 5% of the world-wide iron ore occurrences lie in the Ukraine. In addition come bauxite, lead, chrome, gold, mercury, nickel, titanium, uranium and zinc. The portion of the heavy industry exceeded even that likewiseheavyindustrially coined/shaped Poland around more than the double. 70% of the industrial production took place 1991 in the sectors mechanical engineering, black metallurgy (iron and steel), energy, chemistry, paper and building materials.

After the decay of the Soviet Union 1990/1991 the Ukraine knew the level of production of 1991 stilldo not reach again. This is attributed in particular the IWF Schocktherapie, which had a decrease of the gross domestic product from 60% from 1992 to 1995 to the consequence. At present the gross domestic product per head is with 1.000 euro. It is only slightly higher thereby than inChina.

Many inhabitants on the country operate Subsistenzwirtschaft, since wages and pension were late and were paid off incompletely and the wage level with the risen cost of living (into the 1990er years hyperinflation) not keep up could not.

Since 1998 the Ukrainian has itselfEconomics however stabilizes. Increased urge and enterprises take over or create foreign companies into the country foreign branches, on the one hand because of the wage situation very favorable in the international comparison with good qualification and on the other hand, in order to occupy market shares in the Ukraine. The Ukraine obtainsin the meantime a balance of payments on current account surplus. The growth of the gross domestic product rose in the year 2004 to approximately 12%. That end of the yearly 2004 effected changes of power, which did not only concern the president, but also for new majorities in the parliament ensured, leaves profoundReforms expect. They might at least on a long-term basis improve the conditions for an economic upswing.

However one assumed that in the future new loads could result: So far very the favourable price for gas (about 35 to 40% of the prices in Western Europe) could drastically increase. With 3.3 billion euro the gas imported goods constitute 14% of the Ukrainian imported goods. The Ukrainian economy is here particularly sensitive and to a considerable degree on Russia dependent.

The stronger economical aimed at by the new governmentAdjustment of the Ukraine toward European union can hardly reduce the dependence of the Ukraine on Russian energy supplies, let it might however the foreign investments rise and strengthen so the economic upswing.

In the year 2005 then the Russian gas supplier demanded Gazprom, as average of the Western European States of, 230 dollar ever 1000 of cubic meters gas of the Ukraine. See Russian-Ukrainian gas controversy.

banking

in the banking took place the first assumption by foreign Kreditinstitut only in October 2005.At that time the Austrian Raiffeisen international took over the second largest bank of the country, the bank bill guaranty. With the 1998 created Raiffeisen bank Ukraine keep this 12% market share common at the Ukrainian banking. The sales negotiations became conscious from Ukrainian side into the lengthpulled, since rapidly further interesting ones at the bank were, and the purchase price thus piece by piece on finally 836 million euro (for 93,5%) increased.

From then on there was suddenly large interest of numerous foreign banks, thoselikewise in the Ukraine foot to seize wanted. Within only 5 months the portion of foreign banks of the Ukrainian banking of scarce snapped over 0% on approximately 25%. The most expensive assumption so far transacted the Italian Banca Intesa, whichfor approximately a billion euro 88% of the fourth largest „Ukrsotsbank “transferred Ukrainian bank, and its past market share to GUS - states at one blow of approximately 0.1% to a multiple increased. The clearly higher purchase price, particularly considering thatFact that „the Ukrsotsbank “clearly less market share (5.3% by 2005) possessed than „the bank bill guaranty “, is to be explained by the rising book value multiplicator. As accessible in all central and Eastern European countries, those only for few years for foreign credit institutesare, the price in the comparison to the book value of the taken over bank with rising demand, which can be paid, rose in the Ukraine.

One further of the five Ukrainian major banks, „the Ukrssibbank “, became in December 2005 of the largest French bank, BNP Paribas, taken over. 51% changed their owner for scarcely 300 million euro. Both with „the Ukrsotsbank “and with „the Ukrssibbank “the Hungarian „OTP bank had along-ordered “, which had however both marks checking.

Also of the smallerthe 158 (by at the end of of 2005) Ukrainian banks several were already taken over. Thus took over for example the Russian market leader, the national „Sberbank “, the Ukrainian „NRB Ukraina “, and the Russian number two, the likewise national „Vneschtorgbank “(VTB) took over the Ukrainian„Mrija “for converted scarcely 60 million euro. The Ukrainian government assumes political motives also already behind the assumptions of the national Russian banks, like these in January 2006 in the sudden multiplication of the gas price from Russian side (see Russian-Ukrainian gas controversy) were seen.

economic co-operation with the European union

the European union approved of plan of action in December 2004 one „“for a closer co-operation with the Ukraine in the framework its so-called „neighbourhood politics “. As priorities become in the plan of action among other thingsthe following points mentioned:

  • Promotion of the entry of the Ukraine to the world trade organization (World Trade Organization); constant dismantling of obstacles in the bilateral trade.
  • Ukrainian laws, standards and standard are adapted to the European Union gradually to those.
  • Negotiations over occupation questions, for example possibilities for citizens of the Ukraine,to work in the European Union.
  • Negotiations over easements with the distribution of travel visas.
  • Fulfilment of the agreements between the European Union and the Ukraine over the locking of the nuclear power station in Tschernobyl.
  • Improvement of the investment climate, among other things by production of discrimination-free, transparent restaurant conditions, Bureaucracy dismantling as well as fight of the corruption.

Benita Ferrero Waldner, European Union clerk sarin for foreign relations and European neighbourhood politics, called beyond that and. A. the following measures, in order to strengthen the trade relations to the Ukraine:

  • The import of textiles and steel from the Ukraine are are facilitated.
  • The assignment of credits of the European Investitionsbank to the Ukraine is to be facilitated.
  • The financial assistances for an adjustment of the Ukrainian juridical system to the juridical system of the European Union are to be increased.
  • In the ranges energy, environment and traffic are onecloser co-operation intended.

Bases of the relations of the Ukraine with the European Union are:

  • the partnership and co-operation agreement (into force since 1. March 1998),
  • those of the European advice to 14. December 1999 in Helsinki adopted “common strategy European Union-Ukraine”,
  • that from the European Union commission inMarch 2003 submitted and concept for “European neighbourhood politics”, approved of by the European Union member states, („larger Europe - neighbourhood: a new framework for the relations of the European Union with their eastern and southern neighbours “).

Since 1994 the European Union carries out in addition in the framework of the TACIS - Program consulting and equipment assistance in the Ukraine. Germany has a portion of nearly 30% of the financing this of program.

A goal „of the European neighbourhood politics “of the European Union is only an intensified co-operation with the European Union neighbour states, which is concretized through „plans of action “.For Eastern European neighbour states so far beside the plan of action for the Ukraine in December 2004 also a plan of action for the neighboring country Moldavia was decided.

Within the range of economic co-operation is the neighbour states on a long-term basis a participation in the European Union domestic market and in some community programs openbecome. An entry perspective, so European Union clerk sarin Ferrero Waldner in an interview with the German wave to 21. January 2005, does not open the neighbourhood politics.

In contrast to this the Ukrainian president Juschtschenko stressed repeated, for example to 25. January 2005 before the Council of Europe in Strasbourg,it aim at an entry of the Ukraine to the European Union as „a strategic goal “.

medium landscape

list of the Ukrainian magazines

telecommunications

in the Ukraine the nebem conventional public telephone network modern GSM was developed - nets. The largest portable radio netsare:

  • UMC
  • Kyivstar
  • Astelit

literature

work on []

Further topics

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