Hungarian rising of the people

with the Hungarian rising of the people those tried Hungary in October 1956 to free itself from the Soviet suppression to. The Hungarian rising of the people is called nowadays in Hungary revolution (forradalom ). The communist ruling powers at that time called it countering revolution (ellenforradalom). It began to 23. October 1956with a large demonstration in Budapest and ended to 4. November 1956 by the invasion of the Red Army. The fights against the army took however still some weeks, in the mountains even to at the beginning of of 1957.

Table of contents

Prehistory

summary of prehistory of the Hungarian rising of the people

process

as Hungarian rising of the people the events actually become in the time of 23. October up to 4. November designates. In addition, the time thereafter was interspersed by pursuit and striking down the last resistance carrying out groups.

beginning - the 23. October

the student of the technical University of Budapest is approved a demonstration to the solidarity with the Polish worker rebellion. They want to reach many more with this demonstration however and tell-do their political interests. The students met the nerve that Hungary,followed to thousands the demonstration course. The course ended first at the Josef Bem place on the Budaer Danube side, where the demands of the students were read out. Although nearly no amplifiers were used, flowed ever more humans to this mass demonstration. While a part of the demonstrators to the parliament, marched a majority further-pulled to the broadcast building on the Pester Danube side. There they wanted to spread their demands over the national transmitter. However from the broadcast building the fire was opened on the demonstrators. By Hungarian soldiers the demonstrators arrived at weapons, so that them itself to the resistanceto set knew and the building stormed.

In the evening met approx. 300,000 humans before the parliament and demanded opinion - and Pressefreiheit, free elections, more independence from the Soviet Union as well as the appointment of the reform-oriented communist Imre Nagy as the head of the government. Nagy, which requested the demonstrators,to go home, appoint surprisingly still at the same night of the central committee of the party of the Hungarian workers as the Prime Minister. Meanwhile the Soviet Union had begun to intervene militarily before party chief Ernő Gerő had asked for it. In the course of in the afternoon demonstrators had the Stalin - monument upthe hero place fallen and with a tractor before parliament building pulled.

of 24. October up to 4. November

starting from that 24. October expanded the rebellion on other cities. Developed worker, revolution and national councils. A country-wide general strike began. Thosefirst independent newspapers appeared.

To 25. October was set off party chief Ernő Gerő. Before that members of the feared public security service ÁVH shot parliament building into the quantity, whereby more than 100 humans died.

To 27. October communicated Imre Nagy its new government and the dissolution of the ÁVH,on the day the acknowledgment of the revolution following on it.

To 30. October announced the end of the a party rule to Nagy and educated a multi-party government. The Soviet Union got involved first apparently in negotiations over a departure, however already prepared an attack. Cardinal József Mindszenty becomes from thatDetention releases.

When Nagy the neutrality of Hungary avowed and the country withdrew from Warsaw Pact, the troops of the Soviet Union began with striking down the rising of the people and occupied and. A. parliament building. Armed groups took the resistance.

Of 4. to 15. November ravedviolent fights in the country, particularly in the capital Budapest. The civilian population seized for the government to the weapons, suffered however from lack of ammunition and was hopelessly underlaid for Soviet armed forces at personnel and material, so that the defeat was pre-programmed. The fights demanded on HungarianSide about 20,000 dead ones.

Forwards and during the rebellion the insurgent was promised support military over radio Free Europe by the west and spurred in such a way to the rebellion; a promise, which was however not kept.

time after that 4. November

defiance of the invasionstill individual groups offered resistance to the Red Army. But with the time a mass escape began over Austria free since 1955 into the west. Most refugees were collected in the area Vienna and supplied with the most necessary one. In east Austria developed a set of refugee camps,zum Teil dort, wo ein Jahr zuvor erst dieSowjetarmee nach dem Staatsvertrag ausgezogen ist, wie in Traiskirchen oder das Schloss Liechtenstein in Maria Enzersdorf. Since Austria could take up not all, many refugees were distributed on other western states. Most Hungary were allowed itselfselect a country and every now and then a certain region in this country. Many of it went also to overseas. Altogether many fled Hungary over the bridge of Andau over 200.000 abroad western. About 70,000 remained durably in Austria.

striking down and cleanings

Imre Nagy became to 22. November arrested, although one had assured exemption from punishment to it, and in June 1958 after a looking process executed. At 350 persons death sentences were executed, after the reaching its 18. Birthday also at the specialized pupil Péter one field. Following thatRebellion came it to cleaning waves. New Prime Minister became János Kádár, which pursued with regard to foreign policy a strictly Moscow-faithful course, after a phase of the restoration however relating to domestic affairs reforms accomplished (see Gulaschkommunismus).

both national had goals and

demands the insurgent rebellion anda anti-totalitarian character.

national independence

the students of the Budapester technical university demanded, as a necessary condition for reforms, the departure of the Soviet troops and beyond that the re-establishment of the Hungarian national holidays and state symbols. In addition they demanded the distance of the Stalin statue. Characteristically their demonstration beganto 23. October at the monument of the Polish general Josef Bem, which fought to 1849 as a commander for the revolution and national independence.

In catalogs of demands also the demand emerged, the Kossuth coat of arms, which was the emblem of the revolution of 1848 and 1946 state coats of arms to supply,likewise the 15. March (anniversary of the revolution of 1848) as national holiday to abolish as well as the uniforms arranged after Soviet model. After outbreak of the rebellion the demand was raised, the 23. To explain October as the national holiday.

The demand for examination of the international agreements and foreign trade contracts arrangeditself against the dependence status opposite the Soviet Union. The completion of military, political and economic dependence was generally demanded.

After the Soviet intervention to 24. October had developed from the rebellion against the stalinistische dictatorship a national liberty fight. The most important demand was now the immediateDeparture of the Soviet troops used against the revolution. A success of the democratic transformation seemed possible only without operational readiness level of Soviet troops, since these defended the old system by military force.

Around the 29. Octobers handed the deprivation of power Ernő Gerős, the past Prime Minister András Hegedűs andthe dissolution of the public security service for a stabilization of the situation however no longer out. The armed insurgent ones, the political groupings, worker advice and revolution committees demanded the withdrawal of Hungary from Warsaw Pact and the explanation the neutrality of Hungary beside the complete departure of the Soviet troops.

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Democracy and political liberties

in their explanation demanded the students of the technical university of Budapest a multiple party system, free elections and civil liberty rights. They required the punishment of the guilty ones of the Rákosi regime, under it Mátyás Rákosi and the former ZK-secretary Mihály Farkas, the abolishment thatDelivery ratios in the agriculture, the right to strike, freedom of reunion, opinion and pressing.

During the demonstrations in the afternoon and evening 23. Octobers demanded the masses and. A. the reading of the student demands in the broadcast and the assumption of the Regierungsgeschäfte by Imre Nagy.

Of thatStudents formulated demands became fast common property/knowledge under the insurgent ones. The worker advice demanded without exception the right to strike. The worker advice in the industrial district Csepel already demanded to 24. October expressly the freedom of religion.

After to 25. Oktober Einheiten des Staatssicherheitsdienstes北einer示範vor dem Parlamentsgebäude durch Schüsseinto the quantity more than 100 humans killed, everywhere the immediate dissolution of the security agency were demanded.

Furthermore the worker advice , that represented about one and a half million humans, laid claim on participation in power.

In the year 1991 the Verjährung of the crimes becomes approximately from the Hungarian parliament,in order the rising of the people waived, in order to be able to supply still living persons to the court.

see also

article

persons

literature

  • which in Hungary happened. The investigation report of the United Nations. Stove he library No. 9, Freiburg 1957
  • J.G.Farkas (Hrsg.): The Hungarian revolution 1956. Broadcast documentswith special consideration of the student movement. Self publishing house, Munich 1957
  • György Dalos: Hungary in the nutshell. History of my country. Munich 2004 ISBN 3-406-51032-9
  • György Litván/János M. Bak (Hrsg.): The Hungarian revolution 1956. Reform - rebellion - retaliation. Vienna 1994 ISBN 3-85165-123-5
  • Paul Lendvai: The Hungary. One millenium winner in defeats. Munich 1990 ISBN 3-57000-218-7
  • Agnes Heller/Ferenc Feher: Hungary '56 - history of a antistalinistischen revolution, Hamburg, 1982, ISBN 3879752222
  • special exhibition: Hungary 1945-1956
 

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