Hungarian language

Hungarian (Magyar)
spoken in: Hungary and regions of Romania, Slowakei, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, Slovenia
speaker: 14,5 million (10 millions in Hungary)
linguistic
classification:
Hungarian
official status
Office language in: Hungary, European union, Austria (in the castle country), Slovenia, Serbia (region Vojvodina)
language code
ISO 639 -1: hu
ISO 639 -2: hun
SIL: HNG

the Hungarian language (Hungarian, magyar nyelv) is thoseonly non indoeuropäische language, which is spoken in the Central European area. It belongs together with Samisch, Estnisch, Finnish and a set of in European Russia and in north Siberia spoken languages to the finno ugrischen branch of the uralischen language family.

Hungariantoday of approximately 15 million humans and is office language is spoken in Hungary and since that 1. May 2004 also one of the office languages in the European Union. The LANGUAGE code is hu and/or. hun (according to ISO 639).


Table of contents

spreading

country speaker number of collection
Hungary 9.546.374 2001
Romania (main in Filter defiency guarantee) 1.443.970 2002
Slowakei (main in the Südslowakei) 520,528 2001
Serbia and Montenegro (main in the Vojvodina) 285,000 2002
Ukraine (in the Karpatoukraine) 149,400 2001
Canada 75,555 2001
Israel 70,000
Austria (main in the castle country) 22,000
Croatia(mainly in the Gespanschaften) 16,500 Slovenia ( main
in the region Prekmurje), bordering on Hungary , 9,240
sources: Additional there are censuses

of the different states still approx. 1 million further speakers on all continents distribute, in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Germany, Finland, Italy, Switzerland, Tschechien and the USA exist smaller ungarischsprachige municipalities.

official status

Hungarian is in the Vojvodina (region of Serbia) and three municipalities of Slovenia in the region Prekmurje(Hodoš, Dobrna and Lendava), apart from the respective state States of office language.

In addition the Hungarian language is recognized minority language in Austria, Croatia and the Slowakei. In Romania Hungarian in all municipalities and cities one of the office languages, in those is moreas 20% Magyaren live.

dialects

the different dialects of the Hungarian one differ contrary to the German dialects only minimum among themselves. The Hungarian Csángó - dialect above all still forms thereby an exception, for that in the Romanian district Bacău is common. By the isolation of the Hungarian motherland the Csángós maintained its independent dialect, which changed by Romanian influence strongly. Eight dialects are differentiated:

  • Theiss dialect
  • Transdanubi dialect
  • south dialect
  • northeast dialect
  • Palóc dialect (northwest dialect)
  • Mezőség dialect
  • westHungarian dialect
  • Székler (Székely) dialect
  • Csángó

grammar - phonology

discussion

the Hungarian language is written with latin letter. Correspond all vocal and some consonant letters exactly in each case to one sound (contrary to the Germans, where it aboutfor „e “gives different discussion possibilities). Other consonants of the Hungarian one are represented by combinations of two (Digraph) or three indications (tri graph), for the same sound to however likewise always stand. Thus the Hungarian orthography is to a large extent regular. The only exception forms for thatJ-sound, which both when „j “and and „ly “is written. Of the discussion used from the German several letters yield off (in square brackets in each case the discussion after the international phonetic alphabet).

stress

all wordsare always stressed on the first syllable, so long it also to be to like, see. legeslegmegvesztegethetetlenebbeknek „all run all this “(13 syllables). This rule applies also to leaning words, see. zsakett = „jacket “.

vowels

between short and long vowels becomesdifferentiated exactly. Long vowels are marked consistently by the acute and are not doubled in the posting. The short vowels i, o, o, u and u are always closed expressed. Phonologically distinktiv is thus only the vowel length. It serves for it, wordsdifferent meanings to differentiate, see:

  • boron „wine “vs. bórboron (chemical element) “
  • örül „he/they is pleased “vs. (meg) őrül „he/they is expressed moved

“deviating from the German the short vowels A and e:

A = rear and rounded A =[ɒ], see. ungar. apa „father “
e = very open e, nearly A = [ɛ] with tendency to [æ], see. ungar. egér „mouse “.

(However the short knows e sometimes as closed [e] expressedbecome, however however only in some westHungarian dialects, with respect to which two short e-sounds are differentiated. This is not marked however in the writing language. An exception here are the song books Kodálys, which marked gladly the closed e-sound as „ë “, z.B.ëgyetëm „university “.)

The long vowels á and é differ thus clearly from A and e. Always is á [] (not [ɑː]) and é always [].

Note: The representation of the double acutefor the letters Ő and Ű often prepared problems on Internet sides, so that often to a circumflex (^) or a tilde (~) one changed over. On correctly coded sides this however no more problem should represent.

Long vowels can in allWord syllables occur, thus not only, as in German, in which stressed syllable, see.főméltóságáról „over its Excellency “.

consonant

C = [ʦ], see. ungar. vicc „joke “, cukor „sugars “
dz = more be correctful DS-loud = [ʣ],see. ungar.bodza „elder “
cs = be correctless tsch sound = [ʧ], see. ungar. palacsinta „Palatschinke, egg cake “, kocsi „Kutsche; Car; Car “
dzs = be correctful dsch sound = [ʤ], see. ungar. dzsungel „jungles “
gy = palatalisiertes „D “= [ɟ] corresponds, approximately to one „dj “, see.magyar „Magyare “, György [ɟørɟ] „George “
h = German h = [h], but at the word ending mutely, see. méh [meː] „bee “
ly = [j], see. ungar. hely [hɛj] „place “
ny = [ɲ] (like splinter “see ñ”). ungar. konyak „Cognac “
r = tongue point [r], see. rózsa “rose”
s = be correctless sch sound = [ʃ], see. spiritusz ['ʃpiritus] „white spirits “; sonka „ham “
sp = be correctless [s] (see. German: ss!), see. ungar. szexis „sexy “, szoprán „Sopran “
ty = palatalisiertes „t “, = [C], corresponds approximately to one „tj “(about as in dt. Profession), see. Mátyás [ˈmaːcaːʃ] „Matthias “, kutya „dog “
v = dt. w = [v], see. ungar. vicc „joke “
z =be correctful s = [z], see. ungar.Zanzibár „Sansibar “, zene „music “
zs = be correctful sch sound = [ʒ] (as in franz. journaliste), see. zselatin „gel “, zsakett „jacket “

the letters w and x become more foreign only in names or wordsOrigin uses. The y finds - apart from the mentioned Digraphen gy, ny and ty - only at the end of surname use and as [i] is expressed. Originally it concerns an aristocracy character, with thatto Germans „of “is comparable, z. B. in the surname Szalay (instead of Szalai).

Doubled consonants become (like z. B. in the Italian) according to longer expressed, preceding vowels are never shortened.

grammar - Agglutinierende morphology

differently than into that inflecting languages, in which word formation comes by inflection, taken place in the Hungarian word formation via agglutination. Beyond that conditions become concerning the possession, which direction, which temporalness etc., which are formed in German by Possessivpronomina, prepositions or Präpositionalphrasen,in the Hungarian one likewise by agglutination in an educated manner. The Suffixe is attached thereby in exactly fixed order to the word trunks.

the noun

the Hungarian noun can be provided with many Suffixen of different function. In many training works and grammars of theHungarian ones one speaks thereby often ofKasus “, whose number is usually scarcely below 20. These become with latin names such as z. B. Nominativ, dative, accusative, Superessiv, Delativ, Sublativ, Inessiv, Elativ, Illativ, Adessiv, Ablativ, Allativ, Terminativ, Komitativ Instrumental, causal-finally, Faktiv Translativ, Essiv Modal, formal designates (so after Béla Szent Iványi:„The Hungarian language's building “. Leipzig 1964, Hamburg 1995). Of it have however only three - Nominativ, dativeand accusative - correspondences in German.

Independently of it, whether the remaining Konstrukte is regarded as „genuine “Kasus or whether it concerns post office positions, it leaves these only by Präpositionalphrasen into German to translate itself. The following tables contain both forms (see Morphology), which in German by inflection, and such, which are formed in German by Präpositionalphrasen:

Nominativ ház the house
dative ház NAK the house
accusative ház RK the house
Instrumental Komitativ ház zal with the house
causal-finally házért because of the house
if Translativ ház (becomes) to/to a house
Terminativ ház industrial union up to the house
Essiv formal ház ként as house
Essiv Modal ház ul as house

it a genitive does not give there, he must by „the ownership structure “expressedbecome: It corresponds in German dialects to the existing „the teacher its car “, only that it is called its car “(A tanító autója) literal in the Hungarian one „ the teacher (although also the pedantic variant A would be possible tanítónak az autója, which now really„the teacher “is called his car completely literal).

Spatial conditions, which the Hungarian designates with the help of the following nine Lokalkasus, are expressed in other languages, as for instance the German, by Präpositionalphrasen.

3×3 - Spatial conditions
the inside the surface thoseSew concerning
from where? ház ból
from the house
(Elativ)
ház ról
of the house (down)
(Delativ)
ház tól
of the house (away)
(Ablativ)
where? ház ban
in the house
(Inessiv)
ház on
on the house
(Superessiv)
ház nál
with the house
(Adessiv)
where? ház ba
in the house (inside)
(Illativ)
ház RA
on the house (up)
(Sublativ)
ház hoz
to the house ()
(Allativ)

No

Possessivpronomen do not give Possessivpronomen. Instead Suffixe are used, in order to indicate the possession:

German
1 stresses ownership structure basic form
owner. P. Sg. (az) autóm az én autóm my car
2. P. Sg. (az) autód A width unit autód your car
3.P. Sg. (az) autója az ő autója its/its car
1. P. Pl. (az) autónk A mi autónk our car
2. P. Pl. (az) autótok A ti autótok your car
3. P. Pl. (az) autójuk az ő autójuk its car

thatcertain articles also in the basic form usually one along-uses. The additional Personalpronomina, as indicated in the parentheses, particularly emphasizes the ownership structure:az én autóm, nem A width unit autód. (My car, not your car.)

educationand use of the majority

the Pluralbildung is quite simple in the Hungarian one. To the appropriate noun the suffix is added - k. More difficult about already rather to often find for the sake of to the discussion necessary correct binding vowel that is itself from the vowel harmony(see below) results in:

az asztal - asztalok (the table - tables)
A madár - madarak (the bird - birds)
A gyerek - gyerekek (the child - children)
A könyv - könyvek (the book - books)
A bend - bend-ok (thoseBeech - beeches)

the majority one uses in the Hungarian one meagerly. If the connection the majority (e.g. with number word, which implies more than one piece) explanation, the word in the singular is used. Only if the majority from the connectionis not evident, the majority is used. Example:öt fiú = „five boys “. Látom A fiúkat.= „I see the boys. “For the Kongruierung applies however that the verb is conjugated only after subjects in majority in Plural, it meansthus Öt fiú jön (* " five boy comes ") and not *jönnek.

The word with Possessivsuffix (z stands. B. my houses), the Plural is expressed by a i as Infix. Thus: ház = „house “, házam = „my house “, házaim = „myHouses “.

grammatical sex

the Hungarian does not know grammatical sex. Not even the natural sex as with „it “and „it “is differentiated (both = ő). Only through appendices of the word (= woman) the natural sex can to be marked (tanító = „teachers “, tanítónő = „teacher “).

article

of the certain articles (//) is called A (before vowels: az) and is constant, just like the indefinite article (/one) egy (see „the, a/an “in English).
ThatArticle is used substantially more rarely contrary to the Germans, usually only, in order to emphasize the appropriate article or circumstances. This applies in particular to the indefinite article, which exhibits in a Hungarian much larger number word character than in German.

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Post office positions

gives in Hungarian no prepositions. Instead post office positions are used, thus the word placed behind relation words (as in German „the weather because of “). These stand normally simply after the Nominativ, only few demand the ending for „on “(- n;Superessiv), z. B.A ház on keresztül - „by the house “or az autó n kívül - „outside of the car “.

3×14 - Further spatial conditions
under over forwards behind beside between over… around behind, after lengthwise through over…outside through… (through) outside within
from where? alól
fölül
elől
mögül
mellől
közül
-
-
-
-
-
-
kintről
from outside
bentről
from inside
where? alatt
fölött
előtt
mögött
mellett
között
körül
után
hosszat
át
túl
keresztül
kint
outside
bent
inside
where? alá
fölé
elé
mögé
mellé
közé
köré
-
-
-
-
-
AI
out

inside

conjugation of the verbs

the Hungarian verbs are conjugated in two kinds: with certain object or however with indefiniteObject or without object. Will used the certain conjugation (tárgyas ragozás), if the object in the sentence (clear) has a certain character, can however only with aiming (transitiven) verbs be formed. In all other cases and with intransitiven verbs becomesthe indefinite conjugation (alanyi ragozás) uses. Personalpronomen are only used, in order particularly to emphasize the person. Otherwise mostly just the conjugated verb is used, since from the appropriate ending the person comes out clearly. The endings can with transitiven verbs also upthe Personalpronomen in the accusative refer to and it replace. The often quoted example of it is szeret lek (I love you). The complete form would be (én) szeretlek (téged), this structure sounds however strange and pedantic.

Sentence examples:

  • „I see the bus. “= Láto m A buszt. (with certain object, conjugation determined)
  • „I see you. “= Lát lak (téged). (with indefinite object, indefinite conjugation)
  • „I stand and wait. “= Állo k és váro k. (without object, indefinite conjugation)

example of the conjugation= see by lát “:

  • Determined conjugation: lát if COM = „I sees it “, od = „you see it “lát, juk = „we see it lát “
  • indefinite conjugation: lát ok = „I sees (something) “(also in the meaning: I see, because Ito see knows, I is not), lát sp = you see not blind (something) “, lát unk = „we see (something) “


kér (to ask after, ask over)
indefinitely certainly
INDIKATIV
to present kér ek kér sp kér kér ünk kér tek kér nek kér emkér OD kér i kér jük kér itek kér IC
imperfect kért em kért él kért kért ünk kért etek kért ek kért em kért OD kért e kért ük kért étek kért ék
Futur kérni
fog ok
kérni
fogsp
kérni
fog
kérni
fog unk
kérni
fog tok
kérni
fog NAK
kérni
fog COM
kérni
fog od
kérni
fog
kérni
fog juk
kérni
fog játok
kérni
fog ják
KONDITIONAL
present kérné k kérné l kérne kérné numerical controls kérnétek kérné nek kérné m kérné D kérné kérné numerical control kérné tek kérné k
imperfect kért em
volna
kért él
volna
kért
volna
kért ünk
volna
kért etek
volna
kért ek
volna
kért em
volna
kért OD
volna
kért e
volna
kért ük
volna
kért étek
volna
ék volna
IMPERATIVE
/ADHORTATIV present
kért kérj ek kérj él
or kérj
kérj EN kérj ünk kérj etek kérj enek kérj em kérj OD
or kér D
kérj e kérj ük kérjétek kérj ék


zár (close)
indefinitely certainly
INDIKATIV
present zár ok zár sp zár zár unk zár tok zár NAK zár COM zár od zár zár juk zár játok zár ják
imperfect zárt to zárt ál zárt zárt unkzárt atok zárt AC zárt at zárt ad zárt the A zárt uk zárt átok zárt ák
Futur zárni
fog ok
zárni
fog sp
zárni
fog
zárni
fog unk
zárni
fog tok
zárni
fog NAK
zárni
fog COM
zárni
fog od
zárni
fog
zárni
fog juk
zárni
fog játok
zárni
fog ják
KONDITIONAL
present zárné k zárná l zárna zárná numerical control zárná tok zárná NAK zárná m zárná D zárná zárná numerical control zárná tok zárná k
imperfect zárt to
volna
zárt ál
volna
zárt
volna
zárt unk
volna
zárt atok
volna
zárt AC
volna
zárt at
volna
zárt ad
volna
zárt the A
volna
zárt uk
volna
zárt átok
volna
zárt ák
volna
IMPERATIVE/ADHORTATIV
present zárj AC zárj ál
or zárj
zárj on zárj unk zárj atok zárj anak zárj to zárj ad
or zár D
zárj A zárj uk zárj átok zárj ák


lenni (its)
INDIKATIV
present vagy ok vagy van vagy unk vagy tok van NAK
imperfect volt at the volt ál volt volt unk volts atok volts of AC
Futur lesz ek lesz el lesz lesz ünk lesz tek lesz nek
KONDITIONAL
present lenné k
or volné k
lenné l
or volná l
lenne
or volna
lenné numerical controls
or volná numerical control
lenné tek
or volná tok
lenné nek
or volná NAK
imperfect lett em
volna
lett él
volna
lett
volna
lett ünk
volna
lett etek
volna
lett ek
volna
IMPERATIVE/ADHORTATIV
present legy ek legy él
or légy
legyen legy ünk legy etek legy enek

special case: the group of the IC verbs

the verbs, in the 3. Person singular the ending - IC have (ikes igék), wise further characteristics in the conjugation up. One alsorule often ignored by native speakers reads that the forms of the indefinite conjugation in the 1. Person singular with the certain form agree:Esze m A kenyeret - Kenyeret esze m (and not *esze k). There are however exceptions: thoseForm hazudom (I lied) instead of hazudok would be for example hyper+correct and is not not common, although the form in the 3. Person singular hazudik reads. Since it is necessary because of the conjugation to be able to determine immediately whether the verb to the group of ICbelonged, the form of the 3 always is in dictionaries instead of the infinitive form. Person singular as Lemma indicated.

accumulation of Suffixen

the word formation by agglutination is characteristic of the Hungarian. The Suffigierung does not cause however the education automaticallya new Lemmas. In the Hungarian one a maximum suffix depth from six is to be observed to. Among other things there is these structures, which cause that Hungarian sentences fail more briefly than texts in other languages and nevertheless exactly the same information mediates. Instead of forwardsthis tide of billions of alleged words to capitulate, the word must be analyzed on its endings and its trunk; z. B.:

tehetetlenségével = with its inability
of:

tehetetlen = unable (< tehet (he can do) + (e) tlen (negative particles), < do not ten (ever) (do) + het (may, can))
tehetetlenség = the inability
tehetetlensége = its inability

igazságtalanságunkkal = with our unfairness
of:

igaz = truely
igazság = truth
igazságtalan = truthless = in an unfair way
igazságtalanság = unfairness
igazságtalanságunk = our unfairness
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Vowel harmony

a further substantial characteristic of the Hungarian one is the vowel harmony. The Suffixe and other endings, which are added the master word, adapt to the high (brightens, palatalen) or deep (dark, velaren) sound of the master word.

Velare of vowels in the Hungarian one are: A, á, o, ó, u, ú
thus: After the vowels A, á, o, ó, u, ú in the word trunk (asztal, madár) follows o or A (asztalok, madarak).

Palatale of vowels in the Hungarian one are: e, é, i, í, o, ő, u,ű
thus: After the vowels e, é, o, ő, u, ű (gyerek, bend) in the word trunk follows e or o (gyerekek, bend-ok).

With i/í there are however two possibilities.
After i, í in the word trunk usually e follows, rare o orA. Here there are no rules, the binding vowel must be by heart learned. An example with velarem binding vowel is A hídon keresztül = „over the bridge “(híd = „bridge “).
Languagehistorically this phenomenon can be explained however. In words with i/í,the o or A as binding vowel have, stood in the place of the i a Diphthong or „more darkly a “i-sound like the Russian ы or the Turkish ı, to which o or A belong vocal-harmoniously.

It gives naturally also inthe vowel harmony of exceptional cases. A well-known example are the endings of the word férfi (man). Férfi contains only palatale vowels, gets however velare endings: férfi val, férfi AC. That has a languagehistorical explanation: the word was originally called férfiú,was thus „mixed “.

Already longer time in the language existing words are in most cases either purely palatal or purely velar. Newer, gemischtvokalische words (often leaning words, like z. B. ) usually velare endings, it have telephone give howeverin some cases fluctuations.

negation

the Hungarian often uses the double negation contrary to the Germans: Semmit sem látok. (I do not see anything.) Senki sincs CCIT. (Nobody is there.) Semmit nem vettem. (I did not buy anything.)

One

finds borrowings from several languages and language's groups to vocabulary in the Hungarian vocabulary:

  • From the German: sparherd - gas cooker, vekni - waking/roll
special from common history with Austria is taken words out of the Austrian German, like karfiol - Karfiol, paradicsom - Paradeiser, szekálni - sekkieren
  • from slawischen languages: csizma - boots, macska - cat
  • from Turksprachen: padlizsán, papucs, barack - Auberginen/Melanzani, slippers, peach

in the Hungarian one gives it a tendency that for internationalism rather Hungarian correspondences are formed, mostlythere is leaning translations, z. B. nemzetközi instead of internacionális (internationally). Often also a Hungarian correspondence (számítógép and more komputer, hálószem and left, szálloda and hotel) exists , often sounds funful the Hungarian version apart from the internationalism (Emil and drótposta for E-Mail). However naturally also words from other languages are taken over, the orthography and the discussion adapt directly however to the Hungarian one: dizájn (Design), more menedzser (managers), szex (Sex), szingli (single), trendi (trendig, fashionably). Also thoseWay of writing of the surnames of strange origin is magyarisiert „“:Jennifer becomes z. B. in the Hungarian Dzsenifer written.

naming and distorting shank designations

in the Hungarian one become between the older and younger sister (nővér/húg) and/or. between the older and younger brother (báty/öcs) differentiated.The distorting shank designations néni (aunt) and bácsi (uncles) are placed behind the names: Anni néni, Józsi bácsi. , Also acquaintance did not only use by children is in such a way addressed. In the kindergarten and in the primary school it is likewise usual that the children thosePaedagogues with néni or bácsi address: Zsuzsa néni, Feri bácsi. A short form of bácsi is in the combination with the baptismal name, this form uses almost exclusively growing up boys, if it them close a standing male reference person --e.g. a football coach -- address:Józsi bá. This address form is used with the they form, expresses however a family relationship. In the higher schools the address form reads „surname + tanár úr/tanárnő “: Kovács tanár úr, Kiss tanárnő or simply tanár úr/tanárnő.

During the naming first the surname and only then the first name (utónév or keresztnév ) that a woman is married, becomes often called by adding the ending - né to the postor surnames of the married man suggested:Kovács Józsefné (the Mrs. von József Kovács). The short form (an officially sounding address form) reads Kovácsné (Mrs. Kovács). While up to the 90's this naming was very common - it was long time the only onePossibility -, is to be observed a tendency the fact that women keep the maiden name after the marriage ceremony either or prefers other forms (if z. B. Anna Kiss József Kovács marries, is the following forms possible:Kovácsné Kiss Anna, Kovács Anna, Kovács Kiss Anna).One addresses men with úr : Kovács úr. For (unknown) women at present strengthens the address comes úrhölgy up. In the years of communism still the address form was elvtárs and elvtársnő (comrade and companion) usual: Kovács elvtárs.

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Greetings and address forms

the greetings and address forms exhibit special variety in the Hungarian language. Some greeting forms are still Relikte from the time of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy, z. B. the form Kezét csókolom or Csókolom (kiss the hand). Duringthis greetings originally respect opposite (often older) ladies expressed, are it at present particularly common with children, who welcome their adults acquaintance in such a way. This greetings become however problematic, if young girls grow up and the neighbours still with Csókolomwelcome - this greetings with the same formula answer. The official greetings Jó reggelt/napot/estét (kívánok) (good mornings/day/evening) sounds often reserved, a reduced and not very polite variant is Kívánok. Csókolom knows estimation as filler also opposite (for stupid) Mrs. held express, similarly as in such situations in Austrian German used to and for itself polite „Gnä' woman “:Olajat kell cserélni, csókolom (you must change oil, gnä for' woman).

Young persons and friends welcome each other with szia, szervusz or heló (can be said both when meeting and with the parting). Or csáó one uses Csá when parting taking. The official formula for the parting is Viszontlátásra (good-bye) or at the Telefon/im broadcast Viszonthallásra (on Wiederhören). In addition, young people usethe short form Viszlát.

there are

various politeness forms in the Hungarian one several politeness forms. For German „you “there are two correspondences: On (Pl. On-ok) and maga (Pl. maguk). After on and maga 3 becomes. PersonSingularly uses, after Önök/maguk 3. Person Plural. The Personalpronomen is however often omitted, one can one also only with the 3. Person (singular or Plural, depending on how many persons are addressed) to respond. On sounds more officially, maga confidential.

Childrenuse opposite older persons the pedantic tetszik - form with infinitive, that are approximately the persons, who welcome them with Csókolom: Le tetszik ülni? (You would like to set yourselves?). One knows Tetszik (literally „please “) also in the majority as well as in all tensesand modes use:Le tetszett ülni? Le tetszett volna ülni? (with almost same meaning).

In Hungary there is the tendency that the Duzen moves ever more in foreground, often one in the business is geduzt, particularly young people of of the same agePersonal. Meanwhile ever more children their educators duzen/inside and teachers/inside. Up to the 60's it was above all in the country still usual that one siezte parents and grandparents. Around the turn of the century (19. /20. Jh.) siezten themselves even married people.Also today one still often hears that parents-in-law are gesiezt. Often (older) parents or parents-in-law are addressed additionally to the they form with anyuka and apuka (Mütterchen and Väterchen).

insults on Hungarian

the Hungarian is rich at insult words, the partial are very crude and meanwhile independently of age, sex and social class to be nearly everywhere used. Some insult words (verbs in Imperativform, the z. B. the sexual intercourse describe) as fillers or for serious underlining of the statement are used. Itgives also crude nouns (z. B. an expression for prostitutes (kurva), the one slawisches leaning word is), who are used for the increase of adjectives. Often is the nut/mother an insulted component of the expression (anyád - your nut/mother, thatVerb, which designates such grumbling, is anyázni) - one finds similar cliches also in the slawischen languages. Also various synonyms for homosexual ones (buzi) are used simply as insult words. A particularly beleidingende insult is it, if one thatothers word by word translated back into his nut/mother to send wants.

There are however Euphemismen, which are used instead of insult words and are not crude, but sound similar as the insult words: z. B. banyek and basszuskulcs (literally „bass keys “) for the expressions alsothe most common verb for sexual intercourse (baszni), which begins with a similar syllable.

origin and history

language distorting shank

the established linguistics arrange the Hungarian together with Chanti and Mansi, the languagestwo indigener peoples Westsibiriens with in each case few thousand speakers, the ugrischen sub-group of the finno ugrischen languages too. The finno ugrischen languages again educate the uralische language family together with the small group of the samojedischen languages.

alternative theories

the privileged positionthe magyarischen language in Central Europe moved 19 since that. Century the development more numerously different origin theories on, which are regarded however of the majority of the scientists as speculative and vacant.

  • One of these theories is the Hungarian-Turkish (turanische) theory ofÁrmin Vámbéry, in 19. Century worked. The derivation of a relationship with the Turksprachen was motivated by structural similarities (Agglutinierender language's building, vowel harmony). A genetic relationship of the Hungarian one with the Turksprachen is considered today however as disproved. This argumentbecame in the professional world as „the Ugrisch Turkish war “admits.[1], [2]
  • other linguists looked for a connection with the sumerischen language.
  • Further linguists maintained similarities between the celtic languages and the Hungarian one.
  • An Italian linguist, Mario Alinei,researches after etruskischen roots.
  • A hypothesis popular in Hungary attributes the origin of the magyarischen language to the language of the Hunnen. For this it is stated that it gives numerous similarities in culture and excessive quantity. However there are no written certifications theseNo sufficient language monuments exist to language, and even for a clear allocation to a language family. To the meant connection with the Hunnen also the posting of the national name with „h, usual in numerous European languages, decreases/goes back “, see. German (become outdated) Hungarn, French Hongrie, English Hungary.
  • The so-called. nostratische hypothesis postulates a common original language, from that the uralischen languages, which are to have come out indogermanischen languages as well as the altaischen and semitischen languages. Others go from systems of group of words (szóbokor, szóbokrok, „word plants “) out.

development

up to their colonization at the Danube in 9. The Magyaren lived century several centuries in intensive culture contact with the neighbouring turksprachigen Ethnien (Chasaren, Wolgabulgaren). An influence on the language developmentappears possible therefore. The foreign designation „Hungarian ones “is brought to a hunno Bulgarian Stammesföderatoin occasionally with the name „Onogur “with the meaning „ten arrows “in connection. During the stay in „the intermediate homeland “in the steppe areas north the black sea (Etelköz) in 9. Century know besides culture and language contacts with the Krim - Goten are accepted.

First inscriptions of the Hungarian one are from that 9. Century come, when the Magyaren availed itself still of the Hungarian rune writing. Dating and relevance thatHungarian runes is however disputed.

. After the Austrian-Hungarian reconciliation of 1867 in the peripheral areas (Slowakei, filter defiency guarantee) a policy of the intensive Magyarisierung was pursued, thus the obligatory penetration of the Hungarian one in relation to the regional languages.

By the First World Warand the peace treaties following on it (contract of Trianon) were separated 3.3 million Hungary from the motherland; half of it lived the other half in border areas (particularly in the Südslowakei), inside neighbour states, particularly in north filter defiency guarantee (Romania) andin the Vojvodina (north Serbia). Thus there are today still many Hungarian-speaking in the countries mentioned.

After the Hungarian rising of the people 1956 emigrated many Hungary, goals were above all north and South America, Australia and Switzerland.

The large linguistic distance toobelongs to the Idiomen of the neighboring nations (German , Romanian , Slowakisch , Serbo-Croatian) to the coining/shaping moments of the Hungarian national identity. Similarly as the Protobulgaren the Magyaren is descendants of eurasischer Steppennomaden, which immigrated relatively late to Central Europe. Differentlyas the first mentioned peoples they retained however their language durably.

the study

Hungarian of all this recommended opinions for the Hungarian language of the linguists Jacob Grimm, which wants to create new plan languages which can be learned simply. It would be actualpossible to represent Hungarian like a programming language in which the trunk and the agglutinierten endings the options would represent the instruction. Possibly also one of the reasons lies in this nearly mathematical language methodology, why Hungary so many outstanding mathematicians, logician and computer scientistbrought out, z. B.John von Neumann, Paul Erdős uvm.

literature

grammars and other linguistic publications

  • Béla Szent Iványi: The Hungarian language's building. Hamburg: Buske, ³ 1995; ISBN 3-87548-101-1
  • László Keresztes: Practical Hungarian grammar; Debrecen: DebreceniNyári Egyetem, 1992;ISBN 9-634-72038-2
  • Mária D. Mátai: Small Hungarian language history; Hamburg: Buske, 2002; ISBN 3-87548-323-5
  • Tamás Forgács: Hungarian grammar; Vienna: Edition present, 2002 (² 2004); ISBN 3706901072
  • Gyula Décsy: Introduction to the Finnish ugrische linguistics; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965; ISBN 3-447-00248-4
  • HaraldHair man: The Finnish ugrischen languages. Sociological and political aspects of their development; Hamburg: Buske, 1973;ISBN of 3-87118-155-2
  • Urals altaische yearbooks; Hg. of the Societas Uralo Altaica (SUA), registered association; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz
  • Finnish Ugri research: Magazine for Finnish ugrische speaking and Volkskunde; Hg. of the Suomalais Ugrilainen Seura (Finnish UgriSociety); Helsinki
  • Philologia Fenno Ugrica. Magazine for Finnish ugrische philology and diachrone linguistics; Hg. of Bela Brogyanyi; Freiburg: Publishing house science & public, Dr. Sabine shoemaker, 2004; ISBN of 3-930369-19-2

text books

  • Ágnes Silló: Szituációk. A Hungarian work for beginners; Ismaning: Hueber,²2002; Text book:ISBN 3-19-005161-5, work book: ISBN 3-19-015161-X
  • July Anna Graetz: Text book of the Hungarian language. A basic course with exercises and solutions. Under cooperation by Klaus rack Brandt; Hamburg: Buske, 1996; ISBN 3-87548-078-3
  • Haik Wenzel: Langenscheidts practical text book, Hungarian; Munich: Langenscheidt, 1998; ISBN 3-468-26381-3
  • Károly Ginter and László Tarnói: Hungarian for foreigners; Budapest: Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 1991; ISBN 963-18-3520-0
  • Szajbély Seidler: Szia! Hungarian for beginner, text book; öbvhpt, Vienna. Text book: ISBN 3-209-04577-1, work book: ISBN: 3-209-04578-X, audio CDs: ISBN 3-209-04579-8

Web on the left of

Wikipedia on Hungarian
Wikiquote: Hungarian proverbs - quotations

sources

  1. The Untenability OF the Finno Ugrian Theory from A linguistics POINT OF View of Dr. László Marácz
  2. Angela Marcantonio; Pirjo Nummenaho; Michela Salvagni: The “Ugric Turkic Battle”: A Critical Review
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