the Ulanen were an easy, with lances, swords and pistols armed originally Polish Kavalleriegattung. They were marked later with the Hussars than the easy Reiterei and used also into the Kavallerien of other countries.
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the word “Ulanen” probably comes from the Turkish word “oglan” (meaning: young man). Another explanation reads that the word “Ulanen” comes from” Alanen “. In Poland , that is maintained Word “oglan” comes from the Mongolian language and means in approximately “courageous Krieger “.
Ulanen were later very easily at their typical square head coverage, the Tschapka (of Polish “Czapka” thus “cap”), later “Rogatywka” mentioned (thus about “corner cap”), those this very day in different modernized forms thoseCap of the Polish ground forces is and of the head coverage in the Volkstracht the area of Krakau comes) to recognize. The troops were armed with swords , pistols , rifle and lances (with tags in regiment colors and iron point).
one attributes itself the emergence of the Ulanen units to the traditions of the Mongols and act arene, in the large principality Lithuania, thus in the later east of the Polish aristocracy republic starting from that 14. Century established. First designated Ulanenregimenter also really in such a way are in early 18.To find century in Poland. The last Polish king Stanisław Poniatowski set up even as royal guard a Ulanen regiment. Under Napoleon (with large success) some Polish Freiwilligen Ulanen regiments served and have so this Kavalleriegattung European-wide admit made. Thereupon similar formations became also in England, France, Italy, Spainand South American states even unite set up.
In Austria formed the Polish brigade (later) Polish marshal Pilsudski likewise a Ulanen formation served and it was it also, which entered the Russian division area in the course of the war actions of the First World War 1914 as the first. 1918in Poland again Ulaneneinheiten were set up. Their armament consisted machine guns of rifles, swords and lances, soon also was carried. In the Polish-Soviet war 1919-1921 Polish Ulanen federations struck the advancing Soviet Kavallerie army of Budjonny.
To 1939 in Poland altogether 40 Kavallerie regiments were set up, by thoseonly 27 Ulanen were called, the differences existed however v.a. in different uniforms and traditions. The horses became the time v.a. as means of transport used and not for Reitereiattacken on German tanks - these were invented rather by German propaganda, 1959 in the film “Lotna” also ofPolish film producer Andrzej Wajda only allegorisch films. Occasional mounted attacks on German infantry resulted only coincidentally and also were then usually successfully accomplished. The homeland army sits down after 1939 their resistance against the Germans with only few small Ulanen units, well in foreststo move could, away. 1943 was set up of the Soviets' still 3 Polish Ulanen of regiments.
1949 was finally abolished the Ulanen as combat units in Poland. In the year 2000 a small to keep pure parade unit again set up around old traditions upright.
Friedrich the large one led the lance riders 1741 into its Kavallerie as answer to successes of Hungarian Panduren and Polish riders in Saxonian service, it in the Austrian succession war itsTroops heavily preserved. With deserters (under them Bosnier and Kosaken) and members of the low Polish aristocracy Schwadronen were formed more easily Kavallerie, which were used armed with long lances as reconnaissance and combat patrols against the enemy. The mode in accordance with this time the newcomers went completelydressed in exotic uniforms with Turbanen, Kaftans and widen Turkish trousers.
Also in Prussia and in the German empire one formed later since 1807 Ulanenregimenter, whereby they were ranked here however among the heavy Kavallerie. In the year 1884 one renewed the armament, by replacing the lances by carbines as main armament. The lance remained in the use and became even in the first decade 20. Century all German Kavallerieregimenternassigned. Almost all Ulanenregimenter Europe carried the typical square cap into the First World War.
1772 those placed to Poland (in the Austrian division area), under the arrangement of the Austrian emperor Joseph II., a Uhlanen group on (group is called on Polish also “regiment”).This consisted of 300 noble ones (“Towarzysz”, too German “comrade”) and 300 subjects (“Pocztowy”, thus “companions”). As at the 1. November 1791 the Turk war was terminated, created one the first Ulanen regiment. Up to the beginning 19. Century a large quantity of Austrian Ulanen regiments was set up, and until 1851by the dissolution of some Hussars and Chevaulegers - regiments continues to strengthen. From all areas of the Austrian empire now soldiers came around these units to step, most originated however from Galizien and Croatia - Slawonien. Later however the lance was abolished, which remained designation as Ulanenreceived.
also Russia set up Ulanenregimenter, from those however to end 19. Century only two (guard) had remained remaining. The “common” Kavallerie existed only of Dragoons, as light lance riders Kosaken was used.
in the British army were designated Ulanen as Lancers and particularly in 19. Century on nearly all war scenes of the British Empire assigned.The attack of the 21. Lancers in the battle of Omdurman is considered as one of the last frontal cavalry charges of world history.
Today there are still two Lancer in Great Britain - regiments, the 9th/12th Royal Lancers and the Queen's Royal Lancers. Both units are todayequipped with light tanks and function as clearing-up units.
as the Kavallerie after the First World War strongly at meaning lost, the regiments in Prussia and in Austria was dissolved to a large extent. In Poland the Ulanen was still active up to the Second World War(see above).
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